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1.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) 
Klionsky, Daniel J | Abdelmohsen, Kotb | Abe, Akihisa | Abedin, Md Joynal | Abeliovich, Hagai | Acevedo Arozena, Abraham | Adachi, Hiroaki | Adams, Christopher M | Adams, Peter D | Adeli, Khosrow | Adhihetty, Peter J | Adler, Sharon G | Agam, Galila | Agarwal, Rajesh | Aghi, Manish K | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguilar, Patricia V | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio | Airoldi, Edoardo M | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akporiaye, Emmanuel T | Al-Rubeai, Mohamed | Albaiceta, Guillermo M | Albanese, Chris | Albani, Diego | Albert, Matthew L | Aldudo, Jesus | Algül, Hana | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Alloza, Iraide | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Beceril, Maylin | Alnemri, Emad S | Alonso, Covadonga | Altan-Bonnet, Nihal | Altieri, Dario C | Alvarez, Silvia | Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia | Alves, Sandro | Amadoro, Giuseppina | Amano, Atsuo | Amantini, Consuelo | Ambrosio, Santiago | Amelio, Ivano | Amer, Amal O | Amessou, Mohamed | Amon, Angelika | An, Zhenyi | Anania, Frank A | Andersen, Stig U | Andley, Usha P | Andreadi, Catherine K | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anel, Alberto | Ann, David K | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Antonioli, Manuela | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Aquila, Saveria | Aquilano, Katia | Araki, Koichi | Arama, Eli | Aranda, Agustin | Araya, Jun | Arcaro, Alexandre | Arias, Esperanza | Arimoto, Hirokazu | Ariosa, Aileen R | Armstrong, Jane L | Arnould, Thierry | Arsov, Ivica | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Askanas, Valerie | Asselin, Eric | Atarashi, Ryuichiro | Atherton, Sally S | Atkin, Julie D | Attardi, Laura D | Auberger, Patrick | Auburger, Georg | Aurelian, Laure | Autelli, Riccardo | Avagliano, Laura | Avantaggiati, Maria Laura | Avrahami, Limor | Awale, Suresh | Azad, Neelam | Bachetti, Tiziana | Backer, Jonathan M | Bae, Dong-Hun | Bae, Jae-sung | Bae, Ok-Nam | Bae, Soo Han | Baehrecke, Eric H | Baek, Seung-Hoon | Baghdiguian, Stephen | Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka | Bai, Hua | Bai, Jie | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Balzan, Rena | Banerjee, Rajkumar | Bánhegyi, Gábor | Bao, Haijun | Barbeau, Benoit | Barrachina, Maria D | Barreiro, Esther | Bartel, Bonnie | Bartolomé, Alberto | Bassham, Diane C | Bassi, Maria Teresa | Bast, Robert C | Basu, Alakananda | Batista, Maria Teresa | Batoko, Henri | Battino, Maurizio | Bauckman, Kyle | Baumgarner, Bradley L | Bayer, K Ulrich | Beale, Rupert | Beaulieu, Jean-François | Beck, George R. | Becker, Christoph | Beckham, J David | Bédard, Pierre-André | Bednarski, Patrick J | Begley, Thomas J | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Behrens, Georg MN | Behrns, Kevin E | Bejarano, Eloy | Belaid, Amine | Belleudi, Francesca | Bénard, Giovanni | Berchem, Guy | Bergamaschi, Daniele | Bergami, Matteo | Berkhout, Ben | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernard, Amélie | Bernard, Monique | Bernassola, Francesca | Bertolotti, Anne | Bess, Amanda S | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bettuzzi, Saverio | Bhalla, Savita | Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli | Bhutia, Sujit K | Biagosch, Caroline | Bianchi, Michele Wolfe | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Billes, Viktor | Bincoletto, Claudia | Bingol, Baris | Bird, Sara W | Bitoun, Marc | Bjedov, Ivana | Blackstone, Craig | Blanc, Lionel | Blanco, Guillermo A | Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil | Boada-Romero, Emilio | Böckler, Stefan | Boes, Marianne | Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen | Boise, Lawrence H | Bolino, Alessandra | Boman, Andrea | Bonaldo, Paolo | Bordi, Matteo | Bosch, Jürgen | Botana, Luis M | Botti, Joelle | Bou, German | Bouché, Marina | Bouchecareilh, Marion | Boucher, Marie-Josée | Boulton, Michael E | Bouret, Sebastien G | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V | Brady, Nathan | Braga, Vania MM | Brancolini, Claudio | Braus, Gerhard H | Bravo-San Pedro, José M | Brennan, Lisa A | Bresnick, Emery H | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bringer, Marie-Agnès | Brini, Marisa | Brito, Glauber C | Brodin, Bertha | Brookes, Paul S | Brown, Eric J | Brown, Karen | Broxmeyer, Hal E | Bruhat, Alain | Brum, Patricia Chakur | Brumell, John H | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Bryson-Richardson, Robert J | Buch, Shilpa | Buchan, Alastair M | Budak, Hikmet | Bulavin, Dmitry V | Bultman, Scott J | Bultynck, Geert | Bumbasirevic, Vladimir | Burelle, Yan | Burke, Robert E | Burmeister, Margit | Bütikofer, Peter | Caberlotto, Laura | Cadwell, Ken | Cahova, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jingjing | Cai, Qian | Calatayud, Sara | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campbell, Grant R | Campbell, Matthew | Campello, Silvia | Candau, Robin | Caniggia, Isabella | Cantoni, Lavinia | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B | Caraglia, Michele | Cardinali, Claudio | Cardoso, Sandra Morais | Carew, Jennifer S | Carleton, Laura A | Carlin, Cathleen R | Carloni, Silvia | Carlsson, Sven R | Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac | Carneiro, Leticia AM | Carnevali, Oliana | Carra, Serena | Carrier, Alice | Carroll, Bernadette | Casas, Caty | Casas, Josefina | Cassinelli, Giuliana | Castets, Perrine | Castro-Obregon, Susana | Cavallini, Gabriella | Ceccherini, Isabella | Cecconi, Francesco | Cederbaum, Arthur I | Ceña, Valentín | Cenci, Simone | Cerella, Claudia | Cervia, Davide | Cetrullo, Silvia | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chagin, Andrei S | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chakrabarti, Gopal | Chamilos, Georgios | Chan, Edmond YW | Chan, Matthew TV | Chandra, Dhyan | Chandra, Pallavi | Chang, Chih-Peng | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Chang, Ta Yuan | Chatham, John C | Chatterjee, Saurabh | Chauhan, Santosh | Che, Yongsheng | Cheetham, Michael E | Cheluvappa, Rajkumar | Chen, Chun-Jung | Chen, Gang | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guoqiang | Chen, Hongzhuan | Chen, Jeff W | Chen, Jian-Kang | Chen, Min | Chen, Mingzhou | Chen, Peiwen | Chen, Qi | Chen, Quan | Chen, Shang-Der | Chen, Si | Chen, Steve S-L | Chen, Wei | Chen, Wei-Jung | Chen, Wen Qiang | Chen, Wenli | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Yau-Hung | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yin | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongshun | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Yue-Qin | Chen, Yujie | Chen, Zhen | Chen, Zhong | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher HK | Cheng, Hua | Cheong, Heesun | Cherry, Sara | Chesney, Jason | Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio | Chevet, Eric | Chi, Hsiang Cheng | Chi, Sung-Gil | Chiacchiera, Fulvio | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiariello, Mario | Chieppa, Marcello | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiong, Mario | Chiu, Gigi NC | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Cho, Ssang-Goo | Cho, William C | Cho, Yong-Yeon | Cho, Young-Seok | Choi, Augustine MK | Choi, Eui-Ju | Choi, Eun-Kyoung | Choi, Jayoung | Choi, Mary E | Choi, Seung-Il | Chou, Tsui-Fen | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chow, Kuan-Chih | Chowdhury, Kamal | Chu, Charleen T | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chun, Taehoon | Chung, Hyewon | Chung, Taijoon | Chung, Yuen-Li | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Cianfanelli, Valentina | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciechomska, Iwona A | Ciriolo, Maria Rosa | Cirone, Mara | Claerhout, Sofie | Clague, Michael J | Clària, Joan | Clarke, Peter GH | Clarke, Robert | Clementi, Emilio | Cleyrat, Cédric | Cnop, Miriam | Coccia, Eliana M | Cocco, Tiziana | Codogno, Patrice | Coers, Jörn | Cohen, Ezra EW | Colecchia, David | Coletto, Luisa | Coll, Núria S | Colucci-Guyon, Emma | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Cook, Katherine L | Coombs, Graham H | Cooper, Cynthia D | Cooper, J Mark | Coppens, Isabelle | Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana | Corazzari, Marco | Corbalan, Ramon | Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth | Cordero, Mario D | Corral-Ramos, Cristina | Corti, Olga | Cossarizza, Andrea | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Cotman, Susan L | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cottet, Sandra | Couve, Eduardo | Covey, Lori R | Cowart, L Ashley | Cox, Jeffery S | Coxon, Fraser P | Coyne, Carolyn B | Cragg, Mark S | Craven, Rolf J | Crepaldi, Tiziana | Crespo, Jose L | Criollo, Alfredo | Crippa, Valeria | Cruz, Maria Teresa | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cuezva, Jose M | Cui, Taixing | Cutillas, Pedro R | Czaja, Mark J | Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F | Dagda, Ruben K | Dahmen, Uta | Dai, Chunsun | Dai, Wenjie | Dai, Yun | Dalby, Kevin N | Dalla Valle, Luisa | Dalmasso, Guillaume | D'Amelio, Marcello | Damme, Markus | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Dargemont, Catherine | Darley-Usmar, Victor M | Dasarathy, Srinivasan | Dasgupta, Biplab | Dash, Srikanta | Dass, Crispin R | Davey, Hazel Marie | Davids, Lester M | Dávila, David | Davis, Roger J | Dawson, Ted M | Dawson, Valina L | Daza, Paula | de Belleroche, Jackie | de Figueiredo, Paul | de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz | de la Fuente, José | De Martino, Luisa | De Matteis, Antonella | De Meyer, Guido RY | De Milito, Angelo | De Santi, Mauro | de Souza, Wanderley | De Tata, Vincenzo | De Zio, Daniela | Debnath, Jayanta | Dechant, Reinhard | Decuypere, Jean-Paul | Deegan, Shane | Dehay, Benjamin | Del Bello, Barbara | Del Re, Dominic P | Delage-Mourroux, Régis | Delbridge, Lea MD | Deldicque, Louise | Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth | Deng, Yizhen | Dengjel, Joern | Denizot, Melanie | Dent, Paul | Der, Channing J | Deretic, Vojo | Derrien, Benoît | Deutsch, Eric | Devarenne, Timothy P | Devenish, Rodney J | Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina | Di Daniele, Nicola | Di Domenico, Fabio | Di Nardo, Alessia | Di Paola, Simone | Di Pietro, Antonio | Di Renzo, Livia | DiAntonio, Aaron | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Ines | Diaz-Meco, Maria T | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dickey, Chad A | Dickson, Robert C | Diederich, Marc | Digard, Paul | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithrama P | Ding, Chan | Ding, Wen-Xing | Ding, Zufeng | Dini, Luciana | Distler, Jörg HW | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dmytruk, Kostyantyn | Dobson, Renwick CJ | Doetsch, Volker | Dokladny, Karol | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Donadelli, Massimo | Dong, X Charlie | Dong, Xiaonan | Dong, Zheng | Donohue, Terrence M | Doran, Kelly S | D'Orazi, Gabriella | Dorn, Gerald W | Dosenko, Victor | Dridi, Sami | Drucker, Liat | Du, Jie | Du, Li-Lin | Du, Lihuan | du Toit, André | Dua, Priyamvada | Duan, Lei | Duann, Pu | Dubey, Vikash Kumar | Duchen, Michael R | Duchosal, Michel A | Duez, Helene | Dugail, Isabelle | Dumit, Verónica I | Duncan, Mara C | Dunlop, Elaine A | Dunn, William A | Dupont, Nicolas | Dupuis, Luc | Durán, Raúl V | Durcan, Thomas M | Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane | Duvvuri, Umamaheswar | Eapen, Vinay | Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius | Echard, Arnaud | Eckhart, Leopold | Edelstein, Charles L | Edinger, Aimee L | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eisenberg, Tobias | Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital | Eissa, N Tony | El-Deiry, Wafik S | El-Khoury, Victoria | Elazar, Zvulun | Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit | Elliott, Chris JH | Emanuele, Enzo | Emmenegger, Urban | Engedal, Nikolai | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Enserink, Jorrit M | Erdmann, Ralf | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Eri, Rajaraman | Eriksen, Jason L | Erman, Andreja | Escalante, Ricardo | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Esteban-Martínez, Lorena | Evans, Thomas J | Fabri, Mario | Fabrias, Gemma | Fabrizi, Cinzia | Facchiano, Antonio | Færgeman, Nils J | Faggioni, Alberto | Fairlie, W Douglas | Fan, Chunhai | Fan, Daping | Fan, Jie | Fang, Shengyun | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Faure, Mathias | Favier, Francois B | Fearnhead, Howard | Federici, Massimo | Fei, Erkang | Felizardo, Tania C | Feng, Hua | Feng, Yibin | Feng, Yuchen | Ferguson, Thomas A | Fernández, Álvaro F | Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G | Fernandez-Checa, Jose C | Fernández-López, Arsenio | Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E | Feron, Olivier | Ferraro, Elisabetta | Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima | Fesus, Laszlo | Feuer, Ralph | Fiesel, Fabienne C | Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C | Filomeni, Giuseppe | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingert, John H | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Paul B | Flajolet, Marc | Flamigni, Flavio | Florey, Oliver | Florio, Salvatore | Floto, R Andres | Folini, Marco | Follo, Carlo | Fon, Edward A | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fraldi, Alessandro | Franco, Rodrigo | Francois, Arnaud | François, Aurélie | Frankel, Lisa B | Fraser, Iain DC | Frey, Norbert | Freyssenet, Damien G | Frezza, Christian | Friedman, Scott L | Frigo, Daniel E | Fu, Dongxu | Fuentes, José M | Fueyo, Juan | Fujitani, Yoshio | Fujiwara, Yuuki | Fujiya, Mikihiro | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Fulda, Simone | Fusco, Carmela | Gabryel, Bozena | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galadari, Sehamuddin | Galili, Gad | Galindo, Inmaculada | Galindo, Maria F | Galliciotti, Giovanna | Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Galluzzi, Luca | Galy, Vincent | Gammoh, Noor | Gandy, Sam | Ganesan, Anand K | Ganesan, Swamynathan | Ganley, Ian G | Gannagé, Monique | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, Feng | Gao, Jian-Xin | García Nannig, Lorena | García Véscovi, Eleonora | Garcia-Macía, Marina | Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen | Garg, Abhishek D | Garg, Pramod Kumar | Gargini, Ricardo | Gassen, Nils Christian | Gatica, Damián | Gatti, Evelina | Gavard, Julie | Gavathiotis, Evripidis | Ge, Liang | Ge, Pengfei | Ge, Shengfang | Gean, Po-Wu | Gelmetti, Vania | Genazzani, Armando A | Geng, Jiefei | Genschik, Pascal | Gerner, Lisa | Gestwicki, Jason E | Gewirtz, David A | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghigo, Eric | Ghosh, Debabrata | Giammarioli, Anna Maria | Giampieri, Francesca | Giampietri, Claudia | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra | Gibbings, Derrick J | Gibellini, Lara | Gibson, Spencer B | Ginet, Vanessa | Giordano, Antonio | Giorgini, Flaviano | Giovannetti, Elisa | Girardin, Stephen E | Gispert, Suzana | Giuliano, Sandy | Gladson, Candece L | Glavic, Alvaro | Gleave, Martin | Godefroy, Nelly | Gogal, Robert M | Gokulan, Kuppan | Goldman, Gustavo H | Goletti, Delia | Goligorsky, Michael S | Gomes, Aldrin V | Gomes, Ligia C | Gomez, Hernando | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén | Gonçalves, Dawit AP | Goncu, Ebru | Gong, Qingqiu | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Carlos B | Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro | Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Goping, Ing Swie | Gorbea, Carlos | Gorbunov, Nikolai V | Goring, Daphne R | Gorman, Adrienne M | Gorski, Sharon M | Goruppi, Sandro | Goto-Yamada, Shino | Gotor, Cecilia | Gottlieb, Roberta A | Gozes, Illana | Gozuacik, Devrim | Graba, Yacine | Graef, Martin | Granato, Giovanna E | Grant, Gary Dean | Grant, Steven | Gravina, Giovanni Luca | Green, Douglas R | Greenhough, Alexander | Greenwood, Michael T | Grimaldi, Benedetto | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Groulx, Jean-Francois | Gruber, Florian | Grumati, Paolo | Grune, Tilman | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guerra, Barbara | Guillen, Carlos | Gulshan, Kailash | Gunst, Jan | Guo, Chuanyong | Guo, Lei | Guo, Ming | Guo, Wenjie | Guo, Xu-Guang | Gust, Andrea A | Gustafsson, Åsa B | Gutierrez, Elaine | Gutierrez, Maximiliano G | Gwak, Ho-Shin | Haas, Albert | Haber, James E | Hadano, Shinji | Hagedorn, Monica | Hahn, David R | Halayko, Andrew J | Hamacher-Brady, Anne | Hamada, Kozo | Hamai, Ahmed | Hamann, Andrea | Hamasaki, Maho | Hamer, Isabelle | Hamid, Qutayba | Hammond, Ester M | Han, Feng | Han, Weidong | Handa, James T | Hanover, John A | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Masaru | Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica | Harper, J Wade | Harrath, Abdel Halim | Harris, Adrian L | Harris, James | Hasler, Udo | Hasselblatt, Peter | Hasui, Kazuhisa | Hawley, Robert G | Hawley, Teresa S | He, Congcong | He, Cynthia Y | He, Fengtian | He, Gu | He, Rong-Rong | He, Xian-Hui | He, You-Wen | He, Yu-Ying | Heath, Joan K | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heinzen, Robert A | Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir | Hensel, Michael | Henske, Elizabeth P | Her, Chengtao | Herman, Paul K | Hernández, Agustín | Hernandez, Carlos | Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia | Hetz, Claudio | Hiesinger, P Robin | Higaki, Katsumi | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Bradford G | Hill, Joseph A | Hill, William D | Hino, Keisuke | Hofius, Daniel | Hofman, Paul | Höglinger, Günter U | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holz, Marina K | Hong, Yonggeun | Hood, David A | Hoozemans, Jeroen JM | Hoppe, Thorsten | Hsu, Chin | Hsu, Chin-Yuan | Hsu, Li-Chung | Hu, Dong | Hu, Guochang | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hu, Hongbo | Hu, Ming Chang | Hu, Yu-Chen | Hu, Zhuo-Wei | Hua, Fang | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Huey-Lan | Huang, Kuo-How | Huang, Kuo-Yang | Huang, Shile | Huang, Shiqian | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huang, Yi-Ran | Huang, Yong | Huang, Yunfei | Huber, Tobias B | Huebbe, Patricia | Huh, Won-Ki | Hulmi, Juha J | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James H | Husak, Zvenyslava | Hussain, Sabah NA | Hussain, Salik | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Hwang, Thomas IS | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Imai, Yuzuru | Imbriano, Carol | Inomata, Megumi | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L | Iozzo, Renato V | Ip, Nancy Y | Irazoqui, Javier E | Iribarren, Pablo | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Isakovic, Aleksandra J | Ischiropoulos, Harry | Isenberg, Jeffrey S | Ishaq, Mohammad | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Ishii, Isao | Ishmael, Jane E | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Isono, Erika | Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh | Itahana, Koji | Itakura, Eisuke | Ivanov, Andrei I | Iyer, Anand Krishnan V | Izquierdo, José M | Izumi, Yotaro | Izzo, Valentina | Jäättelä, Marja | Jaber, Nadia | Jackson, Daniel John | Jackson, William T | Jacob, Tony George | Jacques, Thomas S | Jagannath, Chinnaswamy | Jain, Ashish | Jana, Nihar Ranjan | Jang, Byoung Kuk | Jani, Alkesh | Janji, Bassam | Jannig, Paulo Roberto | Jansson, Patric J | Jean, Steve | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jessen, Niels | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jia, Kailiang | Jia, Lijun | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Liwen | Jiang, Teng | Jiang, Xiaoyan | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Ying | Jiang, Yongjun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Cheng | Jin, Hongchuan | Jin, Lei | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan | Jinwal, Umesh Kumar | Jo, Eun-Kyeong | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E | Johnson, Gail VW | Johnson, James D | Jonasch, Eric | Jones, Chris | Joosten, Leo AB | Jordan, Joaquin | Joseph, Anna-Maria | Joseph, Bertrand | Joubert, Annie M | Ju, Dianwen | Ju, Jingfang | Juan, Hsueh-Fen | Juenemann, Katrin | Juhász, Gábor | Jung, Hye Seung | Jung, Jae U | Jung, Yong-Keun | Jungbluth, Heinz | Justice, Matthew J | Jutten, Barry | Kaakoush, Nadeem O | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kaeffer, Bertrand | Kågedal, Katarina | Kahana, Alon | Kajimura, Shingo | Kakhlon, Or | Kalia, Manjula | Kalvakolanu, Dhan V | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kambas, Konstantinos | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O | Kampinga, Harm H | Kandouz, Mustapha | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Rui | Kang, Tae-Cheon | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G | Kantorow, Marc | Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria | Kapuy, Orsolya | Karantza, Vassiliki | Karim, Md Razaul | Karmakar, Parimal | Kaser, Arthur | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawula, Thomas | Kaynar, A Murat | Ke, Po-Yuan | Ke, Zun-Ji | Kehrl, John H | Keller, Kate E | Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Autophagy  2016;12(1):1-222.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
PMCID: PMC4835977  PMID: 26799652
autolysosome; autophagosome; chaperone-mediated autophagy; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole
2.  Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis 
Wormser, David | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Kaptoge, Stephen | Wood, Angela M | Gao, Pei | Sun, Qi | Walldius, Göran | Selmer, Randi | Verschuren, WM Monique | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Engström, Gunnar | Ridker, Paul M | Njølstad, Inger | Iso, Hiroyasu | Holme, Ingar | Giampaoli, Simona | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Gaziano, J Michael | Brunner, Eric | Kee, Frank | Tosetto, Alberto | Meisinger, Christa | Brenner, Hermann | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Whincup, Peter H | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Ian | Cremer, Peter | Hofman, Albert | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Clarke, Robert | de Boer, Ian H | Jukema, J Wouter | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Lawlor, Debbie A | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Casiglia, Edoardo | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Simons, Leon A | Nietert, Paul J | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Björkelund, Cecilia | Strandberg, Timo E | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Blazer, Dan G | Meade, Tom W | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Woodward, Mark | Nissinen, Aulikki | Kromhout, Daan | Jørgensen, Torben | Tilvis, Reijo S | Guralnik, Jack M | Rosengren, Annika | Taylor, James O | Kiechl, Stefan | Dagenais, Gilles R | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Wallace, Robert B | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Visser, Marjolein | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Kitamura, Akihiko | Sundström, Johan | Wennberg, Patrik | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Daimon, Makoto | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Cooper, Jackie A | Onat, Altan | Devereux, Richard | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Dankner, Rachel | Knuiman, Matthew W | Crespo, Carlos J | Gansevoort, Ron T | Goldbourt, Uri | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Shaw, Jonathan E | Mussolino, Michael | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Fletcher, Astrid | Kuller, Lewis H | Gillum, Richard F | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Assmann, Gerd | Wald, Nicholas | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Greenland, Philip | Trevisan, Maurizio | Ulmer, Hanno | Butterworth, Adam S | Folsom, Aaron R | Davey-Smith, George | Hu, Frank B | Danesh, John | Tipping, Robert W | Ford, Charles E | Simpson, Lara M | Walldius, Göran | Jungner, Ingmar | Folsom, Aaron R | Demerath, Ellen W | Franceschini, Nora | Lutsey, Pamela L | Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B | Pitsavos, Christos | Chrysohoou, Christina | Stefanadis, Christodoulos | Shaw, Jonathan E | Atkins, Robert | Zimmet, Paul Z | Barr, Elizabeth LM | Knuiman, Matthew W | Whincup, Peter H | Wannamethee, S Goya | Morris, Richard W | Willeit, Johann | Kiechl, Stefan | Weger, Siegfried | Oberhollenzer, Friedrich | Wald, Nicholas | Ebrahim, Shah | Lawlor, Debbie A | Gallacher, John | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Yarnell, John WG | Casiglia, Edoardo | Tikhonoff, Valérie | Greenland, Philip | Shay, Christina M | Garside, Daniel B | Nietert, Paul J | Sutherland, Susan E | Bachman, David L | Keil, Julian E | de Boer, Ian H | Kizer, Jorge R | Psaty, Bruce M | Mukamal, Kenneth J | Nordestgaard, Børge G | Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne | Jensen, Gorm B | Schnohr, Peter | Giampaoli, Simona | Palmieri, Luigi | Panico, Salvatore | Pilotto, Lorenza | Vanuzzo, Diego | de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez | Simons, Leon A | Simons, Judith | McCallum, John | Friedlander, Yechiel | Gerry, F | Fowkes, R | Price, Jackie F | Lee, Amanda J | Taylor, James O | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Wallace, Robert B | Kohout, Frank J | Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C | Guralnik, Jack M | Blazer, Dan G | Guralnik, Jack M | Phillips, Caroline L | Phillips, Caroline L | Guralnik, Jack M | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Wareham, Nicholas J | Brenner, Hermann | Schöttker, Ben | Müller, Heiko | Rothenbacher, Dietrich | Wennberg, Patrik | Jansson, Jan-Håkan | Nissinen, Aulikki | Donfrancesco, Chiara | Giampaoli, Simona | Woodward, Mark | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | D'Agostino, Ralph B | Vasan, Ramachandran S | Fox, Caroline S | Pencina, Michael J | Daimon, Makoto | Oizumi, Toshihide | Kayama, Takamasa | Kato, Takeo | Bladbjerg, Else-Marie | Jørgensen, Torben | Møller, Lars | Jespersen, Jørgen | Dankner, Rachel | Chetrit, Angela | Lubin, Flora | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Welin, Lennart | Lappas, Georgios | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Welin, Lennart | Svärdsudd, Kurt | Eriksson, Henry | Lappas, Georgios | Bengtsson, Calle | Lissner, Lauren | Björkelund, Cecilia | Cremer, Peter | Nagel, Dorothea | Strandberg, Timo E | Salomaa, Veikko | Tilvis, Reijo S | Miettinen, Tatu A | Tilvis, Reijo S | Strandberg, Timo E | Kiyohara, Yutaka | Arima, Hisatomi | Doi, Yasufumi | Ninomiya, Toshiharu | Rodriguez, Beatriz | Dekker, Jacqueline M | Nijpels, Giel | Stehouwer, Coen DA | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Rimm, Eric B | Willett, Walter C | Iso, Hiroyasu | Kitamura, Akihiko | Yamagishi, Kazumasa | Noda, Hiroyuki | Goldbourt, Uri | Vartiainen, Erkki | Jousilahti, Pekka R | Harald, Kennet | Salomaa, Veikko | Kauhanen, Jussi | Salonen, Jukka T | Kurl, Sudhir | Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka | Poppelaars, Jan L | Deeg, Dorly JH | Visser, Marjolein | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Hedblad, Bo | Nilsson, Peter | Engström, Gunnar | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | de Boer, Ian H | Shea, Steven J | Meisinger, Christa | Thorand, Barbara | Koenig, Wolfgang | Döring, Angela | Verschuren, WM Monique | Blokstra, Anneke | Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas | Wilhelmsen, Lars | Rosengren, Annika | Lappas, Georgios | Fletcher, Astrid | Nitsch, Dorothea | Kuller, Lewis H | Grandits, Greg | Tverdal, Aage | Selmer, Randi | Nystad, Wenche | Mussolino, Michael | Gillum, Richard F | Hu, Frank B | Sun, Qi | Manson, JoAnn E | Rimm, Eric B | Hankinson, Susan E | Meade, Tom W | De Stavola, Bianca Lucia | Cooper, Jackie A | Bauer, Kenneth A | Davidson, Karina W | Kirkland, Susan | Shaffer, Jonathan A | Shimbo, Daichi | Kitamura, Akihiko | Iso, Hiroyasu | Sato, Shinichi | Holme, Ingar | Selmer, Randi | Tverdal, Aage | Nystad, Wenche | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Miura, Katsuyuki | Sakurai, Masaru | Ducimetiere, Pierre | Jouven, Xavier | Bakker, Stephan JL | Gansevoort, Ron T | van der Harst, Pim | Hillege, Hans L | Crespo, Carlos J | Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R | Kee, Frank | Amouyel, Philippe | Arveiler, Dominique | Ferrières, Jean | Schulte, Helmut | Assmann, Gerd | Jukema, J Wouter | de Craen, Anton JM | Sattar, Naveed | Stott, David J | Cantin, Bernard | Lamarche, Benoît | Després, Jean-Pierre | Dagenais, Gilles R | Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth | Bergstrom, Jaclyn | Bettencourt, Richele R | Buisson, Catherine | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Aspelund, Thor | Sigurdsson, Gunnar | Thorsson, Bolli | Trevisan, Maurizio | Hofman, Albert | Ikram, M Arfan | Tiemeier, Henning | Witteman, Jacqueline CM | Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh | Tavendale, Roger | Lowe, Gordon DO | Woodward, Mark | Devereux, Richard | Yeh, Jeun-Liang | Ali, Tauqeer | Calhoun, Darren | Ben-Shlomo, Yoav | Davey-Smith, George | Onat, Altan | Can, Günay | Nakagawa, Hidaeki | Sakurai, Masaru | Nakamura, Koshi | Morikawa, Yuko | Njølstad, Inger | Mathiesen, Ellisiv B | Løchen, Maja-Lisa | Wilsgaard, Tom | Sundström, Johan | Ingelsson, Erik | Michaëlsson, Karl | Cederholm, Tommy | Gaziano, J Michael | Buring, Julie | Ridker, Paul M | Gaziano, J Michael | Ridker, Paul M | Ulmer, Hanno | Diem, Günter | Concin, Hans | Rodeghiero, Francesco | Tosetto, Alberto | Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia | Manson, JoAnn E | Marmot, Michael | Clarke, Robert | Fletcher, Astrid | Brunner, Eric | Shipley, Martin | Kivimaki, Mika | Ridker, Paul M | Buring, Julie | Ford, Ian | Robertson, Michele | Ibañez, Alejandro Marín | Feskens, Edith | Geleijnse, Johanna M | Kromhout, Daan | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | Alexander, Myriam | Butterworth, Adam S | Angelantonio, Emanuele Di | Franco, Oscar H | Gao, Pei | Gobin, Reeta | Haycock, Philip | Kaptoge, Stephen | Seshasai, Sreenivasa R Kondapally | Lewington, Sarah | Pennells, Lisa | Rapsomaniki, Eleni | Sarwar, Nadeem | Thompson, Alexander | Thompson, Simon G | Walker, Matthew | Watson, Sarah | White, Ian R | Wood, Angela M | Wormser, David | Zhao, Xiaohui | Danesh, John
Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain.
Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies.
Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators.
Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
doi:10.1093/ije/dys086
PMCID: PMC3465767  PMID: 22825588
Height; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cause-specific mortality; epidemiological study; meta-analysis
3.  5th International Symposium on Focused Ultrasound 
Zaaroor, Menashe | Sinai, Alon | Goldsher, Dorit | Eran, Ayelet | Nassar, Maria | Schlesinger, Ilana | Parker, Jonathon | Ravikumar, Vinod | Ghanouni, Pejman | Stein, Sherman | Halpern, Casey | Krishna, Vibhor | Hargrove, Amelia | Agrawal, Punit | Changizi, Barbara | Bourekas, Eric | Knopp, Michael | Rezai, Ali | Mead, Brian | Kim, Namho | Mastorakos, Panagiotis | Suk, Jung Soo | Miller, Wilson | Klibanov, Alexander | Hanes, Justin | Price, Richard | Wang, Shutao | Olumolade, Oluyemi | Kugelman, Tara | Jackson-Lewis, Vernice | Karakatsani, Maria Eleni (Marilena) | Han, Yang | Przedborski, Serge | Konofagou, Elisa | Hynynen, Kullervo | Aubert, Isabelle | Leinenga, Gerhard | Nisbet, Rebecca | Hatch, Robert | Van der Jeugd, Anneke | Evans, Harrison | Götz, Jürgen | Götz, Jürgen | Nisbet, Rebecca | Van der Jeugd, Ann | Evans, Harrison | Leinenga, Gerhard | Fishman, Paul | Yarowsky, Paul | Frenkel, Victor | Wei-Bin, Shen | Nguyen, Ben | Sanchez, Carlos Sierra | Acosta, Camilo | Chen, Cherry | Wu, Shih-Ying | Karakatsani, Maria Eleni (Marilena) | Konofagou, Elisa | Aryal, Muna | Papademetriou, Iason T. | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Power, Chanikarn | McDannold, Nathan | Porter, Tyrone | Kovacs, Zsofia | Kim, Saejeong | Jikaria, Neekita | Qureshi, Farhan | Bresler, Michele | Frank, Joseph | Odéen, Henrik | Chiou, George | Snell, John | Todd, Nick | Madore, Bruno | Parker, Dennis | Pauly, Kim Butts | Marx, Mike | Ghanouni, Pejman | Jonathan, Sumeeth | Grissom, William | Arvanitis, Costas | McDannold, Nathan | Clement, Gregory | Parker, Dennis | de Bever, Joshua | Odéen, Henrik | Payne, Allison | Christensen, Douglas | Maimbourg, Guillaume | Santin, Mathieu David | Houdouin, Alexandre | Lehericy, Stéphane | Tanter, Mickael | Aubry, Jean Francois | Pauly, Kim Butts | Federau, Christian | Werner, Beat | Halpern, Casey | Ghanouni, Pejman | Paeng, Dong-Guk | Xu, Zhiyuan | Snell, John | Quigg, Anders | Eames, Matt | Jin, Changzhu | Everstine, Ashli | Sheehan, Jason | Lopes, M. Beatriz | Kassell, Neal | Snell, John | Quigg, Anders | Drake, James | Price, Karl | Lustgarten, Lior | Sin, Vivian | Mougenot, Charles | Donner, Elizabeth | Tam, Emily | Hodaie, Mojgan | Waspe, Adam | Looi, Thomas | Pichardo, Samuel | Lee, Wonhye | Chung, Yong An | Jung, Yujin | Song, In-Uk | Yoo, Seung-Schik | Lee, Wonhye | Kim, Hyun-Chul | Jung, Yujin | Chung, Yong An | Song, In-Uk | Lee, Jong-Hwan | Yoo, Seung-Schik | Caskey, Charles | Zinke, Wolf | Cosman, Josh | Shuman, Jillian | Schall, Jeffrey | Aurup, Christian | Wang, Shutao | Chen, Hong | Acosta, Camilo | Konofagou, Elisa | Kamimura, Hermes | Carneiro, Antonio | Todd, Nick | Sun, Tao | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Power, Chanikarn | Nazai, Navid | Patz, Sam | Livingstone, Margaret | McDannold, Nathan | Mainprize, Todd | Huang, Yuexi | Alkins, Ryan | Chapman, Martin | Perry, James | Lipsman, Nir | Bethune, Allison | Sahgal, Arjun | Trudeau, Maureen | Hynynen, Kullervo | Liu, Hao-Li | Hsu, Po-Hung | Wei, Kuo-Chen | Sun, Tao | Power, Chanikarn | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Sutton, Jonathan | Alexander, Phillip | Aryal, Muna | Miller, Eric | McDannold, Nathan | Kobus, Thiele | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | McDannold, Nathan | Carpentier, Alexandre | Canney, Michael | Vignot, Alexandre | Beccaria, Kevin | Leclercq, Delphine | Lafon, Cyril | Chapelon, Jean Yves | Hoang-Xuan, Khe | Delattre, Jean-Yves | Idbaih, Ahmed | Xu, Zhiyuan | Moore, David | Xu, Alexis | Schmitt, Paul | Snell, John | Foley, Jessica | Eames, Matt | Sheehan, Jason | Kassell, Neal | Sukovich, Jonathan | Cain, Charles | Xu, Zhiyuan | Pandey, Aditya | Snell, John | Chaudhary, Neeraj | Camelo-Piragua, Sandra | Allen, Steven | Paeng, Dong-Guk | Cannata, Jon | Teofilovic, Dejan | Bertolina, Jim | Kassell, Neal | Hall, Timothy | Xu, Zhen | Wu, Shih-Ying | Karakatsani, Maria Eleni (Marilena) | Grondin, Julien | Sanchez, Carlos Sierra | Ferrera, Vincent | Konofagou, Elisa | ter Haar, Gail | Mouratidis, Petros | Repasky, Elizabeth | Timbie, Kelsie | Badr, Lena | Campbell, Benjamin | McMichael, John | Buckner, Andrew | Prince, Jessica | Stevens, Aaron | Bullock, Timothy | Price, Richard | Skalina, Karin | Guha, Chandan | Orsi, Franco | Bonomo, Guido | Vigna, Paolo Della | Mauri, Giovanni | Varano, Gianluca | Schade, George | Wang, Yak-Nam | Pillarisetty, Venu | Hwang, Joo Ha | Khokhlova, Vera | Bailey, Michael | Khokhlova, Tatiana | Khokhlova, Vera | Sinilshchikov, Ilya | Yuldashev, Petr | Andriyakhina, Yulia | Kreider, Wayne | Maxwell, Adam | Khokhlova, Tatiana | Sapozhnikov, Oleg | Partanen, Ari | Lundt, Jonathan | Allen, Steven | Sukovich, Jonathan | Hall, Timothy | Cain, Charles | Xu, Zhen | Preusser, Tobias | Haase, Sabrina | Bezzi, Mario | Jenne, Jürgen | Langø, Thomas | Midiri, Massimo | Mueller, Michael | Sat, Giora | Tanner, Christine | Zangos, Stephan | Guenther, Matthias | Melzer, Andreas | Menciassi, Arianna | Tognarelli, Selene | Cafarelli, Andrea | Diodato, Alessandro | Ciuti, Gastone | Rothluebbers, Sven | Schwaab, Julia | Strehlow, Jan | Mihcin, Senay | Tanner, Christine | Tretbar, Steffen | Preusser, Tobias | Guenther, Matthias | Jenne, Jürgen | Payen, Thomas | Palermo, Carmine | Sastra, Steve | Chen, Hong | Han, Yang | Olive, Kenneth | Konofagou, Elisa | Adams, Matthew | Salgaonkar, Vasant | Scott, Serena | Sommer, Graham | Diederich, Chris | Vidal-Jove, Joan | Perich, Eloi | Ruiz, Antonio | Velat, Manuela | Melodelima, David | Dupre, Aurelien | Vincenot, Jeremy | Yao, Chen | Perol, David | Rivoire, Michel | Tucci, Samantha | Mahakian, Lisa | Fite, Brett | Ingham, Elizabeth | Tam, Sarah | Hwang, Chang-il | Tuveson, David | Ferrara, Katherine | Scionti, Stephen | Chen, Lili | Cvetkovic, Dusica | Chen, Xiaoming | Gupta, Roohi | Wang, Bin | Ma, Charlie | Bader, Kenneth | Haworth, Kevin | Maxwell, Adam | Holland, Christy | Sanghvi, Narendra | Carlson, Roy | Chen, Wohsing | Chaussy, Christian | Thueroff, Stefan | Cesana, Claudio | Bellorofonte, Carlo | Wang, Qingguo | Wang, Han | Wang, Shengping | Zhang, Junhai | Bazzocchi, Alberto | Napoli, Alessandro | Staruch, Robert | Bing, Chenchen | Shaikh, Sumbul | Nofiele, Joris | Szczepanski, Debra | Staruch, Michelle Wodzak | Williams, Noelle | Laetsch, Theodore | Chopra, Rajiv | Ghanouni, Pejman | Rosenberg, Jarrett | Bitton, Rachelle | Napoli, Alessandro | LeBlang, Suzanne | Meyer, Joshua | Hurwitz, Mark | Pauly, Kim Butts | Partanen, Ari | Yarmolenko, Pavel | Partanen, Ari | Celik, Haydar | Eranki, Avinash | Beskin, Viktoriya | Santos, Domiciano | Patel, Janish | Oetgen, Matthew | Kim, AeRang | Kim, Peter | Sharma, Karun | Chisholm, Alexander | Drake, James | Aleman, Dionne | Waspe, Adam | Looi, Thomas | Pichardo, Samuel | Napoli, Alessandro | Bazzocchi, Alberto | Scipione, Roberto | Temple, Michael | Waspe, Adam | Amaral, Joao Guilherme | Huang, Yuexi | Endre, Ruby | Lamberti-Pasculli, Maria | de Ruiter, Joost | Campbell, Fiona | Stimec, Jennifer | Gupta, Samit | Singh, Manoj | Mougenot, Charles | Hopyan, Sevan | Hynynen, Kullervo | Czarnota, Gregory | Drake, James | Brenin, David | Rochman, Carrie | Kovatcheva, Roussanka | Vlahov, Jordan | Zaletel, Katja | Stoinov, Julian | Han, Yang | Wang, Shutao | Konofagou, Elisa | Bucknor, Matthew | Rieke, Viola | Shim, Jenny | Staruch, Robert | Koral, Korgun | Chopra, Rajiv | Laetsch, Theodore | Lang, Brian | Wong, Carlos | Lam, Heather | Kovatcheva, Roussanka | Vlahov, Jordan | Zaletel, Katja | Stoinov, Julian | Shinkov, Alexander | Hu, Jim | Sharma, Karun | Zhang, Xi | Macoskey, Jonathan | Ives, Kimberly | Owens, Gabe | Gurm, Hitinder | Shi, Jiaqi | Pizzuto, Matthew | Cain, Charles | Xu, Zhen | Payne, Allison | Dillon, Christopher | Christofferson, Ivy | Hilas, Elaine | Shea, Jill | Greillier, Paul | Ankou, Bénédicte | Bessière, Francis | Zorgani, Ali | Pioche, Mathieu | Kwiecinski, Wojciech | Magat, Julie | Melot-Dusseau, Sandrine | Lacoste, Romain | Quesson, Bruno | Pernot, Mathieu | Catheline, Stefan | Chevalier, Philippe | Lafon, Cyril | Marquet, Fabrice | Bour, Pierre | Vaillant, Fanny | Amraoui, Sana | Dubois, Rémi | Ritter, Philippe | Haïssaguerre, Michel | Hocini, Mélèze | Bernus, Olivier | Quesson, Bruno | Tebebi, Pamela | Burks, Scott | Kim, Saejeong | Milo, Blerta | Frank, Joseph | Gertner, Michael | Zhang, Jimin | Wong, Andrew | Fite, Brett | Liu, Yu | Kheirolomoom, Azadeh | Seo, Jai | Watson, Katherine | Mahakian, Lisa | Tam, Sarah | Zhang, Hua | Foiret, Josquin | Borowsky, Alexander | Ferrara, Katherine | Xu, Doudou | Melzer, Andreas | Thanou, Maya | Centelles, Miguell | Wright, Mike | Amrahli, Maral | So, Po-Wah | Gedroyc, Wladyslaw | Centelles, Miguell | Wright, Mike | Gedroyc, Wladyslaw | Thanou, Maya | Kneepkens, Esther | Heijman, Edwin | Keupp, Jochen | Weiss, Steffen | Nicolay, Klaas | Grüll, Holger | Fite, Brett | Wong, Andrew | Liu, Yu | Kheirolomoom, Azadeh | Mahakian, Lisa | Tam, Sarah | Foiret, Josquin | Ferrara, Katherine | Burks, Scott | Nagle, Matthew | Kim, Saejeong | Milo, Blerta | Frank, Joseph | Sapozhnikov, Oleg | Nikolaeva, Anastasia V. | Terzi, Marina E. | Tsysar, Sergey A. | Maxwell, Adam | Cunitz, Bryan | Bailey, Michael | Mourad, Pierre | Downs, Matthew | Yang, Georgiana | Wang, Qi | Konofagou, Elisa | Burks, Scott | Nagle, Matthew | Nguyen, Ben | Bresler, Michele | Kim, Saejeong | Milo, Blerta | Frank, Joseph | Burks, Scott | Nagle, Matthew | Kim, Saejeong | Milo, Blerta | Frank, Joseph | Chen, Johnny | Farry, Justin | Dixon, Adam | Du, Zhongmin | Dhanaliwala, Ali | Hossack, John | Klibanov, Alexander | Ranjan, Ashish | Maples, Danny | Chopra, Rajiv | Bing, Chenchen | Staruch, Robert | Wardlow, Rachel | Staruch, Michelle Wodzak | Malayer, Jerry | Ramachandran, Akhilesh | Nofiele, Joris | Namba, Hirofumi | Kawasaki, Motohiro | Izumi, Masashi | Kiyasu, Katsuhito | Takemasa, Ryuichi | Ikeuchi, Masahiko | Ushida, Takahiro | Crake, Calum | Papademetriou, Iason T. | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Porter, Tyrone | McDannold, Nathan | Kothapalli, Satya V. V. N. | Leighton, Wan | Wang, Zhaorui | Partanen, Ari | Gach, H. Michael | Straube, William | Altman, Michael | Chen, Hong | Kim, Young-sun | Lim, Hyo Keun | Rhim, Hyunchul | Kim, Young-sun | Lim, Hyo Keun | Rhim, Hyunchul | van Breugel, Johanna | Braat, Manon | Moonen, Chrit | van den Bosch, Maurice | Ries, Mario | Marrocchio, Cristina | Dababou, Susan | Bitton, Rachelle | Pauly, Kim Butts | Ghanouni, Pejman | Lee, Jae Young | Lee, Jae Young | Chung, Hyun Hoon | Kang, Soo Yeon | Kang, Kook Jin | Son, Keon Ho | Zhang, Dandan | Adams, Matthew | Salgaonkar, Vasant | Plata, Juan | Jones, Peter | Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea | Bouley, Donna | Sommer, Graham | Pauly, Kim Butts | Diederich, Chris | Bond, Aaron | Dallapiazza, Robert | Huss, Diane | Warren, Amy | Sperling, Scott | Gwinn, Ryder | Shah, Binit | Elias, W. Jeff | Curley, Colleen | Zhang, Ying | Negron, Karina | Miller, Wilson | Klibanov, Alexander | Abounader, Roger | Suk, Jung Soo | Hanes, Justin | Price, Richard | Karakatsani, Maria Eleni (Marilena) | Samiotaki, Gesthimani | Wang, Shutao | Kugelman, Tara | Acosta, Camilo | Konofagou, Elisa | Kovacs, Zsofia | Tu, Tsang-Wei | Papadakis, Georgios | Hammoud, Dima | Frank, Joseph | Silvestrini, Matthew | Wolfram, Frank | Güllmar, Daniel | Reichenbach, Juergen | Hofmann, Denis | Böttcher, Joachim | Schubert, Harald | Lesser, Thomas G. | Almquist, Scott | Parker, Dennis | Christensen, Douglas | Camarena, Francisco | Jiménez-Gambín, Sergio | Jiménez, Noé | Konofagou, Elisa | Chang, Jin Woo | Chaplin, Vandiver | Griesenauer, Rebekah | Miga, Michael | Caskey, Charles | Ellens, Nicholas | Airan, Raag | Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo | Farahani, Keyvan | Partanen, Ari | Feng, Xue | Fielden, Samuel | Zhao, Li | Miller, Wilson | Wintermark, Max | Pauly, Kim Butts | Meyer, Craig | Guo, Sijia | Lu, Xin | Zhuo, Jiachen | Xu, Su | Gullapalli, Rao | Gandhi, Dheeraj | Jin, Changzhu | Brokman, Omer | Eames, Matt | Snell, John | Paeng, Dong-Guk | Baek, Hongchae | Kim, Hyungmin | Leung, Steven | Webb, Taylor | Pauly, Kim Butts | McDannold, Nathan | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Vykhodtseva, Natalia | Nguyen, Thai-Son | Sukovich, Jonathan | Hall, Timothy | Xu, Zhen | Cain, Charles | Park, Chang Kyu | Park, Sang Man | Jung, Na Young | Kim, Min Soo | Chang, Won Seok | Jung, Hyun Ho | Chang, Jin Woo | Pichardo, Samuel | Hynynen, Kullervo | Plaksin, Michael | Weissler, Yoni | Shoham, Shy | Kimmel, Eitan | Quigg, Anders | Snell, John | Paeng, Dong-Guk | Eames, Matt | Sapozhnikov, Oleg | Rosnitskiy, Pavel B. | Khokhlova, Vera | Shoham, Shy | Krupa, Steve | Hazan, Eilon | Naor, Omer | Levy, Yoav | Maimon, Noam | Brosh, Inbar | Kimmel, Eitan | Kahn, Itamar | Sukovich, Jonathan | Xu, Zhen | Hall, Timothy | Allen, Steven | Cain, Charles | Cahill, Jessica | Sun, Tao | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Power, Chanikarn | Livingstone, Margaret | McDannold, Nathan | Todd, Nick | Colas, Elodie Constanciel | Wydra, Adrian | Waspe, Adam | Looi, Thomas | Maev, Roman | Pichardo, Samuel | Drake, James | Aly, Amirah | Sun, Tao | Zhang, Yong-Zhi | Sesenoglu-Laird, Ozge | Padegimas, Linas | Cooper, Mark | McDannold, Nathan | Waszczak, Barbara | Tehrani, Seruz | Miller, Wilson | Slingluff, Craig | Larner, James | Andarawewa, Kumari | Bucknor, Matthew | Ozhinsky, Eugene | Shah, Rutwik | Krug, Roland | Rieke, Viola | Deckers, Roel | Linn, Sabine | Suelmann, Britt | Braat, Manon | Witkamp, Arjen | Vaessen, Paul | van Diest, Paul | Bartels, Lambertus W. | Bos, Clemens | van den Bosch, Maurice | Borys, Nicolas | Storm, Gert | Van der Wall, Elsken | Moonen, Chrit | Farr, Navid | Alnazeer, Moez | Yarmolenko, Pavel | Katti, Prateek | Partanen, Ari | Eranki, Avinash | Kim, Peter | Wood, Bradford | Farrer, Alexis | Almquist, Scott | Dillon, Christopher | Parker, Dennis | Christensen, Douglas | Payne, Allison | Ferrer, Cyril | Bartels, Lambertus W. | de Senneville, Baudouin Denis | van Stralen, Marijn | Moonen, Chrit | Bos, Clemens | Liu, Yu | Liu, Jingfei | Fite, Brett | Foiret, Josquin | Leach, J. Kent | Ferrara, Katherine | Gupta, Roohi | Cvetkovic, Dusica | Ma, Charlie | Chen, Lili | Haase, Sabrina | Zidowitz, Stephan | Melzer, Andreas | Preusser, Tobias | Lee, Hsin-Lun | Hsu, Fang-Chi | Kuo, Chia-Chun | Jeng, Shiu-Chen | Chen, Tung-Ho | Yang, Nai-Yi | Chiou, Jeng-Fong | Jeng, Shiu-Chen | Kao, Yi-tzu | Pan, Chia-Hsin | Wu, Jing-Fu | Chen, Tung-Ho | Hsu, Fang-Chi | Lee, Hsin-Lun | Chiou, Jeng-Fong | Hsu, Fang-Chi | Tsai, Yi-Chieh | Lee, Hsin-Lun | Chiou, Jeng-Fong | Johnson, Sara | Parker, Dennis | Payne, Allison | Li, Dawei | He, Ye | Mihcin, Senay | Karakitsios, Ioannis | Strehlow, Jan | Schwenke, Michael | Haase, Sabrina | Demedts, Daniel | Levy, Yoav | Preusser, Tobias | Melzer, Andreas | Mihcin, Senay | Rothluebbers, Sven | Karakitsios, Ioannis | Xiao, Xu | Strehlow, Jan | Demedts, Daniel | Cavin, Ian | Sat, Giora | Preusser, Tobias | Melzer, Andreas | Minalga, Emilee | Payne, Allison | Merrill, Robb | Parker, Dennis | Hadley, Rock | Ramaekers, Pascal | Ries, Mario | Moonen, Chrit | de Greef, Martijn | Shahriari, Kian | Parvizi, Mohammad Hossein | Asadnia, Kiana | Chamanara, Marzieh | Kamrava, Seyed Kamran | Chabok, Hamid Reza | Schwenke, Michael | Strehlow, Jan | Demedts, Daniel | Tanner, Christine | Rothluebbers, Sven | Preusser, Tobias | Strehlow, Jan | Stein, Ruben | Demedts, Daniel | Schwenke, Michael | Rothluebbers, Sven | Preusser, Tobias | Demedts, Daniel | Haase, Sabrina | Muller, Sébastien | Strehlow, Jan | Langø, Thomas | Preusser, Tobias | Tan, Jeremy | Zachiu, Cornel | Ramaekers, Pascal | Moonen, Chrit | Ries, Mario | Wolfram, Frank | Güllmar, Daniel | Schubert, Harald | Lesser, Thomas G. | Erasmus, Hans-Peter | Colas, Elodie Constanciel | Waspe, Adam | Mougenot, Charles | Looi, Thomas | Van Arsdell, Glen | Benson, Lee | Drake, James | Jang, Kee W. | Tu, Tsang-Wei | Jikaria, Neekita | Nagle, Matthew | Angstadt, Mary | Lewis, Bobbi | Qureshi, Farhan | Burks, Scott | Frank, Joseph | McLean, Hailey | Payne, Allison | Hoogenboom, Martijn | Eikelenboom, Dylan | den Brok, Martijn | Wesseling, Pieter | Heerschap, Arend | Fütterer, Jurgen | Adema, Gosse | Wang, Kevin | Zhang, Ying | Zhong, Pei | Xiao, Xu | Joy, Joyce | McLeod, Helen | Melzer, Andreas | Bing, Chenchen | Staruch, Robert | Nofiele, Joris | Szczepanski, Debra | Staruch, Michelle Wodzak | Laetsch, Theodore | Chopra, Rajiv | Bing, Chenchen | Staruch, Robert | Yarmolenko, Pavel | Celik, Haydar | Nofiele, Joris | Szczepanski, Debra | Kim, Peter | Kim, Harry | Lewis, Matthew | Chopra, Rajiv | Shah, Rutwik | Ozhinsky, Eugene | Rieke, Viola | Bucknor, Matthew | Diederich, Chris | Salgaonkar, Vasant | Jones, Peter | Adams, Matthew | Ozilgen, Arda | Zahos, Peter | Coughlin, Dezba | Tang, Xinyan | Lotz, Jeff | Jedruszczuk, Kathleen | Gulati, Amitabh | Solomon, Stephen | Kaye, Elena | Fielden, Samuel | Mugler, John | Miller, Wilson | Pauly, Kim Butts | Meyer, Craig | Barbato, Gaetano | Scoarughi, Gian Luca | Corso, Cristiano | Gorgone, Alessandro | Migliore, Ilaria Giuseppina | Larrabee, Zachary | Hananel, Arik | Eames, Matt | Aubry, Jean-Francois | Eranki, Avinash | Farr, Navid | Partanen, Ari | Sharma, Karun | Yarmolenko, Pavel | Wood, Bradford | Kim, Peter | Farr, Navid | Kothapalli, Satya V. V. N. | Eranki, Avinash | Negussie, Ayele | Wilson, Emmanuel | Seifabadi, Reza | Kim, Peter | Chen, Hong | Wood, Bradford | Partanen, Ari | Moon, Hyungwon | Kang, Jeeun | Sim, Changbeom | Chang, Jin Ho | Kim, Hyuncheol | Lee, Hak Jong | Sasaki, Noboru | Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi | Sebeke, Lukas | Luo, Xi | de Jager, Bram | Heemels, Maurice | Heijman, Edwin | Grüll, Holger | Strehlow, Jan | Schwenke, Michael | Demedts, Daniel | Preusser, Tobias
Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-113.
doi:10.1186/s40349-016-0076-5
PMCID: PMC5123388
4.  Aqueous multiphoton lithography with multifunctional silk-centred bio-resists 
Nature Communications  2015;6:8612.
Silk and silk fibroin, the biomaterial from nature, nowadays are being widely utilized in many cutting-edge micro/nanodevices/systems via advanced micro/nanofabrication techniques. Herein, for the first time to our knowledge, we report aqueous multiphoton lithography of diversiform-regenerated-silk-fibroin-centric inks using noncontact and maskless femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW). Initially, silk fibroin was FsLDW-crosslinked into arbitrary two/three-dimensional micro/nanostructures with good elastic properties merely using proper photosensitizers. More interestingly, silk/metal composite micro/nanodevices with multidimension-controllable metal content can be FsLDW-customized through laser-induced simultaneous fibroin oxidation/crosslinking and metal photoreduction using the simplest silk/Ag+ or silk/[AuCl4]− aqueous resists. Noticeably, during FsLDW, fibroin functions as biological reductant and matrix, while metal ions act as the oxidant. A FsLDW-fabricated prototyping silk/Ag microelectrode exhibited 104-Ω−1 m−1-scale adjustable electric conductivity. This work not only provides a powerful development to silk micro/nanoprocessing techniques but also creates a novel way to fabricate multifunctional metal/biomacromolecule complex micro/nanodevices for applications such as micro/nanoscale mechanical and electrical bioengineering and biosystems.
Scientists are increasingly realising the potential for natural materials in micro- and nanofabrication. Here, the authors employ silk-based resists for aqueous multiphoton lithography towards generating intricate structures by femtosecond direct writing.
doi:10.1038/ncomms9612
PMCID: PMC4634322  PMID: 26472600
5.  Association analyses identify six new psoriasis susceptibility loci in the Chinese population 
Nature genetics  2010;42(11):1005-1009.
We extended our previous GWAS for psoriasis with a a multistage replication study including 8,312 cases and 12,919 controls from China as well as 3,293 cases, 4,188 controls from Germany and the USA, and 254 nuclear families from the USA. We identified 6 new susceptibility loci associated to psoriasis in Chinese, containing candidate genes ERAP1, PTTG1, CSMD1, GJB2, SERPINB8, ZNF816A (PCombined<5×10−8) and replicated one locus 5q33.1 (TNIP1/ANXA6) previously reported (PCombined=3.8×10−21) in European studies. Two of these loci showed evidence for association evidence in the German study, at ZNF816A and GJB2 with P=3.6×10−3 and P=7.9×10−3, respectively. ERAP1 and ZNF816A were preferentially associated with Type I (early onset) psoriasis in Chinese Han population (test for heterogeneity P=6.5×10−3 and P=1.5×10−3, respectively). Comparisons with previous GWAS of psoriasis highlight the heterogeneity of disease susceptibility between Chinese and European populations. Our study identifies new genetic susceptibility factors and suggests new biological pathways in psoriasis.
doi:10.1038/ng.690
PMCID: PMC3140436  PMID: 20953187
6.  Recurrent Stroke in Minor Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack With Metabolic Syndrome and/or Diabetes Mellitus 
Chen, Weiqi | Pan, Yuesong | Jing, Jing | Zhao, Xingquan | Liu, Liping | Meng, Xia | Wang, Yilong | Wang, Yongjun | Johnston, S. Claiborne | Wang, Zhimin | Xia, Haiqin | Li, Bin | Zhang, Guiru | Ren, Xudong | Ji, Chunling | Zhang, Guohua | Li, Jianhua | Lu, Bohua | Wang, Liping | Feng, Shutao | Wang, Dali | Tang, Weiguo | Li, Juntao | Zhang, Hongtian | Li, Guanglai | Wang, Baojun | Chen, Yuhua | Lian, Ying | Liu, Bin | Teng, Junfang | Sui, Rubo | Li, Lejun | Yuan, Zhiling | Zang, Dawei | Lu, Zuneng | Sun, Li | Wang, Dong | Hou, Liying | Yuan, Dongcai | Cao, Yongliang | Li, Hui | Tan, Xiuge | Wang, Huicong | Du, Haisong | Liu, Mingyi | Wang, Suping | Liu, Qiuwu | Zhang, Zhong | Cui, Qifu | Wang, Runqing | Zhao, Jialin | Zhang, Jiewen | Zhao, Jianping | Bi, Qi | Qi, Xiyou | Liu, Junyan | Li, Changxin | Li, Ling | Pan, Xiaoping | Zhang, Junling | Jiao, Derang | Han, Zhao | Qian, Dawei | Xiao, Jin | Xing, Yan | Du, Huishan | Huang, Guang | Cui, Yongqiang | Li, Yan | Feng, Lianyuan | Gao, Lianbo | Xiao, Bo | Cao, Yibin | Wu, Yiping | Liu, Jinfeng | Zhang, Zhiming | Dong, Zhengxie | Wang, Limin | He, Li | Wang, Xinchen | Guo, Xueying | Wang, Ming | Wang, Xiaosha | Jiang, Jiandong | Zhao, Renliang | Zhou, Shengnian | Hu, Hao | He, Maolin | Yu, Fengchun | Ouyang, Quping | Zhang, Jingbo | Xu, Anding | Qi, Xiaokun | Wang, Lei | Shi, Fuming | Guo, Fuqiang | Wang, Jianfeng | Zhao, Fengli | Dou, Ronghua | Wei, Dongning | Meng, Qingwei | Xia, Yilu | Wang, Shimin | Xue, Zhangcang | Xu, Yuming | Ma, Liping | Wang, Chun | Wu, Jiang | Du, Yifeng | Wang, Yinzhou | Xiao, Lijun | Song, Fucong | Hu, Wenli | Chen, Zhigang | Liu, Qingrui | Zhang, Jiemin | Chen, Mei | Yuan, Xiaodong | Liu, Zhihui | Li, Guozhong | Li, Xiaohong | Tian, Tingchen
Background
We aimed to determine the risk conferred by metabolic syndrome (METS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to recurrent stroke in patients with minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from the CHANCE (Clopidogrel in High‐risk patients with Acute Non‐disabling Cerebrovascular Events) trial.
Methods and Results
In total, 3044 patients were included. Patients were stratified into 4 groups: neither, METS only, DM only, or both. METS was defined using the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) and International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) definitions. The primary outcome was new stroke (including ischemic and hemorrhagic) at 90 days. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to assess the relationship of METS and DM status to the risk of recurrent stroke adjusted for potential covariates. Using the CDS criteria of METS, 53.2%, 17.2%, 19.8%, and 9.8% of patients were diagnosed as neither, METS only, DM only, and both, respectively. After 90 days of follow‐up, there were 299 new strokes (293 ischemic, 6 hemorrhagic). Patients with DM only (16.1% versus 6.8%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.89–3.39) and both (17.1% versus 6.8%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.98–3.86) had significantly increased rates of recurrent stroke. No interaction effect of antiplatelet therapy by different METS or DM status for the risk of recurrent stroke (P=0.82 for interaction in the fully adjusted model of CDS) was observed. Using the METS (IDF) criteria demonstrated similar results.
Conclusions
Concurrent METS and DM was associated with an increased risk of recurrent stroke in patients with minor stroke and transient ischemic attack.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.005446
PMCID: PMC5669168  PMID: 28572281
diabetes mellitus; metabolic syndrome; prognosis; stroke; Ischemic Stroke
7.  Blockade of Glioma Proliferation Through Allosteric Inhibition of JAK2 
Science signaling  2013;6(283):ra55.
The gene that encodes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed or mutated in human cancers, including glioblastoma. However, the efficacy of EGFR-targeted small-molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies in glioblastomas that also have mutation or deletion of the gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been modest. We found that EGFR signaling was blocked by a small molecule (G5-7) that selectively inhibited Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)–mediated phosphorylation and activation of EGFR and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) by binding to JAK2, thereby decreasing the activity of downstream signaling by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and inducing cell cycle arrest. G5-7 inhibited the proliferation of PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cell lines harboring a constitutively active variant of EGFR (U87MG/EGFRvIII) and human glioblastoma explant neurosphere cultures, but the drug only weakly inhibited the proliferation of either glioblastoma cell lines that were wild type for EGFR and stably transfected with PTEN (U87MG/PTEN) or normal neural progenitor cells and astrocytes. Additionally, G5-7 reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and endothelial cell migration and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma xenografts, thereby suppressing glioblastoma growth in vivo. Furthermore, G5-7 was more potent than EGFR or JAK2 inhibitors that interfere with either ligand or adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) binding at impeding glioblastoma cell proliferation, demonstrating that this allosteric JAK2 inhibitor may be an effective clinical strategy.
doi:10.1126/scisignal.2003900
PMCID: PMC4772155  PMID: 23838182
8.  Voxel-wise meta-analyses of brain blood flow and local synchrony abnormalities in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder 
Background
Published meta-analyses of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included patients receiving antidepressants, which might affect brain activity and thus bias the results. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated regional homogeneity changes in medication-free patients with MDD. Moreover, an association between regional homogeneity and rCBF has been demonstrated in some brain regions in healthy controls. We sought to explore to what extent resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication.
Methods
Using the effect-size signed differential mapping method, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of rCBF and regional homogeneity studies of medication-free patients with MDD.
Results
Our systematic search identified 14 rCBF studies and 9 regional homogeneity studies. We identified conjoint decreases in resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus in medication-free patients with MDD compared with controls. Other changes included altered resting-state rCBF in the precuneus and in the frontal–limbic–thalamic–striatal neural circuit as well as altered regional homogeneity in the uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Meta-regression revealed that the percentage of female patients with MDD was negatively associated with resting-state rCBF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and that the age of patients with MDD was negatively associated with rCBF in the left insula and with regional homogeneity in the left uncus.
Limitations
The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the included studies were heterogeneous.
Conclusion
The conjoint alterations of rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus may be core neuropathological changes in medication-free patients with MDD and serve as a specific region of interest for further studies on MDD.
doi:10.1503/jpn.140119
PMCID: PMC4622638  PMID: 25853283
9.  Medical expenditure for esophageal cancer in China: a 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002–2011) 
Background
Esophageal cancer is associated with substantial disease burden in China, and data on the economic burden are fundamental for setting priorities in cancer interventions. The medical expenditure for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer in China has not been fully quantified. This study aimed to examine the medical expenditure of Chinese patients with esophageal cancer and the associated trends.
Methods
From 2012 to 2014, a hospital-based multicenter retrospective survey was conducted in 37 hospitals in 13 provinces/municipalities across China as a part of the Cancer Screening Program of Urban China. For each esophageal cancer patient diagnosed between 2002 and 2011, clinical information and expense data were extracted by using structured questionnaires. All expense data were reported in Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.155 USD) based on the 2011 value and inflated using the year-specific health care consumer price index for China.
Results
A total of 14,967 esophageal cancer patients were included in the analysis. It was estimated that the overall average expenditure per patient was 38,666 CNY, and an average annual increase of 6.27% was observed from 2002 (25,111 CNY) to 2011 (46,124 CNY). The average expenditures were 34,460 CNY for stage I, 39,302 CNY for stage II, 40,353 CNY for stage III, and 37,432 CNY for stage IV diseases (P < 0.01). The expenditure also differed by the therapy type, which was 38,492 CNY for surgery, 27,933 CNY for radiotherapy, and 27,805 CNY for chemotherapy (P < 0.05). Drugs contributed to 45.02% of the overall expenditure.
Conclusions
These conservative estimates suggested that medical expenditures for esophageal cancer in China substantially increased in the last 10 years, treatment for early-stage esophageal cancer costs less than that for advanced cases, and spending on drugs continued to account for a considerable proportion of the overall expenditure.
doi:10.1186/s40880-017-0242-3
PMCID: PMC5590174  PMID: 28882179
Esophageal neoplasms; Medical expenditure; Diagnosis and treatment; China
10.  One-step generation of complete gene knockout mice and monkeys by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing with multiple sgRNAs 
Cell Research  2017;27(7):933-945.
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient gene-editing method, but the majority of gene-edited animals showed mosaicism, with editing occurring only in a portion of cells. Here we show that single gene or multiple genes can be completely knocked out in mouse and monkey embryos by zygotic injection of Cas9 mRNA and multiple adjacent single-guide RNAs (spaced 10-200 bp apart) that target only a single key exon of each gene. Phenotypic analysis of F0 mice following targeted deletion of eight genes on the Y chromosome individually demonstrated the robustness of this approach in generating knockout mice. Importantly, this approach delivers complete gene knockout at high efficiencies (100% on Arntl and 91% on Prrt2) in monkey embryos. Finally, we could generate a complete Prrt2 knockout monkey in a single step, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach in rapidly establishing gene-edited monkey models.
doi:10.1038/cr.2017.81
PMCID: PMC5518993  PMID: 28585534
complete gene knockout; CRISPR/Cas9; multiple sgRNAs
11.  Expenditure and financial burden for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China: a hospital-based, multicenter, cross-sectional survey 
Background
The increasing prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China and the paucity of information about relevant expenditure highlight the necessity of better understanding the financial burden and effect of CRC diagnosis and treatment. We performed a survey to quantify the direct medical and non-medical expenditure as well as the resulting financial burden of CRC patients in China.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey in 37 tertiary hospitals in 13 provinces across China between 2012 and 2014. Each enrolled patient was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. All expenditure data were inflated to the 2014 Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.163 USD). We quantified the overall expenditure and financial burden and by subgroup (hospital type, age at diagnosis, sex, education, occupation, insurance type, household income, clinical stage, pathologic type, and therapeutic regimen). We then performed generalized linear modeling to determine the factors associated with overall expenditure.
Results
A total of 2356 patients with a mean age of 57.4 years were included, 57.1% of whom were men; 13.9% of patients had stage I cancer; and the average previous-year household income was 54,525 CNY. The overall average direct expenditure per patient was estimated to be 67,408 CNY, and the expenditures for stage I, II, III, and IV disease were 56,099 CNY, 59,952 CNY, 67,292 CNY, and 82,729 CNY, respectively. Non-medical expenditure accounted for 8.3% of the overall expenditure. The 1-year out-of-pocket expenditure of a newly diagnosed patient was 32,649 CNY, which accounted for 59.9% of their previous-year household income and caused 75.0% of families to suffer an unmanageable financial burden. Univariate analysis showed that financial burden and overall expenditure differed in almost all subgroups (P < 0.05), except for sex. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who were treated in specialized hospitals and those who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma or diagnosed at a later stage were likely to spend more, whereas those with a lower household income and those who underwent surgery spent less (all P < 0.05).
Conclusions
For patients in China, direct expenditure for the diagnosis and treatment of CRC seemed catastrophic, and non-medical expenditure was non-ignorable. The financial burden varied among subgroups, especially among patients with different clinical stages of disease, which suggests that, in China, CRC screening might be cost-effective.
doi:10.1186/s40880-017-0209-4
PMCID: PMC5410077  PMID: 28454595
Colorectal neoplasms; Direct expenditure; Financial burden; China
12.  Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial 
Nutrition Journal  2017;16:11.
Background & aims
Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition.
Methods
Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness.
Results
One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P < 0.05). The median postoperative length of stay in the multimodal EON group was 8 days (6, 12) versus 10 days (7, 18) in the conventional care group (P < 0.001). The total cost of treatment and nutritional support were also less in the multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P < 0.001). The effectiveness was 84.9 and 79.9% in the multimodal EON and conventional care group, respectively (P = 0.475). However, the cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 537.6 (506.1, 589.3) and USD 637.8 (593.9, 710.3), respectively (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
The multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery.
Trial registration
Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395. Registered 15 March 2014.
doi:10.1186/s12937-017-0228-7
PMCID: PMC5301361  PMID: 28183318
Multi-modal early oral nutrition (multimodal EON); Postoperative ileus (POI); Cost-effectiveness analysis
13.  Tolerability and efficacy of pegylated consensus interferon-α in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C 
This study aimed to explore and evaluate the tolerability and antiviral activity of pegylated recombinant human consensus interferon-α (PEG-CIFN) in adults with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A total of 48 adult subjects chronically infected with HCV were divided into five groups, which were treated separately with PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg (n=10), 1.5 µg/kg (n=10), 2.0 µg/kg (n=9) or 3.0 µg/kg (n=10), or pegylated IFN α-2a (Pegasys) 180 µg (n=9) as controls. Symptoms were observed and laboratory results collected to monitor adverse reactions, adjust drug dosage and evaluate tolerability. The thrombocytopenic effects in all PEG-CIFN dose groups were less than that of pegylated IFN α-2a (at week 14, P<0.05). The rapid virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were significantly higher than that of the PEG-CIFN 1.0 µg/kg group (P<0.05). Patients who had HCV genotype 1b infections had relatively high responses. The early virologic response of the PEG-CIFN 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/kg groups and the pegylated IFN α-2a group were 30, 90, 88.8 and 88.8% respectively. PEG-CIFN is well tolerated, and was found to have dose-dependent effectiveness in subjects with chronic hepatitis C. Virological response rates between PEG-CIFN 1.5 or 2.0 µg/kg, and pegylated IFNα-2a were similar, and not significantly different. It is concluded that 1.5 µg/kg PEG-CIFN may be the clinically recommended dose. PEG-CIFN is superior to pegylated IFN α-2a in maintaining platelet levels.
doi:10.3892/etm.2016.3914
PMCID: PMC5244764  PMID: 28123460
recombinant interferon; tolerance; adverse event; efficacy
14.  Impact of nutritional support that does and does not meet guideline standards on clinical outcome in surgical patients at nutritional risk: a prospective cohort study 
Nutrition Journal  2016;15:78.
Objective
To investigate the impact of nutritional support on clinical outcomes in patients at nutritional risk who receive nutritional support that meets guideline standards and those who do not.
Methods
This prospective cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from February 2010 to June 2012. The research protocols were approved by the university’s ethics committee, and the patients signed informed consent forms. The clinical data were collected based on nutritional risk screening, administration of enteral and parenteral nutrition, surgical information, complications, and length of hospital stay.
Results
During the study period, 525 patients at nutritional risk were enrolled in the cohorts. Among patients who received nutritional support that met the guideline standards (Cohort 1), the incidence of infectious complications was lower than that in patients who did not meet guideline standards (Cohort 2) (17.1 % vs. 26.9 %, P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that individuals who received a combination of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) for 7 or more days had a significantly lower incidence of infectious complications (P = 0.001) than those who received only PN for 7 or more days or those who received nutritional support for less than 7 days or at less than 10 kcal/kg/d. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for confounding factors, nutritional support that met guideline standards for patients with nutritional risk was a protective factor for complications (OR: 0.870, P < 0.002).
Conclusions
In patients at nutritional risk after abdominal surgery, nutritional support that meets recommended nutrient guidelines (especially regimens involving PN + EN ≥ 7 days) might decrease the incidence of infectious complications and is worth recommending; however, well-designed trials are needed to confirm our findings. Nutritional support that does not meet the guideline standards is considered clinically undesirable.
doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0193-6
PMCID: PMC4991079  PMID: 27543156
Nutritional risk; Outcome; Guidelines; Abdominal surgery patients; Logistic regression analysis
15.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy 
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Paola | Costes, Safia | Coto-Montes, Ana | Couve, Eduardo | Coxon, Fraser P. | Cregg, James M. | Crespo, José L. | Cronjé, Marianne J. | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cullen, Joseph J. | Czaja, Mark J. | D'Amelio, Marcello | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Davids, Lester M. | Davies, Faith E. | De Felici, Massimo | de Groot, John F. | de Haan, Cornelis A.M. | De Martino, Luisa | De Milito, Angelo | De Tata, Vincenzo | Debnath, Jayanta | Degterev, Alexei | Dehay, Benjamin | Delbridge, Lea M.D. | Demarchi, Francesca | Deng, Yi Zhen | Dengjel, Jörn | Dent, Paul | Denton, Donna | Deretic, Vojo | Desai, Shyamal D. | Devenish, Rodney J. | Di Gioacchino, Mario | Di Paolo, Gilbert | Di Pietro, Chiara | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Inés | Diaz-Meco, Maria T. | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P. | Ding, Wen-Xing | Distelhorst, Clark W. | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Dong, Zheng | Dorsey, Frank C. | Dosenko, Victor | Dowling, James J. | Doxsey, Stephen | Dreux, Marlène | Drew, Mark E. | Duan, Qiuhong | Duchosal, Michel A. | Duff, Karen E. | Dugail, Isabelle | Durbeej, Madeleine | Duszenko, Michael | Edelstein, Charles L. | Edinger, Aimee L. | Egea, Gustavo | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eissa, N. Tony | Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan | El-Deiry, Wafik S. | Elazar, Zvulun | Elgendy, Mohamed | Ellerby, Lisa M. | Eng, Kai Er | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Escalante, Ricardo | Esclatine, Audrey | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Espina, Virginia | Fan, Huizhou | Fan, Jia | Fan, Qi-Wen | Fan, Zhen | Fang, Shengyun | Fang, Yongqi | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Farre, Jean-Claude | Faure, Mathias | Fechheimer, Marcus | Feng, Carl G. | Feng, Jian | Feng, Qili | Feng, Youji | Fésüs, László | Feuer, Ralph | Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E. | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingar, Diane C. | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Finley, Kim D. | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Edward A. | Fisher, Paul B. | Flajolet, Marc | Florez-McClure, Maria L. | Florio, Salvatore | Fon, Edward A. | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fotedar, Rati | Fowler, Daniel H. | Fox, Howard S. | Franco, Rodrigo | Frankel, Lisa B. | Fransen, Marc | Fuentes, José M. | Fueyo, Juan | Fujii, Jun | Fujisaki, Kozo | Fujita, Eriko | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Furukawa, Ruth H. | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galliot, Brigitte | Galy, Vincent | Ganesh, Subramaniam | Ganetzky, Barry | Ganley, Ian G. | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, George F. | Gao, Jinming | Garcia, Lorena | Garcia-Manero, Guillermo | Garcia-Marcos, Mikel | Garmyn, Marjan | Gartel, Andrei L. | Gatti, Evelina | Gautel, Mathias | Gawriluk, Thomas R. | Gegg, Matthew E. | Geng, Jiefei | Germain, Marc | Gestwicki, Jason E. | Gewirtz, David A. | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghosh, Pradipta | Giammarioli, Anna M. | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N. | Gibson, Spencer B. | Gilkerson, Robert W. | Ginger, Michael L. | Ginsberg, Henry N. | Golab, Jakub | Goligorsky, Michael S. | Golstein, Pierre | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Goncu, Ebru | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Claudio D. | Gonzalez, Ramon | González-Estévez, Cristina | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Gonzalez-Rey, Elena | Gorbunov, Nikolai V. | Gorski, Sharon | Goruppi, Sandro | Gottlieb, Roberta A. | Gozuacik, Devrim | Granato, Giovanna Elvira | Grant, Gary D. | Green, Kim N. | Gregorc, Ales | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Grunt, Thomas W. | Gual, Philippe | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guichard, Sylvie M. | Gukovskaya, Anna S. | Gukovsky, Ilya | Gunst, Jan | Gustafsson, Åsa B. | Halayko, Andrew J. | Hale, Amber N. | Halonen, Sandra K. | Hamasaki, Maho | Han, Feng | Han, Ting | Hancock, Michael K. | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Hisashi | Harada, Masaru | Hardt, Stefan E. | Harper, J. Wade | Harris, Adrian L. | Harris, James | Harris, Steven D. | Hashimoto, Makoto | Haspel, Jeffrey A. | Hayashi, Shin-ichiro | Hazelhurst, Lori A. | He, Congcong | He, You-Wen | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heidenreich, Kim A. | Helfrich, Miep H. | Helgason, Gudmundur V. | Henske, Elizabeth P. | Herman, Brian | Herman, Paul K. | Hetz, Claudio | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Joseph A. | Hocking, Lynne J. | Hofman, Paul | Hofmann, Thomas G. | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holyoake, Tessa L. | Hong, Ming-Huang | Hood, David A. | Hotamisligil, Gökhan S. | Houwerzijl, Ewout J. | Høyer-Hansen, Maria | Hu, Bingren | Hu, Chien-an A. | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Ju | Huang, Shengbing | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huber, Tobias B. | Huh, Won-Ki | Hung, Tai-Ho | Hupp, Ted R. | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James B. | Hussain, Sabah N.A. | Hussey, Patrick J. | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin | Inoki, Ken | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L. | Ip, Nancy Y. | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Iwasaki, Akiko | Izquierdo, Marta | Izumi, Yotaro | Jaakkola, Panu M. | Jäättelä, Marja | Jackson, George R. | Jackson, William T. | Janji, Bassam | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Jean X. | Jiang, Ming | Jiang, Qing | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan V. | Joe, Cheol O. | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E. | Johnson, Gail V.W. | Jones, Nicola L. | Joseph, Bertrand | Joseph, Suresh K. | Joubert, Annie M. | Juhász, Gábor | Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne | Jung, Chang Hwa | Jung, Yong-Keun | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kadowaki, Motoni | Kågedal, Katarina | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O. | Kampinga, Harm H. | Kanamori, Hiromitsu | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Khong Bee | Kang, Kwang Il | Kang, Rui | Kang, Yoon-A | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. | Kanthasamy, Arthi | Karantza, Vassiliki | Kaushal, Gur P. | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawazoe, Yoshinori | Ke, Po-Yuan | Kehrl, John H. | Kelekar, Ameeta | Kerkhoff, Claus | Kessel, David H. | Khalil, Hany | Kiel, Jan A.K.W. | Kiger, Amy A. | Kihara, Akio | Kim, Deok Ryong | Kim, Do-Hyung | Kim, Dong-Hou | Kim, Eun-Kyoung | Kim, Hyung-Ryong | Kim, Jae-Sung | Kim, Jeong Hun | Kim, Jin Cheon | Kim, John K. | Kim, Peter K. | Kim, Seong Who | Kim, Yong-Sun | Kim, Yonghyun | Kimchi, Adi | Kimmelman, Alec C. | King, Jason S. | Kinsella, Timothy J. | Kirkin, Vladimir | Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A. | Kitamoto, Katsuhiko | Kitazato, Kaio | Klein, Ludger | Klimecki, Walter T. | Klucken, Jochen | Knecht, Erwin | Ko, Ben C.B. | Koch, Jan C. | Koga, Hiroshi | Koh, Jae-Young | Koh, Young Ho | Koike, Masato | Komatsu, Masaaki | Kominami, Eiki | Kong, Hee Jeong | Kong, Wei-Jia | Korolchuk, Viktor I. | Kotake, Yaichiro | Koukourakis, Michael I. | Flores, Juan B. Kouri | Kovács, Attila L. | Kraft, Claudine | Krainc, Dimitri | Krämer, Helmut | Kretz-Remy, Carole | Krichevsky, Anna M. | Kroemer, Guido | Krüger, Rejko | Krut, Oleg | Ktistakis, Nicholas T. | Kuan, Chia-Yi | Kucharczyk, Roza | Kumar, Ashok | Kumar, Raj | Kumar, Sharad | Kundu, Mondira | Kung, Hsing-Jien | Kurz, Tino | Kwon, Ho Jeong | La Spada, Albert R. | Lafont, Frank | Lamark, Trond | Landry, Jacques | Lane, Jon D. | Lapaquette, Pierre | Laporte, Jocelyn F. | László, Lajos | Lavandero, Sergio | Lavoie, Josée N. | Layfield, Robert | Lazo, Pedro A. | Le, Weidong | Le Cam, Laurent | Ledbetter, Daniel J. | Lee, Alvin J.X. | Lee, Byung-Wan | Lee, Gyun Min | Lee, Jongdae | lee, Ju-hyun | Lee, Michael | Lee, Myung-Shik | Lee, Sug Hyung | Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan | Legembre, Patrick | Legouis, Renaud | Lehmann, Michael | Lei, Huan-Yao | Lei, Qun-Ying | Leib, David A. | Leiro, José | Lemasters, John J. | Lemoine, Antoinette | Lesniak, Maciej S. | Lev, Dina | Levenson, Victor V. | Levine, Beth | Levy, Efrat | Li, Faqiang | Li, Jun-Lin | Li, Lian | Li, Sheng | Li, Weijie | Li, Xue-Jun | Li, Yan-Bo | Li, Yi-Ping | Liang, Chengyu | Liang, Qiangrong | Liao, Yung-Feng | Liberski, Pawel P. | Lieberman, Andrew | Lim, Hyunjung J. | Lim, Kah-Leong | Lim, Kyu | Lin, Chiou-Feng | Lin, Fu-Cheng | Lin, Jian | Lin, Jiandie D. | Lin, Kui | Lin, Wan-Wan | Lin, Weei-Chin | Lin, Yi-Ling | Linden, Rafael | Lingor, Paul | Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer | Lisanti, Michael P. | Liton, Paloma B. | Liu, Bo | Liu, Chun-Feng | Liu, Kaiyu | Liu, Leyuan | Liu, Qiong A. | Liu, Wei | Liu, Young-Chau | Liu, Yule | Lockshin, Richard A. | Lok, Chun-Nam | Lonial, Sagar | Loos, Benjamin | Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel | López-Otín, Carlos | Lossi, Laura | Lotze, Michael T. | Low, Peter | Lu, Binfeng | Lu, Bingwei | Lu, Bo | Lu, Zhen | Luciano, Fréderic | Lukacs, Nicholas W. | Lund, Anders H. | Lynch-Day, Melinda A. | Ma, Yong | Macian, Fernando | MacKeigan, Jeff P. | Macleod, Kay F. | Madeo, Frank | Maiuri, Luigi | Maiuri, Maria Chiara | Malagoli, Davide | Malicdan, May Christine V. | Malorni, Walter | Man, Na | Mandelkow, Eva-Maria | Manon, Stephen | Manov, Irena | Mao, Kai | Mao, Xiang | Mao, Zixu | Marambaud, Philippe | Marazziti, Daniela | Marcel, Yves L. | Marchbank, Katie | Marchetti, Piero | Marciniak, Stefan J. | Marcondes, Mateus | Mardi, Mohsen | Marfe, Gabriella | Mariño, Guillermo | Markaki, Maria | Marten, Mark R. | Martin, Seamus J. | Martinand-Mari, Camille | Martinet, Wim | Martinez-Vicente, Marta | Masini, Matilde | Matarrese, Paola | Matsuo, Saburo | Matteoni, Raffaele | Mayer, Andreas | Mazure, Nathalie M. | McConkey, David J. | McConnell, Melanie J. | McDermott, Catherine | McDonald, Christine | McInerney, Gerald M. | McKenna, Sharon L. | McLaughlin, BethAnn | McLean, Pamela J. | McMaster, Christopher R. | McQuibban, G. Angus | Meijer, Alfred J. | Meisler, Miriam H. | Meléndez, Alicia | Melia, Thomas J. | Melino, Gerry | Mena, Maria A. | Menendez, Javier A. | Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S. | Menon, Manoj B. | Menzies, Fiona M. | Mercer, Carol A. | Merighi, Adalberto | Merry, Diane E. | Meschini, Stefania | Meyer, Christian G. | Meyer, Thomas F. | Miao, Chao-Yu | Miao, Jun-Ying | Michels, Paul A.M. | Michiels, Carine | Mijaljica, Dalibor | Milojkovic, Ana | Minucci, Saverio | Miracco, Clelia | Miranti, Cindy K. | Mitroulis, Ioannis | Miyazawa, Keisuke | Mizushima, Noboru | Mograbi, Baharia | Mohseni, Simin | Molero, Xavier | Mollereau, Bertrand | Mollinedo, Faustino | Momoi, Takashi | Monastyrska, Iryna | Monick, Martha M. | Monteiro, Mervyn J. | Moore, Michael N. | Mora, Rodrigo | Moreau, Kevin | Moreira, Paula I. | Moriyasu, Yuji | Moscat, Jorge | Mostowy, Serge | Mottram, Jeremy C. | Motyl, Tomasz | Moussa, Charbel E.-H. | Müller, Sylke | Muller, Sylviane | Münger, Karl | Münz, Christian | Murphy, Leon O. | Murphy, Maureen E. | Musarò, Antonio | Mysorekar, Indira | Nagata, Eiichiro | Nagata, Kazuhiro | Nahimana, Aimable | Nair, Usha | Nakagawa, Toshiyuki | Nakahira, Kiichi | Nakano, Hiroyasu | Nakatogawa, Hitoshi | Nanjundan, Meera | Naqvi, Naweed I. | Narendra, Derek P. | Narita, Masashi | Navarro, Miguel | Nawrocki, Steffan T. | Nazarko, Taras Y. | Nemchenko, Andriy | Netea, Mihai G. | Neufeld, Thomas P. | Ney, Paul A. | Nezis, Ioannis P. | Nguyen, Huu Phuc | Nie, Daotai | Nishino, Ichizo | Nislow, Corey | Nixon, Ralph A. | Noda, Takeshi | Noegel, Angelika A. | Nogalska, Anna | Noguchi, Satoru | Notterpek, Lucia | Novak, Ivana | Nozaki, Tomoyoshi | Nukina, Nobuyuki | Nürnberger, Thorsten | Nyfeler, Beat | Obara, Keisuke | Oberley, Terry D. | Oddo, Salvatore | Ogawa, Michinaga | Ohashi, Toya | Okamoto, Koji | Oleinick, Nancy L. | Oliver, F. Javier | Olsen, Laura J. | Olsson, Stefan | Opota, Onya | Osborne, Timothy F. | Ostrander, Gary K. | Otsu, Kinya | Ou, Jing-hsiung James | Ouimet, Mireille | Overholtzer, Michael | Ozpolat, Bulent | Paganetti, Paolo | Pagnini, Ugo | Pallet, Nicolas | Palmer, Glen E. | Palumbo, Camilla | Pan, Tianhong | Panaretakis, Theocharis | Pandey, Udai Bhan | Papackova, Zuzana | Papassideri, Issidora | Paris, Irmgard | Park, Junsoo | Park, Ohkmae K. | Parys, Jan B. | Parzych, Katherine R. | Patschan, Susann | Patterson, Cam | Pattingre, Sophie | Pawelek, John M. | Peng, Jianxin | Perlmutter, David H. | Perrotta, Ida | Perry, George | Pervaiz, Shazib | Peter, Matthias | Peters, Godefridus J. | Petersen, Morten | Petrovski, Goran | Phang, James M. | Piacentini, Mauro | Pierre, Philippe | Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie | Pierron, Gérard | Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit | Piras, Antonio | Piri, Natik | Platanias, Leonidas C. | Pöggeler, Stefanie | Poirot, Marc | Poletti, Angelo | Poüs, Christian | Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes | Prætorius-Ibba, Mette | Prasad, Anil | Prescott, Mark | Priault, Muriel | Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie | Progulske-Fox, Ann | Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula | Przedborski, Serge | Przyklenk, Karin | Puertollano, Rosa | Puyal, Julien | Qian, Shu-Bing | Qin, Liang | Qin, Zheng-Hong | Quaggin, Susan E. | Raben, Nina | Rabinowich, Hannah | Rabkin, Simon W. | Rahman, Irfan | Rami, Abdelhaq | Ramm, Georg | Randall, Glenn | Randow, Felix | Rao, V. Ashutosh | Rathmell, Jeffrey C. | Ravikumar, Brinda | Ray, Swapan K. | Reed, Bruce H. | Reed, John C. | Reggiori, Fulvio | Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne | Reichert, Andreas S. | Reiners, John J. | Reiter, Russel J. | Ren, Jun | Revuelta, José L. | Rhodes, Christopher J. | Ritis, Konstantinos | Rizzo, Elizete | Robbins, Jeffrey | Roberge, Michel | Roca, Hernan | Roccheri, Maria C. | Rocchi, Stephane | Rodemann, H. Peter | Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago | Rohrer, Bärbel | Roninson, Igor B. | Rosen, Kirill | Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M. | Rouis, Mustapha | Rouschop, Kasper M.A. | Rovetta, Francesca | Rubin, Brian P. | Rubinsztein, David C. | Ruckdeschel, Klaus | Rucker, Edmund B. | Rudich, Assaf | Rudolf, Emil | Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson | Russo, Rossella | Rusten, Tor Erik | Ryan, Kevin M. | Ryter, Stefan W. | Sabatini, David M. | Sadoshima, Junichi | Saha, Tapas | Saitoh, Tatsuya | Sakagami, Hiroshi | Sakai, Yasuyoshi | Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini | Salomoni, Paolo | Salvaterra, Paul M. | Salvesen, Guy | Salvioli, Rosa | Sanchez, Anthony M.J. | Sánchez-Alcázar, José A. | Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo | Sandri, Marco | Sankar, Uma | Sansanwal, Poonam | Santambrogio, Laura | Saran, Shweta | Sarkar, Sovan | Sarwal, Minnie | Sasakawa, Chihiro | Sasnauskiene, Ausra | Sass, Miklós | Sato, Ken | Sato, Miyuki | Schapira, Anthony H.V. | Scharl, Michael | Schätzl, Hermann M. | Scheper, Wiep | Schiaffino, Stefano | Schneider, Claudio | Schneider, Marion E. | Schneider-Stock, Regine | Schoenlein, Patricia V. | Schorderet, Daniel F. | Schüller, Christoph | Schwartz, Gary K. | Scorrano, Luca | Sealy, Linda | Seglen, Per O. | Segura-Aguilar, Juan | Seiliez, Iban | Seleverstov, Oleksandr | Sell, Christian | Seo, Jong Bok | Separovic, Duska | Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi | Setoguchi, Takao | Settembre, Carmine | Shacka, John J. | Shanmugam, Mala | Shapiro, Irving M. | Shaulian, Eitan | Shaw, Reuben J. | Shelhamer, James H. | Shen, Han-Ming | Shen, Wei-Chiang
Autophagy  2012;8(4):445-544.
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
doi:10.4161/auto.19496
PMCID: PMC3404883  PMID: 22966490
LC3; autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
16.  Characterization of the enterovirus 71 P1 polyprotein expressed in Pichia pastor as a candidate vaccine 
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics  2014;10(8):2220-2226.
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which recently caused the death of hundreds of children in the Asia-Pacific region. However, there are no specific treatments available for EV71 infections; thus, a safe and effective vaccine is needed urgently. In this study, we developed an effective and economical method for producing EV71 polyprotein (P1 protein) in Pichia pastoris. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of P1 protein as a candidate vaccine against EV71 virus. The data revealed that P1 protein induced persistent high cross-neutralization antibodies for different EV71 subtypes, and elicited significant splenocyte proliferation. The high levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) showed that P1 protein induced Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Interestingly, vaccinating female mice with the P1 protein conferred cross-protection against different EV71 subtypes to their neonatal offspring.Compared with heat-inactivated EV71, the P1 protein elicited improved humoral and cellular immune responses and showed good cross-protection with different EV71 subtypes. Therefore, the EV71-P1 protein produced by P. pastoris is a promising candidate vaccine against EV71.
doi:10.4161/hv.29123
PMCID: PMC4896795  PMID: 25424925
enterovirus 71; P1 polyprotein; Pichia pastoris; immunogenicity vaccine
17.  Joint analysis of three genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese populations 
Wu, Chen | Wang, Zhaoming | Song, Xin | Feng, Xiao-Shan | Abnet, Christian C. | He, Jie | Hu, Nan | Zuo, Xian-Bo | Tan, Wen | Zhan, Qimin | Hu, Zhibin | He, Zhonghu | Jia, Weihua | Zhou, Yifeng | Yu, Kai | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Yuan, Jian-Min | Zheng, Wei | Zhao, Xue-Ke | Gao, She-Gan | Yuan, Zhi-Qing | Zhou, Fu-You | Fan, Zong-Min | Cui, Ji-Li | Lin, Hong-Li | Han, Xue-Na | Li, Bei | Chen, Xi | Dawsey, Sanford M. | Liao, Linda | Lee, Maxwell P. | Ding, Ti | Qiao, You-Lin | Liu, Zhihua | Liu, Yu | Yu, Dianke | Chang, Jiang | Wei, Lixuan | Gao, Yu-Tang | Koh, Woon-Puay | Xiang, Yong-Bing | Tang, Ze-Zhong | Fan, Jin-Hu | Han, Jing-Jing | Zhou, Sheng-Li | Zhang, Peng | Zhang, Dong-Yun | Yuan, Yuan | Huang, Ying | Liu, Chunling | Zhai, Kan | Qiao, Yan | Jin, Guangfu | Guo, Chuanhai | Fu, Jianhua | Miao, Xiaoping | Lu, Changdong | Yang, Haijun | Wang, Chaoyu | Wheeler, William A. | Gail, Mitchell | Yeager, Meredith | Yuenger, Jeff | Guo, Er-Tao | Li, Ai-Li | Zhang, Wei | Li, Xue-Min | Sun, Liang-Dan | Ma, Bao-Gen | Li, Yan | Tang, Sa | Peng, Xiu-Qing | Liu, Jing | Hutchinson, Amy | Jacobs, Kevin | Giffen, Carol | Burdette, Laurie | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Shen, Hongbing | Ke, Yang | Zeng, Yixin | Wu, Tangchun | Kraft, Peter | Chung, Charles C. | Tucker, Margaret A. | Hou, Zhi-Chao | Liu, Ya-Li | Hu, Yan-Long | Liu, Yu | Wang, Li | Yuan, Guo | Chen, Li-Sha | Liu, Xiao | Ma, Teng | Meng, Hui | Sun, Li | Li, Xin-Min | Li, Xiu-Min | Ku, Jian-Wei | Zhou, Ying-Fa | Yang, Liu-Qin | Wang, Zhou | Li, Yin | Qige, Qirenwang | Yang, Wen-Jun | Lei, Guang-Yan | Chen, Long-Qi | Li, En-Min | Yuan, Ling | Yue, Wen-Bin | Wang, Ran | Wang, Lu-Wen | Fan, Xue-Ping | Zhu, Fang-Heng | Zhao, Wei-Xing | Mao, Yi-Min | Zhang, Mei | Xing, Guo-Lan | Li, Ji-Lin | Han, Min | Ren, Jing-Li | Liu, Bin | Ren, Shu-Wei | Kong, Qing-Peng | Li, Feng | Sheyhidin, Ilyar | Wei, Wu | Zhang, Yan-Rui | Feng, Chang-Wei | Wang, Jin | Yang, Yu-Hua | Hao, Hong-Zhang | Bao, Qi-De | Liu, Bao-Chi | Wu, Ai-Qun | Xie, Dong | Yang, Wan-Cai | Wang, Liang | Zhao, Xiao-Hang | Chen, Shu-Qing | Hong, Jun-Yan | Zhang, Xue-Jun | Freedman, Neal D | Goldstein, Alisa M. | Lin, Dongxin | Taylor, Philip R. | Wang, Li-Dong | Chanock, Stephen J.
Nature genetics  2014;46(9):1001-1006.
We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 1-3 of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in ethnic Chinese (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study, and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.82-0.88; P=7.72x10−20) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR= 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91; P=3.10x10−13). rs7447927 is a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TMEM173 and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.46; P=1.99x10−10). Our joint analysis identified new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the ESCC high risk Taihang Mountain region.
doi:10.1038/ng.3064
PMCID: PMC4212832  PMID: 25129146
18.  Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress 
Background
Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression.
Material/Methods
Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol.
Results
In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats.
Conclusions
Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890200
PMCID: PMC4067422  PMID: 24911067
Resident Intruder Paradigm; Aggression; Depressive-Like Behaviors; Chronic Mild Stress
19.  MACC1 induces metastasis in ovarian carcinoma by upregulating hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-MET 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(2):891-897.
Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) is a newly identified gene that has been shown to promote tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The present study investigated the effect of MACC1 downregulation on the biological characteristics of the ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cell line. In this study, MACC1 expression was blocked using the RNA interference technique. The downregulation of MACC1 mRNA and protein expression was confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The proliferative activity and adhesion rate of the cells were detected using cell counting kit-8 and a cell adhesion assay, while cell invasion was determined using a Matrigel invasion assay and migration capacity was observed using migration and wound-healing assays. A tube formation assay was also used to examine the angiogenic capacity of cells, and a luciferase assay was performed to assess whether MACC1 binds to the c-MET gene. The MACC1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly downregulated using sequence-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The inhibition of MACC1 expression markedly decreased the invasive, metastatic and angiogenic capacities of the cells, but only slightly inhibited growth and adhesion. In addition, a putative MACC1-binding site was identified in the 3′-untranslated region of c-MET. MACC1-siRNA was also found to significantly reduce the expression of the c-MET protein and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that c-MET was the target gene of MACC1. These results demonstrated that the attenuation of MACC1 suppresses cell invasion and migration and that MACC1 may regulate cell metastasis through targeting the expression of c-MET. Inhibition of the function of MACC1 may represent a new strategy for treating ovarian cancer.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2184
PMCID: PMC4081430  PMID: 25009663
metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1; metastasis; ovarian carcinoma; c-MET
20.  Interaction between a common variant in FADS1 and erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid profile in Chinese Hans[S] 
Journal of Lipid Research  2013;54(5):1477-1483.
Little is known about the associations of FADS1 genetic variants with circulating levels of PUFA and lipids in Asian populations who have a different dietary pattern and dyslipidemia prevalence compared with Western populations. In a population-based sample of 3,210 unrelated Han Chinese living in Beijing and Shanghai, we examined a FADS1 genetic variant, rs174550, in relation to blood PUFA and lipid levels. C-allele of rs174550 was significantly associated with levels of erythrocyte PUFAs in upstream and downstream pathways of delta-5 desaturase (D5D) (P ≤ 0.003). Moreover, rs174550 C-allele was associated with a lower HDL cholesterol level (P = 0.02) in total population and a higher triglyceride level (P = 0.0002) in Beijing residents. Interestingly, erythrocyte levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 modified the effect of rs174550 on HDL cholesterol level: stronger associations between rs174550 C-allele and lower HDL cholesterol levels were exhibited when erythrocyte 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 level was low (P for interaction = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). These data suggested that FADS1 genetic variant was associated with circulating PUFA and lipid levels and that its effect on HDL cholesterol might depend on PUFA status in the Han Chinese population.
doi:10.1194/jlr.P027516
PMCID: PMC3622339  PMID: 23396965
fatty acid desaturase 1; delta-5 desaturase; high density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides
21.  Calenduloside E Analogues Protecting H9c2 Cardiomyocytes Against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation 
Modulation of apoptosis is therapeutically effective in cardiomyocytes damage. Calenduloside E (CE), a naturally occurring triterpenoid saponin, is a potent anti-apoptotic agent. However, little is known about its synthetic analogues on the protective effects in apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. The present research was performed to investigate the potential protective effect of CE analogues against H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and the underlying mechanisms. Sixteen novel CE anologues have been designed, synthesized and biological evaluation. Among the 16 CE anologues, as well as the positive control CE tested, compound 5d was the most effective in improving cardiomyocytes viability. Pretreatment with anologue 5d inhibited ROS generation, maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced apoptotic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, exposure to H2O2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Pretreatment with anologue 5d (0.02–0.5 μg/mL) dose-dependently upregulated antiapoptotic proteins and downregulated proapoptotic proteins mentioned above during H2O2-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that CE analogues provide protection to H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, most likely via anti-apoptotic mechanism, and provided the basis for the further optimization of the CE analogues.
doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00862
PMCID: PMC5703861
Calenduloside E (CE) analogues; triterpenoid saponin; cardiomyocytes; apoptosis; ROS; anti-apoptotic mechanism
22.  Short‐ and long‐term antidepressant effects of ketamine in a rat chronic unpredictable stress model 
Brain and Behavior  2017;7(8):e00749.
Abstract
Objective
This research was aimed to evaluate the behaviors of short‐ or long‐term antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS).
Background
Ketamine, a glutamate noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, regulates excitatory amino acid functions, such as anxiety disorders and major depression, and plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory.
Methods
After 42 days of CUS model, male rats received either a single injection of ketamine (10 mg/kg; day 43) or 15 daily injections (days 43–75). The influence of ketamine on behavioral reactivity was assessed 24 hr (short‐term) or 7 weeks after ketamine treatment (long‐term). Behavioral tests used to assess the effects of these treatments included the sucrose preference (SP), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM) to detect anxiety‐like behavior (OF and EPM), forced swimming (FS), and water maze (WM).
Results: Short‐term ketamine administration resulted in increases of body weight gain, higher sensitivity to sucrose, augmented locomotor activity in the OF, more entries into the open arms of the EPM, along increased activity in the FS test; all responses indicative of reductions in depression/despair in anxiety‐eliciting situations. No significant differences in these behaviors were obtained under conditions of long‐term ketamine administration (p > .05). The CUS + Ketamine group showed significantly increased activity as compared with the CUS + Vehicle group for analysis of the long‐term effects of ketamine (*p < .05). Nor were significant differences obtained in learning and memory performance in rats receiving ketamine (p > .05).
Conclusion
Taken together these findings demonstrate that a short‐term administration of ketamine induced rapid antidepressant‐like effects in adult male rats exposed to CUS conditions, effects that were not observed in response to the long‐term treatment regime.
doi:10.1002/brb3.749
PMCID: PMC5561310
antidepressant; behavioral test; chronic unpredictable stress; depression; ketamine
23.  WAO International Scientific Conference (WISC 2016) Abstracts 
Bao, Jun | Wang, Yi-Hui | Liu, Quan-Hua | Bao, Yi-Xiao | Azouz, Nurit | Caldwell, Julie | Ray, Leanne | Rochman, Mark | Mingler, Melissa | Eilerman, Matthew | Wen, Ting | Myers, Jocelyn Biagini | Hershey, Gurjit Khurana | Kottyan, Leah | Martin, Lisa | Marc, Rothenberg | Gonzalez-Uribe, Victor | Del Rio-Chivardi, Jaime | Del Rio-Navarro, Blanca | Lou, Hongfei | Ma, Siyuan | Zhao, Yan | Cao, Feifei | He, Fei | Liu, Zhongyan | Wang, Chengshuo | Bachert, Claus | Zhang, Luo | Abrams, Elissa | Becker, Allan | Kandhare, Amit | Bodhankar, Subhash | Grossman, Nicole | Doros, Gheorghe | Laden, Francine | Fuhlbrigge, Anne | Wechsler, Michael | Pace, Wilson | Yawn, Barbara | Israel, Elliot | Lee, Junehyuk | Adler, Frederick | Kim, Peter | Huang, Yung Feng | Chen, Ying Yao | Pan, Chiun Yen | Lee, Herng Sheng | Khalemsky, Michael | Schwartz, David G. | Kolkhir, Pavel | Pogorelov, Dmitry | Kochergin, Nikolay | Komarow, Hirsh | Young, Michael | Eisch, Robin | Scott, Linda | Metcalfe, Dean | Singer, Alexander | Wakeman, Andrew | Gerstner, Thomas | Abrams, Elissa | Song, Woo-Jung | Shim, Ji-Su | Won, Ha-Kyeong | Kang, Sung-Yoon | Sohn, Kyoung-Hee | Kim, Byung-Keun | Jo, Eun-Jung | Kim, Min-Hye | Kim, Sang-Heon | Park, Heung-Woo | Kim, Sun-Sin | Chang, Yoon-Seok | Morice, Alyn H. | Lee, Byung-Jae | Cho, Sang-Heon | Min, Kyung-Up | Boscolo, Maria Assunta | Brivio, Giulio | Bosisio, Sergio | Manzocchi, Nicoletta | Pulixi, Edoardo | Grignani, Giulia | D’Andrea, Eloisia | Ricci, Massimo | Passini, Elena | Italia, Maurizio | Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn | Fagundes, Stefani | Oliano, Vinicius Jardim | Solé, Dirceu | Benzaquen, Sadia | Aragaki, Alejandro | Balestra, Ricardo | Harden, Dawn | Caudell-Stamper, Danielle | Glady, Gilbert | Holbreich, Mark | Lyakhovska, Nataliya | Kaidashev, Igor | Bystron, Jaromir | Hutyrova, Beata | Balakirski, Galina | Vanstreels, Luk | Wurpts, Gerda | Merk, Hans F. | Baron, Jens Malte | Plange, Johanna | Rihs, Hans-Peter | Raulf, Monika | Roeseler, Stefani | Tolcachier, Alberto | Chamorro, Armando | Otero, Ruth | Brooks, Joel | Hess, Michael | Benz, Jared | MacDonald, Joseph | Brooks, Joel | Benz, Jared | Chatha, Usma | Lent, Dale | Köse, Şükran | Tatar, Bengü Gireniz | Akkoçlu, Gülgün | Çukurova, İbrahim | Ödemiş, İlker | Toker, Ayşin Kılınç | Hasssan, Abdullahi | Gobir, Abdulrazaq Abdullahi | Kim, Cheol-Woo | Choi, Young Hwa | Lee, Jeong Hye | Cho, Rae Jeong | Nam, Yu Ran | Nam, Joo Hyun | Kim, Woo Kyung | Filipovic, Ivana | Zivkovic, Zorica | Filipovic, Djordje | Shik, Dana | Smith, Andrew | Hsi, Wang Yui | Friedman, Stuart | Gizaw, Yonatan | Bakhda, Rima | Mohammed, Kumail | Wasserman, Richard | Hague, Angela | Pence, Deanna | Rolen, Joanna | Sugerman, Robert | Silvers, Stacy | Kamili, Qurat | Knauer, Nadezhda | Zazernyi, Alexandr | Blinova, Elena | Demina, Daria | Kozlov, Vladimir | Agrawal, Komal | Kale, Sagar | Arora, Naveen | Vasilkova, Volha | Mokhort, Tatiana | Silvers, William | Eisenberg, Rachel | Mehta, Rushita | Rubinstein, Arye | Aston, Antony | Turner, Paul | Ruiz-Garcia, Monica | Boyle, Robert | Brown, Simon | Schejter, Yael Dinur | Ovadia, Adi | Kim, Vy | Reid, Brenda | Roifman, Chaim | Rosenfield, Lana | Avilla, Ernie | Harada, Laurie | Allen, Marilyn | Waserman, Susan | Yoon, Ho Joo | Koo, Gun Woo | Chang, Suk-Il | Yoon, Hye-Ran | Park, Dong Won | Park, Tai Sun | Moon, Ji-Yong | Kim, Sang-Heon | Kim, Tae Hyung | Sohn, Jang Won | Shin, Dong Ho | Jorjoliani, Tsici | Jorjoliani, Lia | Adamia, Nino | katamadze, Nona | Ramachandra, Deepika | Jorjoliani, Liana | Karseladze, Rusudan | Saginadze, Lali | Adamia, Nino | Chkuaseli, Natalia | Dolgova, Anna | Stukolova, Olga | Sudina, Anna | Cherkashina, Anna | Shipulin, German | Brivio, Giulio | Boscolo, Maria Assunta | Rosenthal, Richard | Howe, Harvey | Knause, Paul | Greemberg, Rony | De Bruycker, Jean Jacques | Fernandez, Isabel | Le Deist, Françoise | Haddad, Elie | Rha, Yeong Ho | Lee, Kyung Suk | Choi, Sun Hee | Tam, Herman | Simons, Estelle | Simons, Elinor | Golebiowska-Wawrzyniak, Maria | Markiewicz, Katarzyna | Faitelson, Yoram | Stein, Miguel | Mandelberg, Avigdor | Dalal, Ilan | Levin, Michael | Hobane, Lelani | Basera, Wisdom | Botha, Maresa | Gray, Claudia | Zar, Heather | Kjaeva, Biserka Jovkovska | Arsovski, Zoran | Grivcheva-Panovska, Vesna | Odebode, Adeyinka | Adekunle, Adedotun | Adeonipekun, Peter | Farombi, Ebenezer | Camacho-Ordoñez, Nadezhda | Martinez-Vázquez, Alejandrina Josefina | García-Cruz, María de la Luz H. | Tan, Qi | Min, Rui | Dai, Guan-qun | Xie, Wei-Ping | Mao, Huang | Wang, Hong | Yadav, Rakesh | Singh, Sneha | Yadav, Divya | Khaleva, Ekaterina | Bahnson, Henry T. | Franz, Amber | Garvey, Lene Heise | Jay, Nicola | Haque, Rubaiyat | Fox, Adam | Lack, Gideon | du Toit, George | Radic, Snezana | Milenkovic, Branislava | Neskovic, Ana | Danojevic, Ljiljana | Nachshon, Liat | Goldberg, Michael | Levy, Michael | Katz, Yitzhak | Elizur, Arnon | Rosario, Cristine | Kasper, Juliana | Chong-Neto, Herbeto | Riedi, Carlos | Rosario, Nelson | Elizur, Arnon | Levy, Michael B. | Har-Even, Ronly | Nachshon, Liat | Carmel, Mor | Goldberg, Michael R. | Kherkheulidze, Maia | Kavlashvili, Nani | Kandelaki, Eka | Adamai, Nino | Kherkheulidze, Maia | Jorjoliani, Lia | Ubiria, Irma | Burke, Andrea | Avilla, Ernie | Kastner, Monika | Waserman, Susan | Zheleva, Denica | Darlenski, Razvigor | Bozinakis, Konstantinos | Kriebardis, Anastasios | Styliara, Sofia | Karastathi, Aikaterini | Farmakas, Nikolaos | Ribeiro, Maria Luiza Kraft Kohler | Barcellos, Ana Carolina | Silva, Hannah Gabriele Ferreira | Carletto, Luís Henrique Mattei | Bet, Marcela Carolina | Rossetto, Nathalia Zorze | Rosario, Nelson Augusto | Chong-Neto, Herberto Jose | Valença, Fernanda | Novaes, Marina | Gomes, Mariana | Seifert, Carla | Neto, Alfredo | Loyola, Flavia | Rios, José | Silva, Tatiana | Neves, Aline | Novaes, Marina | Valença, Fernanda | Gomes, Mariana | Neto, Alfredo | Loyola, Flavia | Rios, José | Abadoglu, Oznur | Gemicioglu, Bilun | Bayram, Hasan | Cimrin, Arif | Akyildiz, Levent | Cilli, Aykut | Gunen, Hakan | Ozlu, Tevfik | Suerdem, Mecit | Uzaslan, Esra | Misirligil, Zeynep | Milenkovic, Branislava | Radic, Snezana | Ristic-Stojanovic, Snezana | Milicevic, A. | Milenkovic, A. | Cvejic, Jelena | Jankovic, Jelena | Dimic-Janjic, Sanja | Djurdjevic, Natasa | Barzylovych, Vladyslava | Umanets, Tetiana | Barzylovych, Anastasia | Winkler, Karyn | Margarinos, Jessica | Martin, Dylan | Nowakowski, Maja | Joks, Rauno | Stein, Miguel | Zangen, Tsili | Bernadsky, Olga | Boaz, Mona | Hermann, Gratiana | Faitelson, Yoram | Dalal, Ilan | Aviv, Rachel | Kuperboim, Olga | Ramichanov, Larisa | Broide, Efrat | Shamir, Raanan | Zevit, Noam | Shaoul, Ron | Fich, Alex | Levine, Arie | Ovadia, Adi | Schejter, Yael Dinur | Roifman, Chaim | Melamed, Isaac | Gangwar, Roopesh Singh | Minai-Fleminger, Yael | Seaf, Mansour | Gutgold, Amichai | Shikotra, Aarti | Chauhan, Anoop | Holgate, Stephen | Bradding, Peter | Howarth, Peter | Eliashar, Ron |