PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced

Important Notice

PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

Read more

Results 1-21 (21)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
1.  Epidemiological Survey of Sinonasal Malignancy in North-East Iran 
Introduction:
Sinonasal malignancies are uncommon neoplasms with several histological subtypes. These malignancies have a poor prognosis and, because of the nonspecific nature of the symptoms, most patients are diagnosed late when the disease is already at an advanced stage. Therefore, most sinonasal malignancies tend to be treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Understanding the incidence and prevalence of clinical symptoms, pathology, diagnosis, and subsequent prognosis of the disease is important for early diagnosis.
Materials and Methods:
Medical records of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sinonasal malignancy in a tertiary referral center from 1998 to 2009 were retrospectively investigated by chronological examination. Information relating to symptoms, pathology, and treatment of patients were collected from the checklists and used to generate tables and graphs, while descriptive statistical tests were used to compare data.
Results:
The records of 69 patients were examined, including 45 (65.2%) male and 24 (34.8%) female patients with a combined mean age of 54.07±16.04 years. Twenty-one patients (30.4%) were aged less than 45 years and 48 (69.6%) were more than 45 years of age. The most common symptom was facial swelling in 46 (66.6%) patients and the most common kind of tumor was squamous cell carcinoma in 28 (40.6%) patients. The primary location of the tumor in most patients was the maxillary sinus (54 patients; 78.3%). A majority of patients present in advanced stage (stage III or more) with intraorbital (39.1%) or intracranial (4.3%) involvement, or regional lymphatic (28.99%) or distance metastasis (7.2%). The most common treatment was surgery (17 patients; 24.6%).
Conclusion:
Due to their nonspecific symptoms, most sinonasal malignancies are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, all patients with nonspecific symptoms, especially older males, should be evaluated for sinonasal malignancies in order to eliminate this diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4461847  PMID: 26082905
Adenoid Cystic; Carcinoma; Chemotherapy; Nose; Paranasal Sinuses; Squamous Cell; Surgery; Radiotherapy
2.  The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis  
Introduction:
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial disease. Allergies are considered a predisposing factor to CRS; however, this remains controversial. The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities and allergic reaction, and to specify the most common allergens in patients with confirmed CRS.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred patients with signs and symptoms of CRS who met the diagnostic endoscopic and radiologic criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis were selected. They filled out a questionnaire and underwent a skin prick test for the common inhalant allergens. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to the history and positive skin prick tests.
Results:
The mean age of patients was 34. Males were slightly more involved (54%). The prevalence of polypoid and none-polypoid rhinosinusitis was 54% and 46% respectively. The patients’ most common symptoms were nasal discharge (95%), blockage (94%), smell disorders (63%), cough (45%), halitosis (41%), lethargy (37%), and aural fullness (36%). Allergy to at least one allergen was noted in 64% of the CRS patients which is higher than general population in Mashhad, Iran with allergic rhinitis (22.4%). Salsola was the most common allergen. There was no significant difference in allergic reactions between polypoid and non-polypoid CRS patients.
Conclusion:
Allergic reactions was found in Iranian CRS patients with or without polyposis to be much higher than general population in Mashhad with allergic rhinitis alone.
PMCID: PMC4196448  PMID: 25320702
Allergy; Chronic rhinosinusitis; Polyposis; Skin prick test
3.  Differentiation between CSF Otorrhea and Rhinorrhea in an Obscure Case of Recurrent Meningitis 
Introduction:
Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull base may be accompanied with recurrent meningitis. The site of leakage may either be anterior (in the nose and paranasal sinuses) or posterior (in the temporal bone). Various imaging techniques can be used to precisely locate the point of leakage but despite all the advances in imaging techniques there are still some rare cases in which the surgeon can’t be sure on the management approach before the beginning of surgery.
Case Report:
In this article we present one of these cases; we used intrathecal fluorescein to locate the source of the leak and made the final decision on the operating table.
Conclusion:
Intrathecal fluorescein is helpful in locating the leakage in the ear or the nose in ambiguous cases.
PMCID: PMC3989878  PMID: 24745002
CSF; Fluorescein; Recurrent meningitis; Rhinorrhea.
4.  Allergic rhinitis and dental caries in preschool children 
Dental Research Journal  2017;14(6):376-381.
Background:
Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be overdocumented in cases of dental caries because of controversies in the literature This study was conducted to investigate the potential relationship between AR and dental caries in children.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 296 children were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were evaluated using the decay-missing-filled (DMF) index, and their AR status was evaluated by physical examination and through a standard questionnaire. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were compared among groups using Student's t-test or the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Chi-square test, and/or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. A level of P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
Results:
Evidence of AR was found in 77 (35.1%) participants. There was no significant difference in the rate of tooth decay or DMF between participants with or without AR (P = 0.07), but a significant difference was observed in the number of missing and filled teeth between those with and without AR (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in educational level, family income, milk intake, use of pacifier, use of a toothbrush, saliva secretion, or body mass index (P > 0.05 in all cases) between AR-positive and AR-negative patients. Fluoride therapy and oral breathing were identified as confounding factors and controlled using log-linear analysis. The mean rate of DMF in patients who also had AR was 20% greater than in the AR-negative group (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21, confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.35) and 15% greater in among children who breathed orally than those who did not (OR = 1.15 CI: 1.02–1.31).
Conclusion:
AR and oral breathing may have an effect on oral health and dental condition, leading to an increased rate of tooth loss, oral fillings, and development of dental caries.
PMCID: PMC5713060
Rhinitis Allergic; dental caries; dental filling; mouth breathing
5.  Congenital Vomer Agenesis: Report of Two Cases  
Introduction:
Congenital vomer agenesis is an extremely rare condition in which the vomer bone does not fully develop, which can lead to septal perforation.
Case Report:
We report two cases with a defect in the vomer bone in the posteroinferior portion of the septum, found accidentally while performing a pre-operative CT scan for nasal obstruction evaluation. They were diagnosed with congenital vomer agenesis.
Conclusion:
There are afew reports of vomer agenesis in literatures. By increasing usage of sinonasal endoscopic examination,we expect to address more cases in the future.
PMCID: PMC5448033
Congenital; Endoscopic examination; Nasal septum; Vomer agenesis
6.  Subcutaneous Emphysema, Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax in a Patient with Dermatomyositis 
Introduction:
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema are rare, but serious complications of inflammatory myopathies and occur more commonly in DM than PM. complications of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM), both of which can be fatal.
Case Report:
A 20-year-old woman was admitted with neck pain, dyspnea, cough, and fever. She had been diagnosed with dermatomyositis 21 months prior. A thorax computed tomography (CT) scan revealed ground glass opacities in her lungs, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema. Despite intensive immunosuppressive therapy, clinical deterioration and radiological progression were observed, ultimately the patient died.
Conclusion:
During the care for a patient with dermatomyositis, the otorhinolaryngologist should be cautious of rapidly progressive and fatal neck subcutaneous emphysema. For a patient with dermatomyositis and with normal bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy, the main treatment is control of dermatomyositis with medical therapy. Therefore, a tracheostomy and/or mechanical ventilation may not be necessary.
PMCID: PMC5380398
Dermatomyositis; Pneumomediastinum; Pneumothorax; Polymyositis; Subcutaneous emphysema
7.  Opium Addiction and Risk of Laryngeal and Esophageal Carcinoma 
Introduction:
Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have a well-known effect on the development of upper aerodigestive tract carcinomas, but such a role for opium is questionable. This study was designed to assess the correlation between opium inhalation and cancer of the larynx and upper esophagus.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty eight patients with laryngeal cancer, ninety eight patients with upper esophageal cancer and twenty seven healthy individuals with no evidence of head and neck or esophageal malignancies were selected from Otolaryngology and Radiation Oncology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Duration and amount of cigarette smoking and opium consumption were recorded through comprehensive interviews.
Results:
The crude odds ratio for laryngeal cancer was 5.58 (95% CI 2.05-15.15, P=0.000) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 9.09 (95% CI 3.21-25.64, P=0.000) in opium users relative to non-users. The crude odds ratio for esophageal cancer was 0.44 (95% CI 0.18-1.09, P=0.07) in cigarette smokers relative to non-smokers and 1.44 (95% CI 0.57-3.62, P=0.43) in opium users relative to non-users. After adjusting for smoking, the odds ratio for laryngeal cancer in opium users relative to non-users was 6.06 (95% CI 1.10-33.23, P=0.05). Laryngeal cancer was detected at a significantly lower age in opium users (54.54±10.93 vs 62.92±10.10 years, P=0.02) than in smokers. This effect was not observed in esophageal cancer. Although the duration (year 17.50±14.84 vs 21.91±14.03; P=0.34) and amount (pack/day 0.625 vs 0.978; P=0.06) of smoking were higher among those who were opium dependent, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.34 and P=0.06, respectively).
Conclusion:
Opium addiction by snuffing is an independent risk factor for the development laryngeal cancer but not esophageal cancer. Cigarette smoking increases this risk. Opium dependency increases the likelihood of developing laryngeal cancer at a younger age.
PMCID: PMC5307300
Esophageal carcinoma; Laryngeal carcinoma; Opium; Risk factors
8.  The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland 
Introduction:
Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated.
Results:
Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively.
Conclusion:
US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC5045700  PMID: 27738606
Benign tumor; Malignant tumor; Parotid; Ultrasonography
9.  Asthma in Rhinosinusitis: A Survey from Iran 
Introduction:
The coexistence of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is more common than expected given their individual prevalence in the general population and may affect patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This study was performed in two university hospital from November 2012 for 12 months. In total, 153 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled and referred to a particular pulmonologist for asthma evaluation.
Results:
The mean age of participants was 40.54±13.11 years, and 41.8% were male. In total, 63.4% of patients had the polypoid form of CRS. The proportion of patients in this study with asthma was 41.8%, compared with a general asthma prevalence in this region of 13.5%.
Conclusion:
There is a high prevalence of asthma among patients with CRS, but it often remains undiagnosed. Asthma in CRS patients should be diagnosed and treated in order to improve patient’s quality of life. We recommend an evaluation of the lower airways in all of these patients as well as further studies in this field.
PMCID: PMC4994987  PMID: 27602339
Asthma; Sinusitis; Spirometry
10.  Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Atherosclerosis? 
Introduction:
Sudden sensorineural hearing-loss (SSNHL) patients constitute approximately 2–3% of referrals to ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. Several predisposing factors have been proposed for this condition; one of which is vascular disorders and perfusion compromise. In this research the atherosclerotic changes and their known risk factors are studied in SSNHL patients.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty SSNHL patients and 30 controls were evaluated with regard to cardiovascular risks including history, heart examination, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, electrocardiogram, blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP); also, carotid artery color Doppler study was undertaken to measure intima media thickness(IMT).
Results:
IMT and HSCRP showed an increased risk in the case group compared with the controls (P= 0.005 & P=0.001). However, waist circumference, history of smoking, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and electrocardiogram revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Interestingly, blood pressure and body mass index were higher in the controls in this study.
Conclusion:
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC4930841  PMID: 27429947
Atherosclerosis; risk factors; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Doppler C-reactive protein; Ultrasonography; Sudden sensorineural hearing loss
11.  Distance between Anterior Commissure and the First Tracheal Ring: An Important New Clinical Laryngotracheal Measurement  
Introduction:
The distance between the anterior commissure of the larynx and the first tracheal ring (AC.T. distance) is of great importance in laryngotracheal surgeries. The amount of narrowing of the subglottic airway is used as a quantitative mean to determine whether the lesion is subglottic or has extended to the trachea and therefore helps in the prediction of the final prognosis.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the larynx was exposed by direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. The case was considered to be difficult because the exposure did not optimally reveal the anterior commissure, therefore a cricoid tape or anterior commissure laryngoscope was used. A zero degree Hopkins lens was used to view the anterior commissure and the first tracheal ring. Special markers were used to mark the two points with the distance between those being considered as the AC.T. distance. The relationship between AC.T. distance and the patient's age, sex, BMI, and laryngeal exposure condition during laryngoscopy was also studied.
Results:
Eighty-two patients participated in this study. The mean AC.T. distance was measured and was found to be 32.67±3.34 mm in males and 29.80± 3.00 mm in females. This difference was statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between BMI, age, laryngeal exposure condition, and the AC.T. distance.
Conclusion:
The AC.T. distance was measured to be around 3 cm; with males measuring greater than females. However, future studies may lead to a more accurate practical scale for laryngotracheal surgeries due to possible technical or human errors, in addition to racial differences.
PMCID: PMC4461842  PMID: 26082900
Airway stenosis; Anterior commissure; BMI; Subglottic; Trachea; Vocal cord
12.  An Unusual Cause of Dysphonia with Hemoptysis: A Laryngeal Live Leech  
Introduction:
Foreign bodies in the upper airway are one of the most challenging otolaryngology emergencies and have various presentations depending on their physical properties and location. Leeches are blood-sucking hermaphroditic worms that vary in color, length, and shape. They usually reside in fresh-water streams and lakes. When rural untreated water is drunk, leeches may localize in the nose, pharynx, and esophagus, or rarely in the larynx.
Case Report:
This case is a man who was referred to our otolaryngology clinic with a complaint of hemoptysis and mild respiratory distress. The patient’s symptoms were all relieved post operatively and he was discharged on the second day following the procedure.
Conclusion:
Leeches should be suspected as an airway foreign body in patients with a recent history of drinking stream water.
PMCID: PMC4087858  PMID: 25009809
Dysphonia; Hemoptysis; Leech
13.  HIV: An Epidemiologic study on Head and Neck Involvement in 50 Patients 
Introduction:
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide infection. Because of the vast array of manifestations of AIDS and its many atypical presentations, it is becoming increasingly challenging for clinicians to accurately diagnose new lesions.
Materials and Methods:
In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 2007 to 2010, 50 patients with a proven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated. Based on the findings of a physical examination and paraclinic tests, HIV signs and symptoms were recorded.
Results:
The mean (range) age of the patients was 35.45 ±5.24 (5–55) years. Forty-two (84%) cases were male and eight were female. The mean duration of carrying the virus was 4.51 ±1.03 years. Oral manifestations were the most common (94%), followed by rhinologic (88%), otologic (66%), and finally neck (44%) manifestations.
Conclusion:
Head and neck presentations are very common in HIV patients; therefore otolaryngologists, as the first physicians who may encounter such patients, should be aware of this condition.
PMCID: PMC3989874  PMID: 24744998
AIDS; HIV; Head; Neck; Otologic; Oral; Rhinologic
14.  Urinary Melatonin Levels and Skin Malignancy 
Melatonin inhibits tumor genesis in a variety of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of neoplasia. In industrialized societies, light at night, by suppressing melatonin production, poses a new risk for the development of a variety of cancers such as breast cancer. This effect on skin has been previously studied only in animals and not in humans. Our goal was to examine the relationship between 24-hour 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and skin cancer in a case-control study of 70 patients with skin cancer and 70 healthy individuals. The level of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was measured in 24-hour urine by the ELISA method. In the case group, 55 (78%) patients had basal cell carcinoma and 15 (22%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The mean level of 24-hour urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin was significantly higher in the control group (P<0.001). Also, sleep duration had a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). It seems that a low level of 24-hour urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin renders human beings prone to skin cancer. This association, however, requires further investigation.
PMCID: PMC3895897  PMID: 24453396
Melatonin; Skin neoplasm; Basal cell carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma
15.  Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal and Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis Following Rhinoplasty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  
Introduction:
Injury to cranial nerves IX, X, and XII is a known complication of laryngoscopy and intubation. Here we present a patient with concurrent hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after rhinoplasty.
Case Report:
The patient was a 27-year-old woman who was candidate for rhinoplastic surgery. The next morning after the operation, the patient complained of dysphonia and a sore throat .7 days after the operation she was still complaining of dysphonia. She underwent a direct laryngoscopy, and right TVC paralysis was observed. Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis was also detected during physical cranial nerve function tests. Hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve function was completely recovered after 5 and 7 months, respectively, and no complication was remained.
Conclusion:
Accurate and atraumatic intubation and extubation, true positioning of the head and neck, delicate and gentle packing of the oropharynx, and maintenance of mean blood pressure at a safe level are appropriate methods to prevent this complication during anesthesia and surgical procedures.
PMCID: PMC3915070  PMID: 24505575
Hypoglossal Nerve; Paralysis; Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve; Rhinoplasty
16.  An Effective Technique for Endoscopic Resection of Advanced Stage Angiofibroma 
Introduction:
In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection.
Materials and Methods:
In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor.
Results:
According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases) at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days.
Conclusion:
Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages.
PMCID: PMC3915066  PMID: 24505571
Angiofibroma; Complication; Endoscopy; Nasal; Novel technique; Outcome; Recurrence; Tampon; Technique
17.  The Effect of Local Injection of Epinephrine and Bupivacaine on Post-Tonsillectomy Pain and Bleeding 
Introduction:
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgeries in the world and the most common problem is post-tonsillectomy pain and bleeding. The relief of postoperative pain helps increase early food intake and prevent secondary dehydration. One method for relieving pain is peritonsillar injection of epinephrine along with an anesthetic, which has been shown to produce variable results in previous studies. Study Deign: Prospective case-control study. Setting: A tertiary referral centers with accredited otorhinolaryngology-head & neck surgery and anesthesiology department.
Materials and Methods:
Patients under 15 years old, who were tonsillectomy candidates, were assigned into one of three groups: placebo injection, drug injection before tonsillectomy, and drug injection after tonsillectomy. The amount of bleeding, intensity of pain, and time of first post-operative food intake were evaluated during the first 18 hours post operation.
Results:
The intensity of pain in the first 30 minutes after the operation was lower in the patients who received injections, but the difference was not significant during the first 18 hours. The intensity of pain on swallowing during the first 6 hours was also lower in the intervention groups as compared with the placebo group. The amount of bleeding during the first 30 minutes post operation was lower in the two groups who received injections, but after 30 minutes there was no difference.
Conclusion:
Injection of epinephrine and bupivacaine pre- or post- tonsillectomy is effective in reducing pain and bleeding. The treatment also decreases swallowing pain in the hours immediately after surgery.
PMCID: PMC3846251  PMID: 24303442
Bleeding; Bupivacaine; Epinephrine; Post-tonsillectomy pain; Post-tonsillectomy; Tonsillectomy
18.  Periorbital Ecchymosis and Subconjunctival Hemorrhage following Ear Surgery 
ISRN Otolaryngology  2013;2013:791068.
Objective. To evaluate the occurrence of two periorbital complications of surgery for Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) and discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective review of the CSOM surgeries performed between Oct, 2005, and Jan, 2011, in our hospital. The early postoperative conditions of the patients were scrutinized to identify periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Results. Eight cases out of 756 patients were noted to have periorbital ecchymosis, and two of the patients also had simultaneous subconjunctival hemorrhage. All cases in which the complications occurred had undergone tympanoplasty, and in three patients mastoidectomy had also been performed. The age of the affected patients ranged from 24 to 70 years old. In all of them the condition ensued the day after the surgery and became better within 5 to 10 days. Complete recovery took approximately 1 month. Conclusion. Periorbital ecchymosis and subconjunctival hemorrhage are rare but safe complications of ear surgeries. The conditions are self-limiting and no management is necessary.
doi:10.1155/2013/791068
PMCID: PMC3806237  PMID: 24198972
19.  INF-α and Ototoxicity 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:295327.
Introduction. INF-α is a common drug for the treatment of hepatitis B and C. Although a variety of related complications are discussed, possible ototoxic effects of this mediation are not well described. Methods and Materials. In a before-after control study, 24 patients who received INF-α for the treatment of hepatitis B and C and 30 normal controls were included. Subjective and objective ototoxicity evaluations via questionnaire, high frequency audiometry, and measuring transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were performed one week before and one month after the prescription of the drug. Results. Subjective hearing complaint, tinnitus, and vertigo were seen in just 3 cases, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.083). In the frequency range of 4000 to 8000 Hz before (9.38 ± 1.0 and 10.7 ± 1.2, resp.) and after (17.9 ± 2.6 and 17.6 ± 2.6, resp.) one month of treatment, a significant difference (P = 0.083) was detected. Progressive decreases in amplitude of the OAE during TEOAE measurement in 1, 2, and 4 frequencies among 41.66%, 18.75 %, and 43.75% were observed, respectively. The hearing loss was seen more among older and male cases significantly. Conclusion. The results showed ototoxicity of INF-α that may encourage planning hearing monitoring in patients receiving this drug.
doi:10.1155/2013/295327
PMCID: PMC3741946  PMID: 23984336
20.  Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse 
Introduction:
Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation.
Case Report:
This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine.
Conclusions:
Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.
PMCID: PMC3846244  PMID: 24303420
Drug abuse; Methamphetamine; Septal perforation
21.  Hair Color and Hearing Loss: A Survey in a Group of Military Men 
Introduction:
It has been shown that low levels of pigmentation increase susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in humans. For this reason, white populations develop more pronounced noise- induced hearing loss in comparison to black populations. Similarly, blue-eyed individuals exhibit greater temporary threshold shift than brown-eyed subjects; still, no strong correlation has been verified between the lightness of hair color and susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss. This study was performed with the purpose of investigating a possible association between hair color and the degree of hearing loss due to firing noise. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: A tertiary referral center with an accredited otorhinolaryngology-head & neck surgery department.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 57 military recruits were divided into two groups; light-colored (blond and light brown) and dark-colored hair (dark brown and black). The two groups were matched based on history of firing noise exposure (number of rounds; type of weapon) and the level of hearing loss at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz sound frequencies was compared between them.
Results:
The results showed that the mean level of hearing loss of light-colored hair individuals (20.5±17dB) was significantly greater than that of dark-haired subjects (13.5±11dB), (P=0.023).
Conclusion:
The results indicate that hair color (blond versus black) can be used as an index for predicting susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in military environments. Therefore, based on the individual's hair color, upgraded hearing conservation programs are highly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3846198  PMID: 24303403
Hair color; Hearing loss; Noise-induced; Pigmentation; Disease Susceptibility

Results 1-21 (21)