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1.  The Relationship Between Alcohol Use, Eating Habits and Weight Change in College Freshmen 
Eating behaviors  2008;9(4):504-508.
This study aims to improve understanding of how alcohol consumption in college freshmen affects eating patterns before, during, and after drinking, as well as its relation to body weight change.
282 college freshmen (61% female; 59% Caucasian) completed measures of alcohol use, measured body mass index (BMI), and eating and activity habits before, during and following drinking episodes. Students were categorized by drinking status (non-drinker, low-risk, and moderate/high-risk) in order to explore group differences.
75% of the sample reported past-month alcohol consumption, with 65% (N=134) of these categorized as “low-risk” drinkers and 35% (N=72) as “moderate-risk” drinkers. Moderate-risk drinkers were more likely than low-risk drinkers to report increases in appetite after drinking, with nearly half of students reporting overeating and making unhealthy food choices following drinking. Moderate-risk drinkers also demonstrated significant increases in 1st semester BMI change, relative to non-drinkers and low-risk drinkers.
Eating patterns for a significant number of college students are altered before, during, and following drinking episodes, which related to change in freshman year BMI. Keywords: eating habits; binge drinking; alcohol consumption; college freshman
PMCID: PMC2588136  PMID: 18928916
2.  Bupropion efficacy for smoking cessation is influenced by the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism: Analysis of pooled data from two clinical trials 
We analyzed pooled data from two comparable randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of bupropion pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation for which data on DRD2 Taq1A genotype were available. A total of 722 smokers across the two trials were randomized to 10 weeks of sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride or placebo. General estimating equation analysis demonstrated a significant gene × drug interaction (B=0.87, SE=0.34, p=.009). Smokers with the A2/A2 genotype using bupropion were more than three times as likely, relative to placebo, to be abstinent at end of treatment (35.2% vs. 15.1%; OR=3.25, 95% CI 2.00–5.28) and at 6 months of follow-up (26.7% vs. 12.2%; OR=2.81, 95% CI 1.66–4.77), which was attenuated by 12 months (16.3% vs. 10.7%; OR=1.70, 95% CI 0.95–3.05). We found no significant benefit of bupropion relative to placebo on smoking cessation outcomes at any time point in participants with A1/A1 or A1/A2 genotypes. These data suggest that bupropion may be effective for smoking cessation only in a subgroup of smokers with the DRD2 Taq1 A2/A2 genotype.
PMCID: PMC2128730  PMID: 18058343
3.  Two-Year Follow-up of an Adolescent Behavioral Weight Control Intervention 
Pediatrics  2012;130(2):e281-e288.
This study examined the 24-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of a group-based behavioral weight control (BWC) program combined with either activity-based peer intervention or aerobic exercise.
At baseline, 118 obese adolescents (68% female; BMI = 31.41 ± 3.33) ages 13 to 16 years (mean = 14.33; SD = 1.02) were randomized to receive 1 of 2 weight loss interventions. Both interventions received the same 16-week group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment, combined with either aerobic exercise or peer-based adventure therapy. Eighty-nine adolescents (75% of original sample) completed the 24-month follow-up. Anthropometric and psychosocial measures were obtained at baseline, at the end of the 16-week intervention, and at 12 and 24 months following randomization.
An intent-to-treat mixed factor analysis of variance indicated a significant effect for time on both percent over 50th percentile BMI for age and gender and standardized BMI score, with no differences by intervention group. Post hoc comparisons showed a significant decrease in percent overweight at 4 months (end of treatment), which was maintained at both 12- and 24-month follow-up visits. Significant improvements on several dimensions of self-concept were noted, with significant effects on physical appearance self-concept that were maintained through 24 months.
Both BWC conditions were effective at maintaining reductions in adolescent obesity and improvements in physical appearance self-concept through 24-month follow-up. This study is one of the first to document long-term outcomes of BWC intervention among adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3408687  PMID: 22753560
adolescents; overweight; weight management; behavioral weight control
4.  Motivation and Patch Treatment for HIV+ Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Trial 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2009;104(11):1891-1900.
To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in an HIV+ sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally-enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT.
randomized controlled trial.
HIV+ smoker referrals from eight Immunology clinics in the Northeastern US.
444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age=42 years; 63% male; 52% European-American; mean cigarettes/day=22.8).
SC received two brief sessions with a Health Educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals.
Biochemically-verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-ups.
Intent-to-Treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9%, and 9% respectively in the ME condition, and 13%, 10%, and 10% respectively in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were positively associated with low nicotine dependence (p=0.02), high motivation to quit (p=0.04), and Hispanic-American race/ethnicity (p=0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (OR=1.32, 95% CI= 0.99–1.75).
Motivationally-enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients quit smoking.
PMCID: PMC2763031  PMID: 19719796
HIV; tobacco cessation; nicotine replacement; Transtheoretical Model
5.  A Prospective Study of Weight Gain During the College Freshman and Sophomore Years 
Preventive medicine  2008;48(3):256-261.
To assess the prevalence of weight gain among male and female college freshmen.
Study 1 examined weight change over freshman and sophomore years among 904 students attending a state university in Indiana, from 2002–2004. Study 2 examined weight and BMI change over the freshman year among 382 students attending a private university in Rhode Island, from 2004–2006.
77% of Study 1 participants and 70% of Study 2 participants gained weight during their freshman year, largely during the first semester. In Study 1, weight gain averaged 3.5 kg in females and males; in Study 2, weight gain averaged 1.6 kg for females and 2.5 kg for males. Students continued to gain weight their sophomore year, with females 4.2 kg and males 4.3 kg heavier than at start of college. Overweight/obesity rates increased from baseline to end of freshman year for Study 1 (21.6% to 36%) and Study 2 participants (14.7% to 17.8%).
The first years of college may be a critical developmental window for establishing weight gain prevention efforts.
PMCID: PMC2696183  PMID: 19146870
weight gain; young adults; college health; college weight gain
6.  Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents 
Psychological medicine  2007;37(8):1183-1192.
Few studies have investigated non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), or the deliberate, direct destruction of body tissue without conscious suicidal intent, and the motivations for engaging in NSSI among adolescents. This study assessed the prevalence, associated clinical characteristics, and functions of NSSI in a community sample of adolescents.
A total of 633 adolescents completed anonymous surveys. NSSI was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM).
Some form of NSSI was endorsed by 46·5% (n=293) of the adolescents within the past year, most frequently biting self, cutting/carving skin, hitting self on purpose, and burning skin. Sixty per cent of these, or 28% of the overall sample, endorsed moderate/severe forms of NSSI. Self-injurers reported an average of 12.9 (s.d.=29·4) incidents in the past 12 months, with an average of 2.4 (s.d.=1·7) types of NSSI used. Moderate/severe self-injurers were more likely than minor self-injurers, who in turn were more likely than non-injurers, to have a history of psychiatric treatment, hospitalization and suicide attempt, as well as current suicide ideation. A four-factor model of NSSI functions was indicated, with self-injurers likely to endorse both reasons of automatic reinforcement and social reinforcement. The most common reasons for NSSI were ‘to try to get a reaction from someone’, ‘to get control of a situation’, and ‘to stop bad feelings’.
Community adolescents reported high rates of NSSI, engaged in to influence behaviors of others and to manage internal emotions. Intervention efforts should be tailored to reducing individual issues that contribute to NSSI and building alternative skills for positive coping, communication, stress management, and strong social support.
PMCID: PMC2538378  PMID: 17349105
7.  HIV-positive Smokers Considering Quitting: Differences by Race/Ethnicity 
To better characterize smoking in HIV-positive individuals and to identify critical components of a targeted smoking cessation intervention for multiethnic HIV-positive smokers.
Differences in baseline characteristics of 444 HIV-positive smokers were examined by race, and a multivariate linear regression model evaluated factors associated with nicotine dependence in an HIV-positive population, with a particular emphasis on race/ethnic differences.
Low smoking self-efficacy and higher contemplation of quitting were predictive of greater nicotine dependence. An interaction between age and race was noted, with older Hispanic Americans less likely to be nicotine dependent.
Efforts should be made to tailor smoking cessation intervention content to HIV-positive racial/ethnic minority groups.
PMCID: PMC2538375  PMID: 18021029
nicotine dependence predictors; HIV; smoking
8.  Bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression in smoking cessation 
This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the effects of an intensive cognitive–behavioral mood management treatment (CBTD) and of bupropion, both singularly and in combination, on smoking cessation in adult smokers. As an extension of our previous work, we planned to examine the synergistic effects of CBTD and bupropion on smoking cessation outcomes in general and among smokers with depression vulnerability factors. Participants were 524 smokers (47.5% female, Mage=44.27 years) who were randomized to one of four 12-week treatments: (a) standard, cognitive–behavioral smoking cessation treatment (ST) plus bupropion (BUP), (b) ST plus placebo (PLAC), (c) standard cessation treatment combined with cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression (CBTD) plus BUP, and (d) CBTD plus PLAC. Follow-up assessments were conducted 2, 6, and 12 months after treatment, and self-reported abstinence was verified biochemically. Consistent with previous studies, bupropion, in comparison with placebo, resulted in better smoking outcomes in both intensive group treatments. Adding CBTD to standard intensive group treatment did not result in improved smoking cessation outcomes. In addition, neither CBTD nor bupropion, either alone or in combination, was differentially effective for smokers with single-past-episode major depressive disorder (MDD), recurrent MDD, or elevated depressive symptoms. However, findings with regard to recurrent MDD and elevated depressive symptoms should be interpreted with caution given the low rate of recurrent MDD and the low level of depressive symptoms in our sample. An a priori test of treatment effects in smokers with these depression vulnerability factors is warranted in future clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC2213513  PMID: 17577801
9.  Pharmacogenetic clinical trial of sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation 
This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial examined genetic influences on treatment response to sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation. Smokers of European ancestry (N=291), who were randomized to receive bupropion or placebo (12 weeks) plus counseling, were genotyped for the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2-Taq1A), dopamine transporter (SLC6A3 3′ VNTR), and cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6 1459 C→T) polymorphisms. Main outcome measures were cotinine-verified point prevalence of abstinence at end of treatment and at 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups post quit date. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that bupropion, compared with placebo, was associated with significantly greater odds of abstinence at all time points (all p values<.01). We found a significant DRD2 × bupropion interaction (B=1.49, SE=0.59, p=.012) and a three-way DRD2 × bupropion × craving interaction on 6-month smoking cessation outcomes (B=−0.45, SE=0.22, p=.038), such that smokers with the A2/A2 genotype demonstrated the greatest craving reduction and the highest abstinence rates with bupropion. Furthermore, there was a significant DRD2 × CYP2B6 interaction (B=1.43, SE=0.56, p=.01), such that individuals with the DRD2-Taq1 A2/A2 genotype demonstrated a higher odds of abstinence only if they possessed the CYP2B6 1459 T/T or C/T genotype. Because the sample size of this study was modest for pharmacogenetic investigations, the results should be interpreted with caution. Although these results require replication, the data suggest preliminarily that the DRD2-Taq1A polymorphism may influence treatment response to bupropion for smoking cessation and, further, that exploration of gene × gene and gene × craving interactions in future, larger studies may provide mechanistic insights into the complex pharmacodynamics of bupropion.
PMCID: PMC2039873  PMID: 17654295
10.  Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation Moderates the Efficacy of Bupropion for Smoking Cessation 
The pharmacogenomics journal  2010;12(1):86-92.
Smokers (≥10 cig/day; N =331) of European ancestry taking part in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of 12 weeks of treatment with bupropion plus counseling for smoking cessation were genotyped for a VNTR polymorphism in Exon-III of the Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene. Generalized estimating equations predicting point-prevalence abstinence at end of treatment and 2, 6, and 12-months post-end of treatment indicated that bupropion (vs. placebo) predicted increased odds of abstinence. The main effect of Genotype was not significant. A Genotype × Treatment interaction (p=.005) showed that bupropion predicted increased odds of abstinence in long-allele carriers (OR=1.31, p<.0001), whereas bupropion was not associated with abstinence among short-allele homozygotes (OR=1.06, p=.23). The Genotype × Treatment interaction remained when controlling for demographic and clinical covariates (p=.01) and in analyses predicting continuous abstinence (ps≤.054). Bupropion may be more efficacious for smokers who carry the long-allele, which is relevant to personalized pharmacogenetic treatment approaches.
PMCID: PMC2981689  PMID: 20661272
DRD4; VNTR; smoking cessation; bupropion; pharmacogenetic
11.  Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control 
Pediatrics  2009;123(2):e274-e281.
Adolescence is an important period of risk for the development of lifelong smoking behaviors. Compelling, although inconsistent, evidence suggests a relation between parental smoking and the risk of smoking initiation during adolescence. This study investigates unresolved issues concerning the strength and nature of the association between parent smoking and offspring smoking initiation.
We enrolled 564 adolescents aged 12-17, along with one of their parents, into the New England Family Study between 2001-2004. Lifetime smoking histories were obtained from parents and their adolescent offspring. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the influence of parental smoking histories on the risk of adolescent smoking initiation.
Parental smoking was associated with a significantly higher risk of smoking initiation in adolescent offspring (odds ratio=2.81, 95% CI=1.78, 4.41). In addition, the likelihood of offspring smoking initiation increased with the number of smoking parents and the duration of exposure to parental smoking, suggesting a dose-response relation between parental smoking and offspring smoking. Offspring of parents who had quit smoking were no more likely to smoke than offspring of parents who had never smoked. The effects of parental smoking on offspring initiation differed by sex (with a stronger effect of father's smoking on boys than girls), developmental period (with a stronger effect of parental smoking before the adolescent was age 13 than afterwards), and residence of parents (with effects of father's smoking being dependent on living in the same household as the adolescent). Parental smoking was also associated with stronger negative reactions to adolescents' first cigarette, a potential marker of the risk of progression to higher levels of use.
Parental smoking is an important source of vulnerability to smoking initiation among adolescents, and parental smoking cessation might attenuate this vulnerability.
PMCID: PMC2632764  PMID: 19171580
Smoking; adolescents; parent-offspring transmission
12.  Outcomes of a Tailored Intervention for Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Latinos Living With HIV/AIDS 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2015;17(8):975-982.
Tobacco use has emerged as a leading killer among persons living with HIV, with effective approaches to tobacco treatment still unknown. HIV infection is nearly 3 times as prevalent in Latinos than in non-Latino Whites. This study reports the results of a randomized trial comparing a tailored intervention to brief counseling for smoking cessation among Latino smokers living with HIV (LSLWH).
LSLWH (N = 302; 36% female, 10% employed full-time, 49% born in United States) were randomized to 4 in-person sessions of a tailored intervention (Aurora) or 2 in-person sessions of brief advice (enhanced standard care [ESC]). Both groups received 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch. Biochemically validated 6- and 12-month 7-day point-prevalence abstinence (PPA) rates were compared, along with secondary outcomes (e.g., reduction to light smoking, NRT adherence).
Seven-day PPA rates reached 8% versus 11% at 6 months and 6% versus 7% at 12 months, for Aurora and ESC, respectively, with no between-group differences (p values > .40). Significant changes from baseline to 6 and 12 months among intervention targets were noted (percentage reduction in heavy smoking and dependence; increases in knowledge and self-efficacy). Baseline smoking frequency, older age, and higher intensity of patch use during the trial emerged as significant predictors of abstinence at 6 months.
There was no evidence that the tailored intervention improved cessation rates. Interventions that encourage use of, and adherence to, empirically validated cessation aids require further development to reduce tobacco-related death and disease in this vulnerable population.
PMCID: PMC4580545  PMID: 26180222
13.  Research with adolescents who engage in non-suicidal self-injury: ethical considerations and challenges 
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has emerged as a significant psychiatric issue among youth. In addition to its high prevalence rates, NSSI is associated with a number of psychiatric issues and confers risk for varying degrees of physical injury. It is also a risk factor for attempted suicide. Thus, youth who engage in NSSI represent a vulnerable and high-risk population and researchers are likely to encounter a variety of ethical challenges when conducting NSSI research. Accordingly, it is critical that researchers be familiar with the major ethical issues involved in NSSI research and how to effectively account for and address them. This is important both prior to obtaining clearance from their Institutional Review Boards and when carrying out their research. To date, there is no consolidated resource to delineate the ethical challenges inherent to NSSI research and how these can be effectively navigated throughout the research process. The goals of this paper are to review international best practices in NSSI research across the various contexts within which it is studied, to offer guidelines for managing these issues, to identify areas in which variation in approaches prohibits decisive recommendations, and to generate questions in need of further consideration among scholars in this field.
PMCID: PMC4584461  PMID: 26417391
Ethics; Non-suicidal self-injury; Self-harm; Adolescence; Imminent risk; Risk assessment; Research
14.  Longitudinal Associations Among Change in Overweight Status, Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Weight-Related Teasing Among Obese Adolescents 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2014;39(7):697-707.
Objective To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between changes in adolescents’ weight status and psychosocial constructs. Method 118 obese adolescents aged 13–16 years participated in a behavioral weight control intervention. Percent overweight (OW), fear of negative evaluation (FNE), and frequency of weight-related teasing (WRT) were collected at baseline, end of intervention, and 12 and 24 months post-randomization. 3 multivariate latent change score models were estimated to examine longitudinal cross-lagged associations between: (1) OW and FNE; (2) OW and WRT; and (3) FNE and WRT. Results Decreases in OW were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in both FNE and WRT; however, changes in FNE and WRT were not prospectively associated with subsequent change in OW. Decreases in FNE were prospectively associated with subsequent decreases in WRT. Conclusion Moderate weight loss in the context of a behavioral weight control intervention has positive long-term implications for obese adolescents’ peer relations.
PMCID: PMC4107576  PMID: 24893862
adolescents; fear of negative evaluation; obesity; weight management; weight-related teasing
15.  Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms Among Overweight Adolescents 
Psychology in the schools  2009;46(8):776-786.
This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 indicate a significant reduction in binge eating symptoms following participation in a 16-week weight control intervention, F(1,60) = 9.43, p<.01 and F(1,98) = 20.98, p<.01, respectively. Several significant relationships between measures of self-concept and binge eating symptoms were noted, with lower self-concept scores related to higher binge eating symptoms scores at baseline. Changes in binge eating symptoms were also related to changes in physical appearance self-concept, global self-concept and physical self-worth at the end of the intervention. In conclusion, findings from this study support an emerging body of evidence suggesting that dietary restriction, as practiced through participation in a weight control intervention, leads to a reduction in binge eating symptoms among overweight adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3799807  PMID: 24146437
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS and poses unique health risks. Smoking cessation programs tailored to this population have documented improved smoking outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The current study examined 6-month abstinence rates from a randomized clinical trial targeting 412 HIV-positive adult current smokers (51% European American, 19% African American, and 17% Hispanic American) and tested whether psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, mediated the relationship between NRT and long-term abstinence. Meeting criteria for complete mediation, 6-month smoking abstinence rates improved significantly with increases in these mediators, and the association of NRT and smoking abstinence was no longer significant once changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance were taken into account. Failure to translate gains in self-efficacy among African Americans into improved abstinence rates accounted for racial/ ethnic differences among participants. Specific psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, may be particularly amenable to change in cessation interventions and should be addressed with greater awareness of how cultural and social contextual factors impact treatment response among people living with HIV/AIDS.
PMCID: PMC3566232  PMID: 19537955
17.  How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking? 
Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers’ smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers’ smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.
PMCID: PMC3514408  PMID: 23226718
adolescent health; parent-child relationships; social environment; adolescence risk-taking avoidance education
18.  Consistency of self-reported smoking over a 6-year interval from adolescence to young adulthood 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2007;102(11):1831-1839.
To examine the reliability of self-report cigarette smoking questions by describing recanting (denial of previous smoking reports) in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents followed throughout young adulthood. Predictors of recanting across stages of smoking uptake/progression are examined.
A total of 12 985 respondents to cigarette smoking questions during in-home interviews at waves I and III (6 years apart) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample survey procedures of Stata 9.0 were used to produce nationally representative estimates, with standard errors adjusted for both clustering at the school level and stratification by geographical region.
Recanting probabilities determined by reports of stages of smoking uptake/progression at each time-point were predicted by race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, poverty level, depression and peer daily smoking.
Stage-specific results indicated that recanting is higher when the earlier smoking was less frequent/intense. Recanters were older, from lower-income households and had higher baseline depression levels. Non-Hispanic black youth were significantly more likely to recant previous smoking compared to non-Hispanic white youth, even in multivariate models controlling for socio-demographic variables. Predictors of recanting differed by level of tobacco involvement. The greater likelihood of non-Hispanic black respondents to deny previous smoking may be a reflection of less intense or more intermittent use of tobacco that leads to recall differences over time.
Racial/ethnic subgroups and/or respondents endorsing depressive symptoms may be more vulnerable to misclassification during interpretation of national survey data and subsequently not identified properly for prevention/intervention programs.
PMCID: PMC3500030  PMID: 17784897
Adolescents; African Americans; depression; ethnic groups; longitudinal studies; recanting; reproducibility of results; socioeconomic factors; smoking; young adults
19.  Associations between Parent Behavior and Adolescent Weight Control* 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2010;36(4):451-460.
Objective To evaluate associations between parent behaviors (i.e., parent weight change, self-monitoring of their behavior, and feeding practices and attitudes) and changes in adolescent BMI and weight following 16-weeks of behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention. Method Adolescents (N = 86) 13–16 years old and 30–90% overweight (M = 60.54%, SD = 15.10%) who completed BWC intervention and their parents. Adolescents were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions involving 16 consecutive weeks of active treatment with 4 biweekly maintenance sessions. Adolescent weight and BMI were measured at baseline and 16-weeks. Feeding practices were measured at baseline. Parent self-monitoring was measured during the intervention. Results The only independently significant predictor of adolescent BMI change (p < .01) was parent BMI change. Greater parent self-monitoring (p < .01) predicted greater adolescent weight loss. Greater parent pressure to eat predicted less adolescent weight loss (p < .01). Conclusions Findings highlight the potential importance of parent weight-related behaviors and feeding practices in the context of adolescent BWC.
PMCID: PMC3079126  PMID: 21112925
adolescents; obesity; parents; weight management
20.  Early Patterns of Food Intake in an Adolescent Weight Loss Trial as Predictors of BMI Change 
Eating behaviors  2010;11(4):217-222.
To determine whether baseline intake or initial changes in intake of fruits (F), vegetables (V), snack foods (SF), and reduced-calorie snack foods (RCSF) during standard behavioral weight loss treatment predict BMI reductions among overweight adolescents. Given conflicting messages between child and adult weight loss interventions, the role of RCSF in adolescent weight control was of particular interest.
Seventy-two adolescents, 13-16 years old, participating in a 16-week behavioral weight loss trial with diet records at baseline and 4 weeks were included. Height and weight were measured at 0 and 16 weeks. Frequency of intake of F, V, SF, and RCSF were obtained from 7-day food records at 0 and 4 weeks.
Male gender, higher initial frequency of intake of V and increased frequency of intake of F and RCSF over the first 4 weeks of treatment accounted for 43% of the variance in BMI reduction at 16 weeks (p < .001).
Early changes in eating habits, including increased frequency of intake of F and RCSF may promote greater adolescent BMI reductions.
PMCID: PMC2943148  PMID: 20850055
Obesity; Standard Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment; Eating Habits; Fruit; Vegetables; Snack Foods
21.  Behavioral Weight Control Treatment Combined with Supervised Exercise or Peer Enhanced Adventure for Overweight Adolescents 
The Journal of pediatrics  2010;157(6):923-928.e1.
To evaluate the efficacy of behavioral weight control intervention combined with a peer-enhanced activity intervention versus structured aerobic exercise in decreasing BMI and z-BMI in overweight adolescents.
Study design
Participants were randomized to one of two group-based treatment conditions: 1) cognitive behavioral treatment combined with peer enhanced adventure therapy (CBT+PEAT) or 2) cognitive behavioral weight control treatment combined with supervised aerobic exercise (CBT+EXER). Participants included 118 overweight adolescents, ages 13 – 16 years, and a primary caregiver. Changes in body mass index (BMI), standardized BMI, percent over BMI, and waist circumference were examined.
Analysis of variance based on intent to treat (ITT) indicated significant decreases in all weight change outcomes at end of treatment, with significant decreases maintained at 12-month follow-up. No differences between treatment conditions were observed. Secondary analyses indicated that adherence with attendance and completion of weekly diet records contributed significantly to reductions in BMI.
A cognitive behavioral weight control intervention combined with supervised aerobic exercise or peer-enhanced adventure therapy is equally effective in short-term reduction of BMI and z-BMI among overweight adolescents. Adherence, as measured by session attendance and self-monitoring, is a key dimension of weight change.
PMCID: PMC2988988  PMID: 20655544
22.  Adolescent Weight Control: An Intervention Targeting Parent Communication and Modeling Compared With Minimal Parental Involvement 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2014;40(2):203-213.
Objective Adolescent weight control interventions demonstrate variable findings, with inconsistent data regarding the appropriate role for parents. The current study examined the efficacy of a standard adolescent behavioral weight control (BWC) intervention that also targeted parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling of healthy behaviors (Standard Behavioral Treatment + Enhanced Parenting; SBT + EP) compared with a standard BWC intervention (SBT). Methods 49 obese adolescents (M age = 15.10; SD = 1.33; 76% female; 67.3% non-Hispanic White) and a caregiver were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT + EP. Adolescent and caregiver weight and height, parental modeling, and weight-related communication were obtained at baseline and end of the 16-week intervention. Results Significant decreases in adolescent weight and increases in parental self-monitoring were observed across both conditions. Analyses of covariance revealed a trend for greater reduction in weight and negative maternal commentary among SBT condition participants. Conclusions Contrary to hypotheses, targeting parent–adolescent communication and parental modeling did not lead to better outcomes in adolescent weight control.
PMCID: PMC4330443  PMID: 25294840
adolescent; intervention; obesity; parents
23.  Impact of bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment for depression on positive affect, negative affect, and urges to smoke during cessation treatment 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2009;11(10):1142-1153.
Bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) for depression have been used as components of treatments designed to alleviate affective disturbance during smoking cessation. Studies of treatment-related changes in precessation affect or urges to smoke are needed to evaluate the proposed mechanisms of these treatments.
The present report examines affective trajectories and urges to smoke prior to, on quit day, and after quitting in a sample of 524 smokers randomized to receive bupropion versus placebo and CBT versus standard smoking cessation CBT.
Bupropion and/or CBT did not affect the observed decreases in positive affect and increases in negative affect prior to cessation. However, on quit day, observed levels of negative affect and urges to smoke were diminished significantly among individuals receiving bupropion. Decreases in positive affect prior to quitting, lower levels of positive affect, and increased levels of negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day were each related to higher risk of smoking lapse. Depression proneness was an independent predictor of lower positive affect and higher negative affect but did not moderate the effects of bupropion on outcomes. In mediational analyses, the effect of bupropion was accounted for in part by lower negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day.
Results support the efficacy of bupropion in reducing relapse risk associated with urges to smoke and negative affect and suggest the need to better understand the role of low positive affect as a risk factor for early lapse.
PMCID: PMC2746832  PMID: 19574407
24.  Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution 
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G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics  2015;5(5):719-740.
The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.
PMCID: PMC4426361  PMID: 25740935
codon bias; evolution of heterochromatin; gene size; melting characteristics; transposons
25.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part two 
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Stephen | Sanborn, Rachel E. | Melero, Ignacio | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Maurer, Matthew | Perna, Serena | Gutierrez, Andres A. | Clynes, Raphael | Mitra, Priyam | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Gladstone, Douglas | Callahan, Margaret K. | Crooks, James | Brown, Sheila | Gauthier, Audrey | de Boisferon, Marc Hillairet | MacDonald, Andrew | Brunet, Laura Rosa | Rothwell, William T. | Bell, Peter | Wilson, James M. | Sato-Kaneko, Fumi | Yao, Shiyin | Zhang, Shannon S. | Carson, Dennis A. | Guiducci, Cristina | Coffman, Robert L. | Kitaura, Kazutaka | Matsutani, Takaji | Suzuki, Ryuji | Hayashi, Tomoko | Cohen, Ezra E. W. | Schaer, David | Li, Yanxia | Dobkin, Julie | Amatulli, Michael | Hall, Gerald | Doman, Thompson | Manro, Jason | Dorsey, Frank Charles | Sams, Lillian | Holmgaard, Rikke | Persaud, Krishnadatt | Ludwig, Dale | Surguladze, David | Kauh, John S. | Novosiadly, Ruslan | Kalos, Michael | Driscoll, Kyla | Pandha, Hardev | Ralph, Christy | Harrington, Kevin | Curti, Brendan | Sanborn, Rachel E. | Akerley, Wallace | Gupta, Sumati | Melcher, Alan | Mansfield, David | Kaufman, David R. | Schmidt, Emmett | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Shamalov, Katerina | Cohen, Cyrille | Sharma, Naveen | Allison, James | Shekarian, Tala | Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine | Caux, Christophe | Marabelle, Aurelien | Slomovitz, Brian M. | Moore, Kathleen M. | Youssoufian, Hagop | Posner, Marshall | Tewary, Poonam | Brooks, Alan D. | Xu, Ya-Ming | Wijeratne, Kithsiri | Gunatilaka, Leslie A. A. | Sayers, Thomas J. | Vasilakos, John P. | Alston, Tesha | Dovedi, Simon | Elvecrog, James | Grigsby, Iwen | Herbst, Ronald | Johnson, Karen | Moeckly, Craig | Mullins, Stefanie | Siebenaler, Kristen | SternJohn, Julius | Tilahun, Ashenafi | Tomai, Mark A. | Vogel, Katharina | Wilkinson, Robert W. | Vietsch, Eveline E. | Wellstein, Anton | Wythes, Martin | Crosignani, Stefano | Tumang, Joseph | Alekar, Shilpa | Bingham, Patrick | Cauwenberghs, Sandra | Chaplin, Jenny | Dalvie, Deepak | Denies, Sofie | De Maeseneire, Coraline | Feng, JunLi | Frederix, Kim | Greasley, Samantha | Guo, Jie | Hardwick, James | Kaiser, Stephen | Jessen, Katti | Kindt, Erick | Letellier, Marie-Claire | Li, Wenlin | Maegley, Karen | Marillier, Reece | Miller, Nichol | Murray, Brion | Pirson, Romain | Preillon, Julie | Rabolli, Virginie | Ray, Chad | Ryan, Kevin | Scales, Stephanie | Srirangam, Jay | Solowiej, Jim | Stewart, Al | Streiner, Nicole | Torti, Vince | Tsaparikos, Konstantinos | Zheng, Xianxian | Driessens, Gregory | Gomes, Bruno | Kraus, Manfred | Xu, Chunxiao | Zhang, Yanping | Kradjian, Giorgio | Qin, Guozhong | Qi, Jin | Xu, Xiaomei | Marelli, Bo | Yu, Huakui | Guzman, Wilson | Tighe, Rober | Salazar, Rachel | Lo, Kin-Ming | English, Jessie | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Lan, Yan | Zappasodi, Roberta | Budhu, Sadna | Hellmann, Matthew D. | Postow, Michael | Senbabaoglu, Yasin | Gasmi, Billel | Zhong, Hong | Li, Yanyun | Liu, Cailian | Hirschhorhn-Cymerman, Daniel | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Zha, Yuanyuan | Malnassy, Gregory | Fulton, Noreen | Park, Jae-Hyun | Stock, Wendy | Nakamura, Yusuke | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Liu, Hongtao | Ju, Xiaoming | Kosoff, Rachelle | Ramos, Kimberly | Coder, Brandon | Petit, Robert | Princiotta, Michael | Perry, Kyle | Zou, Jun | Arina, Ainhoa | Fernandez, Christian | Zheng, Wenxin | Beckett, Michael A. | Mauceri, Helena J. | Fu, Yang-Xin | Weichselbaum, Ralph R. | DeBenedette, Mark | Lewis, Whitney | Gamble, Alicia | Nicolette, Charles | Han, Yanyan | Wu, Yeting | Yang, Chou | Huang, Jing | Wu, Dongyun | Li, Jin | Liang, Xiaoling | Zhou, Xiangjun | Hou, Jinlin | Hassan, Raffit | Jahan, Thierry | Antonia, Scott J. | Kindler, Hedy L. | Alley, Evan W. | Honarmand, Somayeh | Liu, Weiqun | Leong, Meredith L. | Whiting, Chan C. | Nair, Nitya | Enstrom, Amanda | Lemmens, Edward E. | Tsujikawa, Takahiro | Kumar, Sushil | Coussens, Lisa M. | Murphy, Aimee L. | Brockstedt, Dirk G. | Koch, Sven D. | Sebastian, Martin | Weiss, Christian | Früh, Martin | Pless, Miklos | Cathomas, Richard | Hilbe, Wolfgang | Pall, Georg | Wehler, Thomas | Alt, Jürgen | Bischoff, Helge | Geissler, Michael | Griesinger, Frank | Kollmeier, Jens | Papachristofilou, Alexandros | Doener, Fatma | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Hipp, Madeleine | Hong, Henoch S. | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Klinkhardt, Ute | Stosnach, Claudia | Scheel, Birgit | Schroeder, Andreas | Seibel, Tobias | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Zippelius, Alfred | Park, Ha-Ram | Ahn, Yong-Oon | Kim, Tae Min | Kim, Soyeon | Kim, Seulki | Lee, Yu Soo | Keam, Bhumsuk | Kim, Dong-Wan | Heo, Dae Seog | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Weber, Amy | Morse, Jennifer | Kodumudi, Krithika | Liu, Hao | Mullinax, John | Sarnaik, Amod A. | Pike, Luke | Bang, Andrew | Ott, Patrick A. | Balboni, Tracy | Taylor, Allison | Spektor, Alexander | Wilhite, Tyler | Krishnan, Monica | Cagney, Daniel | Alexander, Brian | Aizer, Ayal | Buchbinder, Elizabeth | Awad, Mark | Ghandi, Leena | Hodi, F. Stephen | Schoenfeld, Jonathan | Schwartz, Anthony L. | Nath, Pulak R. | Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth | Ridnour, Lisa | Roberts, David D. | Segal, Neil H. | Sharma, Manish | Le, Dung T. | Ott, Patrick A. | Ferris, Robert L. | Zelenetz, Andrew D. | Neelapu, Sattva S. | Levy, Ronald | Lossos, Izidore S. | Jacobson, Caron | Ramchandren, Radhakrishnan | Godwin, John | Colevas, A. Dimitrios | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Timmerman, John | Vanpouille-Box, Claire I. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Wennerberg, Erik | Mediero, Aranzazu | Cronstein, Bruce N. | Formenti, Silvia C. | Demaria, Sandra | Gustafson, Michael P. | DiCostanzo, AriCeli | Wheatley, Courtney | Kim, Chul-Ho | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Johnson, Bruce D. | Dietz, Allan B. | MacDonald, Cameron | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Turbitt, William J. | Xu, Yitong | Mastro, Andrea | Rogers, Connie J. | Withers, Sita | Wang, Ziming | Khuat, Lam T. | Dunai, Cordelia | Blazar, Bruce R. | Longo, Dan | Rebhun, Robert | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Monjazeb, Arta | Murphy, William J. | Rowlinson, Scott | Agnello, Giulia | Alters, Susan | Lowe, David | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Whetstone, Ryan | Zeng, Xue | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Santos, Patricia M. | Menk, Ashley V. | Shi, Jian | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Butterfield, Lisa H. | Whetstone, Ryan | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg | Nagasaka, Misako | Sukari, Ammar | Byrne-Steele, Miranda | Pan, Wenjing | Hou, Xiaohong | Brown, Brittany | Eisenhower, Mary | Han, Jian | Collins, Natalie | Manguso, Robert | Pope, Hans | Shrestha, Yashaswi | Boehm, Jesse | Haining, W. Nicholas | Cron, Kyle R. | Sivan, Ayelet | Aquino-Michaels, Keston | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Orecchioni, Marco | Bedognetti, Davide | Hendrickx, Wouter | Fuoco, Claudia | Spada, Filomena | Sgarrella, Francesco | Cesareni, Gianni | Marincola, Francesco | Kostarelos, Kostas | Bianco, Alberto | Delogu, Lucia | Hendrickx, Wouter | Roelands, Jessica | Boughorbel, Sabri | Decock, Julie | Presnell, Scott | Wang, Ena | Marincola, Franco M. | Kuppen, Peter | Ceccarelli, Michele | Rinchai, Darawan | Chaussabel, Damien | Miller, Lance | Bedognetti, Davide | Nguyen, Andrew | Sanborn, J. Zachary | Vaske, Charles | Rabizadeh, Shahrooz | Niazi, Kayvan | Benz, Steven | Patel, Shashank | Restifo, Nicholas | White, James | Angiuoli, Sam | Sausen, Mark | Jones, Sian | Sevdali, Maria | Simmons, John | Velculescu, Victor | Diaz, Luis | Zhang, Theresa | Sims, Jennifer S. | Barton, Sunjay M. | Gartrell, Robyn | Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela | Dela Cruz, Filemon | Turk, Andrew T. | Lu, Yan | Mazzeo, Christopher F. | Kung, Andrew L. | Bruce, Jeffrey N. | Saenger, Yvonne M. | Yamashiro, Darrell J. | Connolly, Eileen P. | Baird, Jason | Crittenden, Marka | Friedman, David | Xiao, Hong | Leidner, Rom | Bell, Bryan | Young, Kristina | Gough, Michael | Bian, Zhen | Kidder, Koby | Liu, Yuan | Curran, Emily | Chen, Xiufen | Corrales, Leticia P. | Kline, Justin | Dunai, Cordelia | Aguilar, Ethan G. | Khuat, Lam T. | Murphy, William J. | Guerriero, Jennifer | Sotayo, Alaba | Ponichtera, Holly | Pourzia, Alexandra | Schad, Sara | Carrasco, Ruben | Lazo, Suzan | Bronson, Roderick | Letai, Anthony | Kornbluth, Richard S. | Gupta, Sachin | Termini, James | Guirado, Elizabeth | Stone, Geoffrey W. | Meyer, Christina | Helming, Laura | Tumang, Joseph | Wilson, Nicholas | Hofmeister, Robert | Radvanyi, Laszlo | Neubert, Natalie J. | Tillé, Laure | Barras, David | Soneson, Charlotte | Baumgaertner, Petra | Rimoldi, Donata | Gfeller, David | Delorenzi, Mauro | Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A. | Speiser, Daniel E. | Abraham, Tara S. | Xiang, Bo | Magee, Michael S. | Waldman, Scott A. | Snook, Adam E. | Blogowski, Wojciech | Zuba-Surma, Ewa | Budkowska, Marta | Salata, Daria | Dolegowska, Barbara | Starzynska, Teresa | Chan, Leo | Somanchi, Srinivas | McCulley, Kelsey | Lee, Dean | Buettner, Nico | Shi, Feng | Myers, Paisley T. | Curbishley, Stuart | Penny, Sarah A. | Steadman, Lora | Millar, David | Speers, Ellen | Ruth, Nicola | Wong, Gabriel | Thimme, Robert | Adams, David | Cobbold, Mark | Thomas, Remy | Hendrickx, Wouter | Al-Muftah, Mariam | Decock, Julie | Wong, Michael KK | Morse, Michael | McDermott, David F. | Clark, Joseph I. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Daniels, Gregory A. | Hua, Hong | Rao, Tharak | Dutcher, Janice P. | Kang, Kai | Saunthararajah, Yogen | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Kumar, Vikas | Anwar, Firoz | Verma, Amita | Chheda, Zinal | Kohanbash, Gary | Sidney, John | Okada, Kaori | Shrivastav, Shruti | Carrera, Diego A. | Liu, Shuming | Jahan, Naznin | Mueller, Sabine | Pollack, Ian F. | Carcaboso, Angel M. | Sette, Alessandro | Hou, Yafei | Okada, Hideho | Field, Jessica J. | Zeng, Weiping | Shih, Vincent FS | Law, Che-Leung | Senter, Peter D. | Gardai, Shyra J. | Okeley, Nicole M. | Penny, Sarah A. | Abelin, Jennifer G. | Saeed, Abu Z. | Malaker, Stacy A. | Myers, Paisley T. | Shabanowitz, Jeffrey | Ward, Stephen T. | Hunt, Donald F. | Cobbold, Mark | Profusek, Pam | Wood, Laura | Shepard, Dale | Grivas, Petros | Kapp, Kerstin | Volz, Barbara | Oswald, Detlef | Wittig, Burghardt | Schmidt, Manuel | Sefrin, Julian P. | Hillringhaus, Lars | Lifke, Valeria | Lifke, Alexander | Skaletskaya, Anna | Ponte, Jose | Chittenden, Thomas | Setiady, Yulius | Valsesia-Wittmann, Sandrine | Sivado, Eva | Thomas, Vincent | El Alaoui, Meddy | Papot, Sébastien | Dumontet, Charles | Dyson, Mike | McCafferty, John | El Alaoui, Said | Verma, Amita | Kumar, Vikas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Zloza, Andrew | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Silk, Ann W. | Jhawar, Sachin | Paneque, Tomas | Bommareddy, Praveen K. | Kohlhapp, Frederick | Newman, Jenna | Beltran, Pedro | Zloza, Andrew | Kaufman, Howard L. | Cao, Felicia | Hong, Bang-Xing | Rodriguez-Cruz, Tania | Song, Xiao-Tong | Gottschalk, Stephen | Calderon, Hugo | Illingworth, Sam | Brown, Alice | Fisher, Kerry | Seymour, Len | Champion, Brian | Eriksson, Emma | Wenthe, Jessica | Hellström, Ann-Charlotte | Paul-Wetterberg, Gabriella | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Wenthe, Jessica | Ståhle, Magnus | Jarblad-Leja, Justyna | Ullenhag, Gustav | Dimberg, Anna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon | Loskog, Angelica | Eriksson, Emma | Milenova, Ioanna | Moreno, Rafael | Alemany, Ramon
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):107-221.
PMCID: PMC5123381

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