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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  A cytotoxicity and comparative antibacterial study on the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss, Trachyspermum copticum essential oils, and Enrofloxacin on Aeromonas hydrophila 
Objective: this study designed to test the antibacterial potency of enrofloxacin (ENR) and essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Trachyspermum copticum (TEO) on Aeromonas hydrophila.
Material and Methods: The antibacterial potency of test compounds was determined by several methods including the inhibition zone diameter determination, microbroth dilution method and colorimetric method of MTT. The cytotoxicity of test substances was assessed on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo (CHSE-214) cells.
Results: Results showed that ENR and tested essential oils exert antibacterial effect against A. hydrophila. Moreover, ENR exerted the most potent antibacterial effect with MIC values of 62.5 ng/ml. The natural compounds of ZEO and TEO also showed antibacterial effects with rather high MIC values of 0.315 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml, respectively. None of the tested substances showed toxicity on CHSE-24 cells.
Conclusion: It is concluded that ZEO and TEO could be applied to prevent from A. hydrophila infection. Moreover, data also suggest that MTT method could be both cost- and time-effective and accurate method of MIC determination.
PMCID: PMC4075679  PMID: 25050249
Natural Antibacterial Substances; Microbroth dilution Method; MTT Technique; Cytotoxicity
2.  Effects of chitosan on hematological parameters and stress resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 
Veterinary Research Forum  2012;3(1):49-54.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan as immune stimulator on some hematological parameters and stress resistance in rainbow trout. Nine hundred rainbow trout (with initial body weight of 25 ± 0.1 g) were obtained from a local farm and acclimated to the laboratory conditions for one week. After that fish were randomly divided into four groups in three replicates. Each group received chitosan in diet at four concentrations as 0 (Control), 0.25, 0.5 and 1 percent chitosan, respectively. The trial was conducted for 8 weeks then feeding with chitosan stopped for 3 weeks later and during this time all fish were feed by control diet. The sampling was conducted to assay the hematological parameters of all groups every two weeks. In this study we assayed the resistance of fish against some environmental stresses immediately after changing the diet to the control. The results showed that using 0.25 percent chitosan in trout diets had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on hematological indices and stress resistance of rainbow trout in comparison the control group. Serum glucose level was higher in all treatment than control without any significance difference (P < 0.05). Based on the obtained results it concluded that the adding chitosan at 0.25 percent into the diet could enhance the hematological parameters and resistance against some environmental stresses in rainbow trout.
PMCID: PMC4312819  PMID: 25653746
Rainbow trout; Chitosan; Hematological parameters; Stress resistance
3.  In vitro antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of iranian propolis (EEIP) against fish pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri & Streptococcus iniae) 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2010;41(4):1086-1092.
The “in vitro” antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEIP) from Urmia, Iran was investigated against three prevalent species of fish bacterial pathogens including: Aeromonas hydrophila LMG 3770, Yersinia ruckeri LMG 3279 and Streptococcus iniae LMG 14520. In this study two standard susceptibility testing techniques (Micro-broth dilution method and Agar-well diffusion method) were used to evaluation of the antibacterial activity of EEIP against the mentioned micro-organisms. Also the chemical composition of propolis was determined by the method of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-six compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed Chemical composition of EEIP contained significant amounts of flavonoids, Sesquiterpenes – mainly Eudesmol and Caryophyllene oxide - aromatic acid, and low amounts of aldehydes and triterpens. Furthermore the ethanol extract of propolis inhibited the growth of all examined micro-organisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus iniae. Ethanol did not influence the antimicrobial effect of EEIP. These antibacterial properties would warrant further studies on the clinical applications of propolis in aquaculture field.
PMCID: PMC3769749  PMID: 24031591
propolis; bee glue; antibacterial activity; chemical composition; fish pathogenic bacteria

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