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1.  Introduction 
PMCID: PMC227231  PMID: 16017894
9.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: Part VII: Summary and Conclusions * 
The major findings and conclusions of a survey of manpower in health sciences libraries of the United States in 1969 are summarized. Although there does not appear to be a serious manpower shortage in terms of budgeted positions which are unfilled (demand), the manpower situation can still be considered serious when we introduce into our evaluation of the situation the question of existing levels of training and the urgent requirement (need) to bring manpower levels to a point at which adequate information services can be provided to the whole health sciences community. This is the final paper in a series of papers on a manpower study which also summarizes and analyzes the manpower data obtained by the American Hospital Association survey of 1968 and presents a number of general conclusions and recommendations for manpower planning for health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC197686  PMID: 16017603
10.  An Investigation of the Education Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: Part V: Manpower for Hospital Libraries * 
The extent of library service and the character of the library staff of hospitals in the United States are reported from the results of a survey conducted by the American Hospital Association in 1968. These data supplement the data reported on the nonhospital institutional population to make up a composite picture of health sciences library manpower today. Only 2,918 hospitals (48.5 percent) out of a total of 6,018 surveyed reported the existence of a library of any kind, though some of the hospitals reported multiple libraries. For all of these libraries only 2,872 individuals were reported under the rubric for “librarians,” and of these only 726 were reported as having the master's degree or better. Of the total staff almost half are non-salaried (volunteer or contributory) and almost half of the salaried staff are half time. It is obvious, therefore, that hospital libraries must be substantially strengthened if they are to fulfill their important function in the biomedical information network.
PMCID: PMC197607  PMID: 5146763
11.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: IV. Characteristics of Manpower in Health Sciences Libraries * 
A statistical description based on a mail survey of personnel in 2,099 health sciences libraries located outside of the hospital setting is reported. Respondents to the survey were divided into three groups: professionals (those possessing a graduate library degree); nonprofessionals (those not possessing a graduate library degree); and chief librarians (those responsible for a library's operations). Survey items dealt with education, sex, age, salary, job mobility and preference for continuing education programs.
Some 60 percent of the respondents were professionals; 40 percent were nonprofessionals. Seven hundred and twenty-eight chief librarians were identified in the population: 57 percent were professional librarians while the remainder were without a graduate library degree. Approximately ⅕ of all survey respondents were men. The age distribution for the work force tended to be bimodal, reflecting the career patterns of women and the later entry of men into librarianship. The annual salary for male professionals was calculated at $12,732; for female professionals at $10,044; for male nonprofessionals at $7,878; and for female nonprofessionals at $6,313. Male professionals were found to have the highest rates of job and geographic mobility. Conversely, female nonprofessionals were lowest in mobility. In expressing a preference for continuing education programs in library science, professionals tended to request courses dealing with the organization of libraries, health sciences institutions and their relationships, while nonprofessionals inclined towards courses in technical processing.
PMCID: PMC197537  PMID: 5542914
12.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: III. Manpower Supply and Demand in Health Sciences Libraries * 
An investigation of the manpower requirements of health sciences libraries and of educational programs appropriate to these manpower needs was begun in March 1968. To date, 4,727 libraries have been identified as being used by 14,000 health sciences institutions and programs. Of this total, 2,628 are hospital libraries; 1,328 are health sciences libraries and collections located outside of hospitals; and 771 are academic or public libraries.
Within these libraries some 14,938 persons are directly involved, either full- or part-time, in the delivery of health sciences library services. Of the total work force, 5,861 persons are employed in hospital libraries and 9,077 are employed in health sciences libraries and collections. The ratio between professional and nonprofessional employees is 1:2; professional and nonprofessional status was assigned by the chief librarian. Survey data indicate a 7 percent manpower shortage in positions classified as professional, and a 3 percent shortage in positions classified as nonprofessional.
PMCID: PMC197536  PMID: 5542913
13.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower II. Health-Related Institutions and Their Library Resources * 
As part of an investigation of health sciences library manpower, the universe of health-related institutions and programs (excluding hospitals) was surveyed by postcard questionnaire to produce an inventory and description of libraries providing services to these institutions and programs. Seventysix percent (5,215) of the institutions reported access to library resources, indicating usage of some 2,207 non-hospital libraries. Eighty percent (2,431) of the institutions reported that the library used was “within” their own institution; 20 percent (608) noted that the library was “outside” of their institution.
The distribution of health-related institutions and libraries is shown by RML districts, together with relevant census data. A classification of libraries, based on the degree of involvement of the libraries' facilities, resources and personnel in supplying services to health-related institutions, was developed.
It is concluded that projections of manpower needs should take into account institutions and programs not at present possessing health sciences libraries as well as documented demand in existing health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC197504  PMID: 5496236
14.  An Analysis of the Demographic, Educational, and Employment Characteristics of Participants in the Continuing Education Program of the Medical Library Association, Denver, Colorado, June 1968 * 
A survey was performed to elicit details about attendees of the continuing education program given in Denver at the 1968 MLA Annual Meeting. Factors considered included sex, age, geographic distribution, professional mobility, educational background, current jobs, and interest in further continuing education.
PMCID: PMC197435  PMID: 5439905
15.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: I. Definition of the Manpower Problem and Research Design* 
In order to plan adequately for education in health science librarianship and to be able to project future demands and needs we need to know a great deal more about existing manpower in health science libraries. This paper, the first in a series of reports on an investigation to gather this data, discusses the research methodology and the development of an inventory of the institution-program population upon which the survey is based. An analysis in terms of geographic location, type (educational, research, etc.), administrative control, and primary cognate area of these institutions is presented, and their distribution through the various Regional Medical Library areas is noted. Preliminary estimates are made, based on a questionnaire to the libraries, on the size of the library population, their relationship to reporting programs or institutions, exclusive of the hospital population which is being covered in an independent survey. A questionnaire to library personnel is underway which will establish, along with the other questionnaires, a basis for exploring the relationships which exist between institutions or programs, libraries and manpower.
PMCID: PMC197396  PMID: 5411708
16.  Professional Medical Library Education in the United States in Relation to the Qualifications of Medical Library Manpower in Ohio * 
The present system of education for medical library practice in the United States consists of four major components: graduate degree programs in library science with specialization in medical librarianship; graduate degree programs in library science with no such specialization; postgraduate internships in medical libraries; continuing education programs. Data are presented illustrating the flow of graduates along these several educational pathways into medical library practice.
The relevance of these educational components to the current medical library work force is discussed with reference to manpower data compiled for Ohio. The total number of medical library personnel in Ohio in 1968 is 316. Of this total, only forty-two (approximately 14 percent) have received any formal library training. Seventy persons have only a high school education. From these figures, it is concluded that there is no standard or essential qualification which is universally accepted as educational preparation for work in medical libraries; that the comparative sophistication of the educational programs in medical librarianship has yet to be reflected widely in general medical library practice; that an increasingly large number of non-professional or ancillary personnel are being, and will continue to be, utilized in medical libraries; that large numbers of untrained persons have sole responsibility for medical libraries; and that appropriate educational programs will have to be designed specifically for this type of personnel.
PMCID: PMC200735  PMID: 5702318
17.  Medical Libraries and the Assessment of User Needs * 
Users of information in science and technology have been studied in great detail with respect to material read, amount of time spent in reading and searching the literature, categories of questions asked, and so on. Probing for this information has been undertaken by means of structured and unstructured interviews, diaries, surveys, and questionnaires.
Although a large amount of data has emerged on information usage and flow, the subjective response of scientists furnishes comment only on the satisfaction produced by present information services and does not yield insight into the extent to which needs remain unsatisfied. Relevance figures based upon the response of systems to questions cannot be equated with satisfaction of needs, since questions constitute, in most cases, inadequate representations of underlying information needs.
Assessment of the needs of users of medical libraries and information systems must, in fact, be made in relation to the observed behavior and experience of biomedical scientists. There is room for well-designed experimentation which can explore the interaction of both psychological and environmental factors. Significant differences in information needs exist among and between individuals such as researchers and clinicians in the same environment. With respect to environment, it is hypothesized that the information needs of medical practitioners in remote areas might differ significantly from those of their colleagues working in large metropolitan centers in close proximity to medical schools, research institutions, and other rich sources of information fallout.
It is anticipated that experimentation will eventually result in a methodology which will permit the determination and prediction of the information needs of any identified groups of users in a specific environment.
PMCID: PMC198397  PMID: 5910386

Results 1-17 (17)