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1.  Nonprint Media as Information Resources: Software and Hardware 
Nonprint materials are rapidly becoming important information and learning resource materials for the health science library. Because of their long experience in organizing and utilizing informational materials, libraries represent highly appropriate repositories and sites for utilization of these new materials. Nonprint materials differ from printed materials in several ways, and this may account for the resistance of some librarians to dealing with them. One of the most important differences is that a machine must serve as mediator between the information and the user of nonprint materials. Also, the great variety of formats and machines can confuse the novice. The librarian must learn to deal with these differences in a creative way through a process of cooperation and collaboration with media and educational technology specialists.
PMCID: PMC198745  PMID: 4130233
2.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: Part VII: Summary and Conclusions * 
The major findings and conclusions of a survey of manpower in health sciences libraries of the United States in 1969 are summarized. Although there does not appear to be a serious manpower shortage in terms of budgeted positions which are unfilled (demand), the manpower situation can still be considered serious when we introduce into our evaluation of the situation the question of existing levels of training and the urgent requirement (need) to bring manpower levels to a point at which adequate information services can be provided to the whole health sciences community. This is the final paper in a series of papers on a manpower study which also summarizes and analyzes the manpower data obtained by the American Hospital Association survey of 1968 and presents a number of general conclusions and recommendations for manpower planning for health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC197686  PMID: 16017603
10.  Personnel Administration: Management of Large Medical Libraries * 
Machines themselves are not dehumanizing. Employed with proper management in total systems they enable us better to achieve human goals. Large libraries are complex systems involving man-machine relationships which must be studied with the new management techniques of systems analysis and operations research. Management science deals with a wide variety of problems encountered in the economy of the modern library. Librarians must know about these techniques if they are to fulfill their roles as managers of information services and systems. Good management also involves taking cognizance of the human factors in the old meaning of the term. Some parallels may be found between child rearing and personnel management, but the primary one is that managers must pay the same kind of thoughtful attention to their problems. Good management techniques may be learned empirically by trial and error, but they are better acquired systematically through consultation and study.
PMCID: PMC198332  PMID: 5897259
20.  An Investigation of the Education Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: Part V: Manpower for Hospital Libraries * 
The extent of library service and the character of the library staff of hospitals in the United States are reported from the results of a survey conducted by the American Hospital Association in 1968. These data supplement the data reported on the nonhospital institutional population to make up a composite picture of health sciences library manpower today. Only 2,918 hospitals (48.5 percent) out of a total of 6,018 surveyed reported the existence of a library of any kind, though some of the hospitals reported multiple libraries. For all of these libraries only 2,872 individuals were reported under the rubric for “librarians,” and of these only 726 were reported as having the master's degree or better. Of the total staff almost half are non-salaried (volunteer or contributory) and almost half of the salaried staff are half time. It is obvious, therefore, that hospital libraries must be substantially strengthened if they are to fulfill their important function in the biomedical information network.
PMCID: PMC197607  PMID: 5146763
21.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: IV. Characteristics of Manpower in Health Sciences Libraries * 
A statistical description based on a mail survey of personnel in 2,099 health sciences libraries located outside of the hospital setting is reported. Respondents to the survey were divided into three groups: professionals (those possessing a graduate library degree); nonprofessionals (those not possessing a graduate library degree); and chief librarians (those responsible for a library's operations). Survey items dealt with education, sex, age, salary, job mobility and preference for continuing education programs.
Some 60 percent of the respondents were professionals; 40 percent were nonprofessionals. Seven hundred and twenty-eight chief librarians were identified in the population: 57 percent were professional librarians while the remainder were without a graduate library degree. Approximately ⅕ of all survey respondents were men. The age distribution for the work force tended to be bimodal, reflecting the career patterns of women and the later entry of men into librarianship. The annual salary for male professionals was calculated at $12,732; for female professionals at $10,044; for male nonprofessionals at $7,878; and for female nonprofessionals at $6,313. Male professionals were found to have the highest rates of job and geographic mobility. Conversely, female nonprofessionals were lowest in mobility. In expressing a preference for continuing education programs in library science, professionals tended to request courses dealing with the organization of libraries, health sciences institutions and their relationships, while nonprofessionals inclined towards courses in technical processing.
PMCID: PMC197537  PMID: 5542914
22.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: III. Manpower Supply and Demand in Health Sciences Libraries * 
An investigation of the manpower requirements of health sciences libraries and of educational programs appropriate to these manpower needs was begun in March 1968. To date, 4,727 libraries have been identified as being used by 14,000 health sciences institutions and programs. Of this total, 2,628 are hospital libraries; 1,328 are health sciences libraries and collections located outside of hospitals; and 771 are academic or public libraries.
Within these libraries some 14,938 persons are directly involved, either full- or part-time, in the delivery of health sciences library services. Of the total work force, 5,861 persons are employed in hospital libraries and 9,077 are employed in health sciences libraries and collections. The ratio between professional and nonprofessional employees is 1:2; professional and nonprofessional status was assigned by the chief librarian. Survey data indicate a 7 percent manpower shortage in positions classified as professional, and a 3 percent shortage in positions classified as nonprofessional.
PMCID: PMC197536  PMID: 5542913
23.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower II. Health-Related Institutions and Their Library Resources * 
As part of an investigation of health sciences library manpower, the universe of health-related institutions and programs (excluding hospitals) was surveyed by postcard questionnaire to produce an inventory and description of libraries providing services to these institutions and programs. Seventysix percent (5,215) of the institutions reported access to library resources, indicating usage of some 2,207 non-hospital libraries. Eighty percent (2,431) of the institutions reported that the library used was “within” their own institution; 20 percent (608) noted that the library was “outside” of their institution.
The distribution of health-related institutions and libraries is shown by RML districts, together with relevant census data. A classification of libraries, based on the degree of involvement of the libraries' facilities, resources and personnel in supplying services to health-related institutions, was developed.
It is concluded that projections of manpower needs should take into account institutions and programs not at present possessing health sciences libraries as well as documented demand in existing health sciences libraries.
PMCID: PMC197504  PMID: 5496236
24.  An Investigation of the Educational Needs of Health Sciences Library Manpower: I. Definition of the Manpower Problem and Research Design* 
In order to plan adequately for education in health science librarianship and to be able to project future demands and needs we need to know a great deal more about existing manpower in health science libraries. This paper, the first in a series of reports on an investigation to gather this data, discusses the research methodology and the development of an inventory of the institution-program population upon which the survey is based. An analysis in terms of geographic location, type (educational, research, etc.), administrative control, and primary cognate area of these institutions is presented, and their distribution through the various Regional Medical Library areas is noted. Preliminary estimates are made, based on a questionnaire to the libraries, on the size of the library population, their relationship to reporting programs or institutions, exclusive of the hospital population which is being covered in an independent survey. A questionnaire to library personnel is underway which will establish, along with the other questionnaires, a basis for exploring the relationships which exist between institutions or programs, libraries and manpower.
PMCID: PMC197396  PMID: 5411708
25.  Varieties of Information Requests in a Medical Library 
In an analysis of the information requests received and recorded in the Cleveland Medical Library over a two-year period, the requests were classified in four groups according to whether they were direct inquiries (factual), indirect (subject), biographical and directory, or requests for verification of literature citations. An attempt was made to discover some of the major characteristics and the volume of activity in each class. The results reflect the information services supplied by a single library with its own unique clientele and functions, rather than provide a means of generalizing about information services in all libraries, although they may give us some useful insights. Detailed analyses are made of direct and of biographical and directory questions.
The largest number of inquiries received were those in which literature references on a specified subject were requested (indirect inquiries); these represented over 50 percent of the total. Most of the requests in this category called for limited coverage (five articles or less) in the recent literature (not over five years). Requests for verification of citations ranked next with 25 percent of the total, followed by direct (factual) inquiries (12 percent) and biographical and directory inquiries (9 percent), although it is recognized that these last two classes are probably underrepresented in the sample.
PMCID: PMC198198  PMID: 14217226

Results 1-25 (25)