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1.  Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical and Histological Correlations 
Breast Care  2011;6(4):273-278.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the lack of HER2 expression or amplification. Much interest has recently been focused on these triple-negative (TN) subtypes because they may be aggressive and are more likely to recur and metastasize than other subtypes of breast cancer. TNBC accounts for approximately 10-24% of all breast cancer cases, and typically it occurs in younger patients and in patients with BRCA1 mutation. There is a substantial heterogeneity of TNBCs both at the morphological and the molecular level, but there are also common features, such as low tumor grade and accelerated tumor proliferation. Morphologically, TNBC may present as invasive ductal, metaplastic, medullary, apocrine, or other types. Molecularly, they are most frequently associated with a basal phenotype, but there is a distinct subgroup of cancers that are not of basal type and belong to the claudin-low or molecular-apocrine type. The basal phenotype is frequently associated with the loss of BRCA1.
PMCID: PMC3225211  PMID: 22135625
Breast cancer; molecular subtypes
2.  Early Breast Cancer Precursor Lesions: Lessons Learned from Molecular and Clinical Studies 
Breast Care  2010;5(4):218-226.
Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and lobular neoplasia (LN) form a group of early precursor lesions that are part of the low-grade pathway in breast cancer development. This concept implies that the neoplastic disease process begins at a stage much earlier than in situ carcinoma. We have performed a review of the published literature for the upgrade risk to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in open biopsy after a diagnosis of ADH, FEA, or LN in core needle biopsy. This has revealed the highest upgrade risk for ADH (28.2% after open biopsy), followed by LN (14.9%), and FEA (10.2%). With LN, the pleomorphic subtype is believed to confer a higher risk than classical LN. With all types of precursor lesions, careful attention must be paid to the clinicopathological correlation for the guidance of the clinical management. Follow-up biopsies are generally indicated in ADH, and if there is any radiological-pathological discrepancy, also in LN or FEA.
PMCID: PMC3346166  PMID: 22590441
Breast cancer, precursor; Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH); Flat epithelial atypia (FEA); Lobular neoplasia (LN)

Results 1-2 (2)