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1.  Pneumomastia: A Rare Cause of Breast Swelling 
Breast Care  2013;8(3):218-219.
Summary
Background
Pneumomastia is air within the breast parenchyma. A number of causes have been reported for this condition. This case report describes a new cause and details of the management strategy applied, together with a review of the literature.
Case Report
We describe a case of acute breast swelling in a 40-year-old woman and its subsequent successful conservative management.
Conclusion
Bronchopleural fistula after thoracotomy is a risk, and can cause pneumomastia. This is more likely to occur after redo thoracic surgery. Pneumomastia after repeat thoracotomy can be managed conservatively, even in the presence of a bronchopleural fistula.
doi:10.1159/000352098
PMCID: PMC3728636  PMID: 24415974
Pneumomastia; Emphysema; Breast; Bronchopleural fistula; Thoracotomy
2.  Chyle Leak Following Axillary Lymph Node Clearance – a Benign Complication: Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2011;6(2):130-132.
Summary
Case Report
An 82-year-old patient underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance for a large multicentric lobular cancer of the left breast. On day 11 after her operation, white viscous fluid was noted in her axillary drain.
Methods
We analysed case reports in the literature, noting the interval between surgery and diagnosis of chyle, the duration of the chyle leak, the volume of chyle during the first 24 h, the median volume and the administered treatment.
Results
25 cases were reported in 13 publications. Our case was unusual in that chyle was noted 11 days after surgery. In most cases, chyle leakage subsides spontaneously by simply leaving the drain in situ.
Conclusions
A conservative observant approach appears appropriate in most cases. Only for persistent and large-volume leaks, dietary intervention (medium-chain lipid diet, nil by mouth, total parenteral nutrition) is justified. Surgery with re-exploration of the axilla and oversewing of the chyle duct can be used as the last reserve for persistent chyle leaks.
doi:10.1159/000327507
PMCID: PMC3104904  PMID: 21673824
Breast cancer; Complication; Lymph node dissection; Parenteral nutrition; Breast neoplasm; Axillary clearance
3.  Metastasis of Primary Colon Cancer to the Breast – Leave Well Alone 
Breast Care  2010;5(1):23-25.
Background
Metastasis to the breast is rare. Its management differs from that of primary breast cancer, as illustrated by this case of a colonic metastasis to the breast.
Case Report
A 78-year-old woman presented with a breast lump 16 months after a palliative colonic resection for an obstructing colon cancer (T4 N0 M1). Core biopsy of the breast lump revealed morphological features identical to the original bowel cancer. In view of her progressive metastatic disease, the breast lump was simply observed. She passed away 4 months later from advanced intra-abdominal carcinomatosis.
Discussion
There are 19 cases of colonic metastasis to the breast in the literature. In the literature, colonic metastases to the breast are usually excised.
Conclusion
Excision of a colonic metastasis to the breast can be avoided if the patient's life expectancy is short.
doi:10.1159/000272303
PMCID: PMC3357162  PMID: 22619637
Colon cancer; Metastasis; Breast neoplasm

Results 1-3 (3)