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1.  Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast with Endocervical-Like Mucinous Epithelium 
Breast Care  2013;8(6):445-447.
Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare entity. To the best of our knowledge, only 17 patients have been described in the PubMed database.
Case Report
Here, we report a primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in a 62-year-old woman. The patient was followed for 5 months without any adjuvant treatment and she continues to be disease free.
Primary breast mucinous cystadenocarcinoma usually displays unique pathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics simulating its ovarian counterparts; it seems to have a good prognosis after complete resection.
PMCID: PMC3919496  PMID: 24550753
Breast cancer; Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma; Immunohistochemistry
2.  Malpractice Leading to Secondary Lymphedema after Radical Mastectomy: Case Report 
Breast Care  2013;8(5):371-373.
With this case report we want to demonstrate the results of chemotherapy application to the mastectomized side in a patient who had undergone radical mastectomy.
Case Report
A patient who was accidentally given chemotherapy on the mastectomized side (PCMS) and a control patient who received chemotherapy on the non-affected side (PCNS) were included in this study. Edema, pain, muscle strength, and shoulder mobility were evaluated. The results of the 2 patients were compared. After chemotherapy, PCMS experienced edema and pain in the affected arm compared to PCNS. Increased circumference measurement, and decreased shoulder mobility and muscle strength were observed in PCMS.
It was suggested that chemotherapy application on the mastectomized side triggered lymphedema. Our findings on the subject revealed that education of health care professionals and patients alike is very important.
PMCID: PMC3861855  PMID: 24415992
Breast cancer; Chemotherapy; Pain; Edema
3.  The Oncological Emergency Case: Paraneoplastic Hypoglycemia in Metastatic Breast Cancer – Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2013;8(5):368-370.
Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia is a rare syndrome amoung tumorous diseases. It is often associated with a paraneoplastic secretion of ‘big’ insulin-like growth factor-II.
We describe this syndrome in a 60-year-old patient with advanced breast cancer 8 years after primary diagnosis.
Results and Conclusion
This non-islet cell tumor-induced hypoglycemia may be the only evidence for an otherwise clinically occult disease progression. Fast diagnosis and appropriate acute and causal treatment concepts should be part of oncological management.
PMCID: PMC3861876  PMID: 24415991
Hypoglycemia; Breast cancer; Metastases; Insulin-like growth factor; Paraneoplastic
4.  Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Breast Coexisting with Breast Cancer: A Case Report 
Breast Care  2013;8(4):290-292.
The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon low-risk lesion with only a few cases described in the literature.
Case Report
Here, we report a unique case of an IMT coexisting with breast cancer. Modified radical mastectomy was performed, followed by TAC chemotherapy (taxotere, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide). At the 2-year follow-up, the patient continues to be disease free.
At the preoperative stage, definitive diagnoses of masses are extremely difficult; surgery is advised only after the diagnosis is confirmed by pathological examination.
PMCID: PMC3808225  PMID: 24415982
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Breast cancer
5.  Management of Paclitaxel-Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome 
Breast Care  2013;8(3):215-217.
Hand-foot syndrome (HFS), also known as acral erythema or palmoplantar dysesthesia, is a manifestation of painful erythema and dysesthesia mostly occurring in the palms and soles. Although many chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to cause HFS, it remains an uncommon adverse cutaneous manifestation of paclitaxel.
Case Report
We report a case of paclitaxel-induced grade 3 HFS in a patient with breast cancer. HFS developed after 6 weeks of paclitaxel weekly infusions. The patient was managed by avoidance of sun exposure and extensive use of sunscreen and moisturizers. The skin lesions stabilized and improved gradually. This allowed us to continue the planned necessary course of 12 weeks of paclitaxel under close surveillance.
Paclitaxel-induced HFS can be managed with topical creams and avoidance of sun exposure without the need to discontinue chemotherapy. However, close monitoring for any increase or change in symptoms is warranted.
PMCID: PMC3728628  PMID: 24415973
Hand-foot syndrome; Paclitaxel; Breast cancer
6.  Pneumomastia: A Rare Cause of Breast Swelling 
Breast Care  2013;8(3):218-219.
Pneumomastia is air within the breast parenchyma. A number of causes have been reported for this condition. This case report describes a new cause and details of the management strategy applied, together with a review of the literature.
Case Report
We describe a case of acute breast swelling in a 40-year-old woman and its subsequent successful conservative management.
Bronchopleural fistula after thoracotomy is a risk, and can cause pneumomastia. This is more likely to occur after redo thoracic surgery. Pneumomastia after repeat thoracotomy can be managed conservatively, even in the presence of a bronchopleural fistula.
PMCID: PMC3728636  PMID: 24415974
Pneumomastia; Emphysema; Breast; Bronchopleural fistula; Thoracotomy
7.  Correction of Poland's Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Current Literature 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):139-142.
Poland's syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly, consists of unilateral absence of the pectoralis major muscle, ipsilateral brachysyndactyly, and occasionally associated other malformations of the anterior chest wall, mamilla, and mamma.
Case Report
In the case of a 32-year-old woman, marked hypoplasia of the right breast and the right nipple, malformation of the right upper limb with brachysyndactyly and microdactyly were noted, all present since birth. This paper describes the surgical technique and possible complications of reconstruction of the chest wall deformity with a solid silicone implant and a latissimus dorsi flap. The current literature on the topic is reviewed.
The surgical method with autologous material and implants is a sufficient technique for chest wall reconstruction and gives a good long-term result in case of Poland's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3683949  PMID: 24419214
Poland's syndrome; Breast hypoplasia; Breast reconstruction; Malformation
8.  Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) Program: Baseline Data and Patient Characteristics from a Population-Based, Randomized Study Evaluating Compliance to Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy in Postmenopausal Women with Hormone-Sensitive Early Breast Cancer 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):110-120.
The Patient's Anastrozole Compliance to Therapy (PACT) program is a large randomized study designed to assess whether the provision of educational materials (EM) could improve compliance with aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Patients and Methods
The PACT study presented a large, homogeneous dataset. The baseline analysis included patient demographics and initial treatments and patient perceptions about treatment and quality of life.
Overall, 4,923 patients were enrolled at 109 German breast cancer centers/clinics in cooperation with 1,361 office-based gynecologists/oncologists. 4,844 women were randomized 1:1 to standard therapy (n = 2,402) or standard therapy plus EM (n = 2,442). Prior breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy had been received by 76% and 24% of the patients, respectively. Radiotherapy was scheduled for 85% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy for 38%. Reflecting the postmenopausal, hormone-sensitive nature of this population, only 285 patients (7%) had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
A comparison with epidemiological data from the West German Breast Center suggests that the patients in the PACT study are representative of a general postmenopausal early breast cancer population and that the findings may be applicable to ‘real-world’ Germany and beyond. Compliance data from PACT are eagerly anticipated.
PMCID: PMC3683950  PMID: 24419247
Breast cancer; Compliance; Aromatase inhibitors; Breast-conserving surgery; Mastectomy
9.  Trastuzumab-Induced Hepatotoxicity: A Case Report 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):146-148.
Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of breast cancer with HER2 amplification and/or overexpression. There are only 2 prior cases of trastuzumab-related hepatotoxicity reported in the literature.
Case Report
We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who was treated with trastuzumab for stage I invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. She successfully completed 6 months of therapy when an increase in liver transaminases was noted on routine examination. A full work-up for causes of acute and chronic liver disease was negative. After review of the patient's medication list, trastuzumab was thought to be the most likely culprit for the liver injury, based on timing of administration and rise in liver enzymes.
PMCID: PMC3683953  PMID: 24419371
Breast cancer; Trastuzumab; Liver toxicity; Hepatotoxicity
10.  Extensive Multifocal Mammary Infarction – a Case Report 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):143-145.
Breast infarction can occur in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomas, as well as healthy breast tissue, typically in the gravid or lactating patient. Few theories, however, exist to explain this unusual lesion.
Case Report
We present a very rare case of a 27-year-old female patient with extensive, multifocal, bilateral mammary infarction. A literature search was also performed to confirm its rarity. Although solitary or limited areas of spontaneous infarction have been documented, there are no documented cases where such a large, multifocal area of involvement has occurred without obvious explanation.
Extensive multifocal post-partum breast infarction is a rare occurrence that has potential long-term effects. This should be considered when taking patient history in post-partum patients, as well as those with extensive calcifications on mammogram years after giving birth.
PMCID: PMC3683947  PMID: 24419154
Differential diagnosis; Pregnancy; Radioimaging; Review; Screening; Ultrasound; Mammary infarction
11.  A Patient with Recurrent Breast Cancer Showing Long-Term Survival after Developing Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade Caused by Carcinomatous Pericarditis 
Breast Care  2013;8(1):71-73.
Malignant pericardial effusion caused by carcinomatous pericarditis is a complication of advanced malignancy. Breast cancer is the second most important cause of malignant pericardial effusion. Malignant pericardial effusion is the end stage of breast cancer, and the prognosis is very poor. Pericardial effusion may cause cardiac tamponade and sudden death if it is not controlled properly. There is a debate on which is the best method to control pericardial effusion.
Case Report
We describe the clinical course of a 55-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer, pericardial effusion, and cardiac tamponade caused by carcinomatous pericarditis. Thoracoscopic pericardial window was performed to control the pericardial effusion. The patient survived for about 5 years after being diagnosed with pericardial metastases.
The observed long-term survival in such a patient with the development of pericardial effusions and cardiac tamponade caused by carcinomatous pericarditis attributable to breast cancer is rare. Thoracoscopic pericardial window was effective in controlling the pericardial effusion.
PMCID: PMC3971803  PMID: 24715847
Breast cancer; Carcinomatous pericarditis; Pericardial effusion; Cardiac tamponade; Thoracoscopic pericardial window
12.  Thalidomide Combined with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Angiosarcoma of the Breast with Complete Pathologic Response: Case Report and Review of Literature 
Breast Care  2013;8(1):74-76.
Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare malignancy.
Case Report
We report on a 41-year-old female patient who initially presented with locally advanced disease. Core biopsy showed angiosarcoma of the breast, grade 1, CD31-positive. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy based on cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel, given concurrently with thalidomide. After treatment completion, the patient underwent radical mastectomy. Pathologic complete response in the breast and axillary lymph nodes was achieved. The patient has no evidence of disease recurrence 6 months after her initial diagnosis.
Anti-angiogenic therapy may be considered as part of the management of primary angiosarcoma of the breast.
PMCID: PMC3971808  PMID: 24715848
Breast angiosarcoma; Thalidomide; Pathologic complete response
13.  Filariasis of the Axilla in a Patient Returning from Travel Abroad: A Case Report 
Breast Care  2012;7(6):487-489.
The term filariasis comprises a group of parasitic infections caused by helminths belonging to different genera in the superfamily Filaroidea. The human parasites occur mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, but filariae are also found in temperate climates, where they can infect wild and domestic animals. Humans are rarely infected by these zoonotic parasites.
Patients and Methods
A 55-year-old patient presented with a new-onset, subcutaneous, non-tender palpable mass in the right axilla. Ultrasonography showed a 1.3-cm, solid, singular encapsulated node. Sonography of the breast on both sides, axilla and lymphatic drainage on the left side, lymphatic drainage on the right side, and mammography on both sides were without pathological findings. The node was excised under local anesthesia as the patient refused minimal invasive biopsy.
On histopathological examination, the tail of a parasite of the group of filariae was found. The patient revealed that she had stayed in Africa and Malaysia for professional reasons. 6 months before the time of diagnosis, she had also suffered from a fever and poor general condition after a trip abroad. The patient was referred for further treatment to the Institute for Tropical Medicine at the University of Dusseldorf, where a treatment with ivermectin was conducted on the basis of positive staining with antibodies against filariae.
Our case demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration between breast center, pathology, and other specialties such as microbiology and tropical medicine.
PMCID: PMC3971795  PMID: 24715832
Filariasis; Breast; Axilla
14.  A Metabolic Syndrome Case Presenting with Lymphocytic Mastitis 
Breast Care  2012;7(6):493-495.
Lymphocytic mastitis is a disease of premenopausal women, and its association with type 1 diabetes mellitus is the basis for its alternative name ‘diabetic mastopathy’. It is a benign condition but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast cancer, especially in diabetic patients.
Case Report
We present the case of an overweight 50-year-old dyslipidemic woman with metabolic syndrome presenting with lymphocytic mastitis.
Although lymphocytic mastitis is usually regarded as an autoimmune disease seen mostly in diabetic patients, it may also be seen in nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome who do not have an autoimmune disease.
PMCID: PMC3971797  PMID: 24715834
Lymphocytic mastitis; Metabolic syndrome
15.  Neurofibroma and Pectoralis Muscle Hypoplasia: A Mild Degree of Poland's Syndrome 
Breast Care  2012;7(6):490-492.
Poland's Syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by the unilateral partial or complete absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral brachysyndactyly or syndactyly of the fingers. It has been reported to be associated with other diseases, but PS accompanied by neurofibroma has rarely been reported.
Case Report
We report a rare case of a 16-year-old man with neurofibroma of the left breast accompanied by PS. Physical examination showed a mass in the left breast with skin hyperpigmentation and increased body hair. Intraoperative exploration showed a mass measuring 3–4 cm between the dysplastic pectoralis major and minor muscles. Pathologic examination of the resected mass showed cutaneous diffuse neurofibroma. A simple left mastectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful with no evidence of recurrence at 4 months.
Neurofibroma may also be accompanied by PS and should be differentiated from gynecomastia when a tumor grows in the breast.
PMCID: PMC3971812  PMID: 24715833
Neurofibroma; Poland's Syndrome; Gynecomastia
16.  Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) in a Patient Affected by Metastatic Breast Cancer with Neuroendocrine Differentiation 
Breast Care  2012;7(5):408-410.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer in European women with nearly 30% of the patients eventually developing metastases. Neuroendocrine differentiation is a rare event, but overexpression of somatostatin receptors in BC has been reported in many studies.
Case Report
A patient with liver metastases from BC was treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Computed tomography scan and biochemical examinations showed a clear response to radionuclide therapy.
PRRT may be useful in metastatic BC patients.
PMCID: PMC3518936  PMID: 24647781
Radionuclide therapy; Peptide receptors
17.  Advanced Breast Angiosarcoma Completely Responding to Gemcitabine-Containing Chemotherapy 
Breast Care  2012;7(5):414-416.
For patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic angiosarcoma, there is currently no available standard for second-line therapy, and a need exists for novel effective regimens to improve response rates.
Case Report
We report here on a case of a primary angiosarcoma of both breasts in a 34-year-old woman presenting with lung metastases. Upon completion of 3 cycles of the MAID regimen (mesna, adriamycin, ifosfamide, dacarbazine), computed tomography showed disease progression. Subsequently, a second-line chemotherapy was started using the GVP regimen (gemcitabine, vincristine, cisplatin). Complete response of the lung metastases was achieved after 6 cycles of treatment.
In the absence of an effective therapy among patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic breast angiosarcoma, a GVP chemotherapy regimen can be performed as a selective option.
PMCID: PMC3518940  PMID: 24647783
Breast neoplasm; Angiosarcoma; Lung metastases; Gemcitabine; Vincristine; Cisplatin; Chemotherapy
18.  Postmenopausal Breast Tuberculosis – Report of 4 Cases 
Breast Care  2012;7(5):411-413.
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease even in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high.
Case Report
This is a case series concerning 4 postmenopausal breast tuberculosis cases encountered in Moulay Youssef Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010. Breast tuberculosis represents 0.25% of all hospitalized tuberculosis patients in our department. The mean age of our patients was 62.5 ± 5.8 years. Clinical findings were heterogeneous; 1 case was multifocal tuberculosis, and another case was coexistent tuberculosis and malignancy of the breast. Mammography and ultrasonography findings were suspicious for malignancy in all 4 cases. Fine needle aspiration was negative in 3 cases. The diagnosis was made in all patients by histological examination of biopsy specimens, which revealed typical tuberculous lesions. Anti-tuberculosis therapy formed the mainstay of treatment.
The clinical and radiological features of mammary tuberculosis can be very confusing and easily mistaken for breast cancer. Symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis warrant a biopsy to exclude possible cancer.
PMCID: PMC3518944  PMID: 24647782
Breast; Lump; Tuberculosis; Menopause
19.  Breast Cancer during Pregnancy: An Interdisciplinary Approach in Our Institution 
Breast Care  2012;7(4):311-314.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed during pregnancy.
Case Report
We report on a case of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with right-sided breast cancer in her 15th week of gestation. We discussed possible treatment scenarios and the patient opted for neoadjuvant therapy with taxanes and anthracyclines during pregnancy, followed by delivery and then followed by surgery, antibody therapy, and radiotherapy. The patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, followed by 4 cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (90/600 mg/m2) every 3 weeks. Complete clinical response was seen after preoperative chemotherapy. After delivery of a healthy child at 40 weeks of gestation, she received breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection. Anti-HER2 antibody treatment with trastuzumab was started concomitantly with adjuvant radiotherapy. Endocrine treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog and tamoxifen for 5 years was planned to be started after radiotherapy.
Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy requires an interdisciplinary approach and careful consideration of the patient's stage of disease, the gestational age, and the preferences of the patient and her family.
PMCID: PMC3515786  PMID: 23904834
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer; Outcome of pregnancy; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; Interdisciplinary care
20.  Intraductal Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: A Rare Presentation and Review of the Literature 
Breast Care  2012;7(4):319-321.
Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological subtype of breast cancer, accounting for 0.9–2.8% of all breast cancer cases. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of these tumors are invasive carcinomas. The intraductal glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma is a very rare occurrence.
Case Report
Herein is described a case of a pure intraductal glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast in a 42-year-old premenopausal woman. A literature review has also been carried out. Mammography was inconclusive due to the presence of dense breast tissue, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed several nodular lesions measuring 7 × 6 cm in diameter and involving the upper aspect of the right breast suggestive of multifocal malignancy. A modified radical mastectomy was performed. The patient started hormonal therapy with tamoxifen and is currently well 16 months after surgery.
A pure intraductal glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a very rare occurrence. The case presented here exhibited uncommon MRI features, whereas the tumor size is one of the largest reported in the literature. Mammography may be inconclusive in the presence of dense breast tissue, but MRI is of great importance in the preoperative evaluation of the patient.
PMCID: PMC3515789  PMID: 23904836
Clear cell breast carcinoma: glycogen-rich, intraductal
21.  Lobular Breast Cancer in a Male Patient with a Previous History of Irradiation Due to Hodgkin's Disease 
Breast Care  2012;7(4):315-318.
Male breast cancer is rare and represents less than 1% of all breast cancers. Considering the fact that the male breast most often does not consist of lobules and acini, lobular carcinoma of the male breast is exceptionally rare.
Case Report
In this paper we present a unique case of alveolar variant of lobular male breast cancer in a 56-year-old patient.
According to our knowledge this is the first presentation of an alveolar variant of lobular male breast cancer that appeared 14 years after chemo- and radiotherapy for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.
PMCID: PMC3515793  PMID: 23904835
Male breast cancer; Histology; Immunohistochemistry; Pathology
22.  Recurrent Mastitis after Core Needle Biopsy: Case Report of an Unusual Complication after Core Needle Biopsy of a Phyllodes Tumor 
Breast Care  2012;7(3):240-244.
In the routine work-up of suspect breast lesions, ultrasound-controlled core needle biopsy (CNB) is the most common tool to acquire tissue for histopathologic analysis in a safe, quick and convenient way. Complications are generally rare. The most common complications are hematoma and infection, each with less than 1 in 1000 cases.
Case Report
Here, we present a case of a 48-year-old patient who underwent CNB for several lesions that were assessed as Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) IV in breast ultrasound and mammography. In the past, she had had 2 bilateral breast reduction surgeries and 1 open biopsy of a fibroadenoma. Histology revealed a phyllodes tumor. Following this, mastitis occurred which was resistant to common conservative measurements such as intravenous antibiotics over months. Finally, mastectomy was performed, followed by adequate wound healing.
In the presented case, the prolonged course of breast infection after CNB was not as expected. If this occurs, conservative treatment with antibiotics can be initiated. Possible additional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, or immunosuppression should be identified. However, in case of missing recovery, wide surgical excision is recommended.
PMCID: PMC3409383  PMID: 22872800
Core needle biopsy; Complication; Mastitis; Phyllodes tumor
23.  Detected, yet not Diagnosed – Breast Cancer Screening with MRI Mammography in High-Risk Women 
Breast Care  2012;7(3):236-239.
MRI has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive imaging method for detecting breast cancer in women at high risk, allowing depiction of cancers that are occult on mammography, ultrasound and clinical breast examination. This high sensitivity is tempered by imperfect specificity due to overlap in the features of benign and malignant lesions.
We present the case of a young BRCA2 mutation carrier whose breast cancer could have been diagnosed 2 years earlier; this is a rare case of a false-negative finding in MRI.
We discuss morphological, physiological and psychological reasons for underestimation of MRI sets, especially in young women.
We conclude that double reading in MR screening for breast cancer in high-risk women, as conducted for mammography screening, could be considered.
PMCID: PMC3409389  PMID: 22872799
Breast imaging; Familiar breast cancer; Double reading
24.  Are Breast Masses in Teenagers Always Benign? Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Sarcoma in a 14-Year-Old Girl 
Breast Care  2012;7(2):144-146.
This article is concerned with the evaluation of an adolescent breast mass using imaging methods.
Case Report
A 14-year-old girl presented with progressive asymmetric enlargement of the left breast. She had felt a breast lump about 4 months earlier, and over the last 2 months it had been growing progressively. Tumor markers, including AFP, CEA, CA15-3, and CA125, were all normal. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoichyperechoic, solid mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast revealed a well marginated mass with hypointensity on T1-weighted images and mild hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, which showed mild contrast uptake. Biopsy revealed an undifferentiated malignant mesenchymal sarcoma. The patient underwent mastectomy with axillary lymph node sampling. After the operation, she received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Due to the rarity of breast sarcoma and inadequate imaging methods to establish an exact diagnosis, radiologists and clinicians may misdiagnose and merely follow these tumors. As in our case, the histology of the patient may be the leading factor in the management of these tumors. Even in very young patients, progressively growing breast masses should alert the clinician to check for malignancy verified by biopsy.
PMCID: PMC3376362  PMID: 22740802
Breast lump; Sarcoma, undifferentiated; MRI; Adolescent breast cancer
25.  Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Carcinosarcoma of the Breast in a Young Chinese Patient 
Breast Care  2012;7(2):147-149.
Carcinosarcoma is an exceptionally rare and poorly differentiated kind of breast neoplasm with only few published reports in the literature.
Case Report
We report a case of breast carcinosarcoma in a 26-year-old Chinese female patient, presenting as multiple lumps in a single breast. A nipple-sparing modified radical mastectomy was performed. The patient is now in her 7th postoperative month and disease-free.
Carcinosarcoma is challenging to diagnose preoperatively, even with core needle biopsy histopathology. Modified radical mastectomy is an efficient and practical operative treatment. Application of adjuvant therapy should be based on the proportion of carcinomatous component of the lesion in pathological test. Careful periodic follow-up after the initial treatment is strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3376366  PMID: 22740803
Carcinosarcoma; Breast

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