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1.  Protein Kinase C-ε Promotes EMT in Breast Cancer 
Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine/threonine kinases, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. PKCε, a member of the novel PKC family, is known to be a transforming oncogene and a tumor biomarker for aggressive breast cancers. In this study, we examined the involvement of PKCε in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process that leads the way to metastasis. Overexpression of PKCε was sufficient to induce a mesenchymal phenotype in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial MCF-10 A cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and claudin-1, and an increase in mesenchymal marker vimentin. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induced Snail expression and mesenchymal morphology in MCF-10 A cells, and these effects were partially reversed by the PKCε knockdown. PKCε also mediated cell migration and anoikis resistance, which are hallmarks of EMT. Thus, our study demonstrates that PKCε is an important mediator of EMT in breast cancer.
doi:10.4137/BCBCR.S13640
PMCID: PMC3972078  PMID: 24701121
PKCε; EMT; breast cancer
2.  Molecular targets of breast cancer: AKTing in concert 
Despite significant advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, many patients succumb to this disease. The elucidation of aberrant signaling pathways that lead to breast cancer should help develop more effective therapeutic strategies. The Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Overexpression/activation of Akt has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to hormonal and chemotherapy. Although mutations in Akt are rare in breast cancer, the activity of Akt is regulated by hormones, growth factors, growth factor receptors, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are often deregulated in breast cancer. The objective of this commentary is to discuss recent literature on how activation of Akt by various signaling pathways contributes to breast cancer and confers resistance to current therapy.
PMCID: PMC2678835  PMID: 19430575
Akt; PTEN; mTOR; breast cancer therapy
3.  Molecular Targets of Breast Cancer: AKTing in Concert 
Despite significant advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, many patients succumb to this disease. The elucidation of aberrant signaling pathways that lead to breast cancer should help develop more effective therapeutic strategies. The Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Overexpression/activation of Akt has been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to hormonal and chemotherapy. Although mutations in Akt are rare in breast cancer, the activity of Akt is regulated by hormones, growth factors, growth factor receptors, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are often deregulated in breast cancer. The objective of this commentary is to discuss recent literature on how activation of Akt by various signaling pathways contributes to breast cancer and confers resistance to current therapy.
PMCID: PMC2678835  PMID: 19430575
Akt; PTEN; mTOR; breast cancer therapy

Results 1-3 (3)