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1.  Comparison between brain CT and MRI for voxel-based morphometry of Alzheimer's disease 
Brain and Behavior  2013;3(4):487-493.
The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) technique using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) objectively maps gray matter loss on a voxel-by-voxel basis after anatomic standardization. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), reductions of gray matter volume, mainly in the medial temporal structures, have been reported; however, inhomogeneity and geometric distortion of the field intensity hampers the reproducibility of MRI. In the present study, we developed a novel computed tomography (CT)-based VBM method and used this technique to detect volume loss in AD patients as compared with normal controls. The results were compared with MRI-based VBM using the same subjects. Pittsburgh Compound B (11C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT was performed and two experts in neuro-nuclear medicine judged whether regional amyloid β load was consistent with a diagnosis of AD. Before the injection of 11C-PIB, high-quality CT scans were obtained using the same PET/CT equipment. MRI was performed within a mean interval of 25.1 ± 8.2 days before the PET/CT scan. Using statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8), the extracted gray matter images from CT and MRI were spatially normalized using a gray matter template and smoothed using a Gaussian kernel. Group comparisons were performed using SPM8 between five 11C-PIB-positive patients with probable AD and seven 11C-PIB-negative age-matched controls with normal cognition. Gray matter volumes in the bilateral medial temporal areas were reduced in the AD group as compared with the cognitively normal group in both CT-based VBM (in the left; P < 0.0001, cluster size 2776 and in the right; P < 0.0001, cluster size 630) and MRI-based VBM (in the left; P < 0.0001, cluster size 381 and in the right, P < 0.0001, cluster size 421). This newly developed CT-based VBM technique can detect significant atrophy in the entorhinal cortex in probable AD patients as previously reported using MRI-based VBM. However, CT-VBM was more sensitive and revealed larger areas of significant atrophy than MR-VBM.
doi:10.1002/brb3.146
PMCID: PMC3869687  PMID: 24381817
Alzheimer's disease; CT; PIB; VBM
2.  Pilot data on telmisartan short-term effects on glucose metabolism in the olfactory tract in Alzheimer's disease 
Brain and Behavior  2011;1(2):63-69.
The possible effect of antihypertensive therapy on Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been suggested to exert an effect on cognitive decline. The purpose of this study is to clarify the functional effects of telmisartan, a long-acting ARB, on AD brain using prospective longitudinal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies. For this purpose, brain glucose metabolism of four hypertensive patients with AD was examined with FDG-PET before and after administration of telmisartan. Studied subjects underwent three FDG-PET studies at intervals of 12 weeks. Antihypertensive treatment except for telmisartan was started after the first FDG-PET and continued for 24 weeks. Then 40–80 mg of telmisartan was added after the second FDG-PET and continued for 12 weeks.Glucose metabolism was significantly decreased during the first 12 weeks without telmisartan use at an area (−10, 21, −22, x, y, z; Z = 3.56) caudal to the left rectal gyrus and the olfactory sulcus corresponding to the left olfactory tract. In contrast, the introduction of telmisartan during the following 12 weeks preserved glucose metabolism at areas (5, 19, −20, x, y, z; Z = 3.09; 6, 19, −22, x, y, z; Z = 2.88) caudal to the bilateral rectal gyri and olfactory sulci corresponding to the bilateral olfactory tracts. No areas showed decreased glucose metabolism after the introduction of telmisartan. In AD, amyloid-β deposition is observed in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) of the olfactory tract. Glucose metabolism in AON may be progressively decreased and preserved by telmisartan.
doi:10.1002/brb3.13
PMCID: PMC3236542  PMID: 22399085
Alzheimer's disease (AD); angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB); telmisartan; 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET); anterior olfactory nucleus

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