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1.  Epidemiology of infection by serotypes D to K of chlamydia trachomatis. 
Non-specific urethritis (NSU) is a sexually transmitted disease; 50% of cases are due to Chlamydia trachomatis, so that this is the commonest sexually transmitted infection in the developed world. Chlamydial infection is now readily diagnosable and the evidence increasingly suggests that it is underdiagnosed. Chlamydial conjunctivitis (in the newborn baby or the adult) in the developed world is a complication of sexually transmitted genital infection by C trachomatis and it indicates a large reservoir of such infections. Because of the association of sexually transmitted diseases, systemic treatment for such chlamydial conjunctivitis should not be given until full genital and serological investigators have been carried out. Chlamydial infection causes serious complications (that were formerly often thought to be gonococcal), such as epididymitis in young men and salpingitis on young women. It may cause local complications in the eye of the newborn baby and even pneumonia in babies and fatal endocarditis in adults. The diagnosis of NSU should lead to the correct treatment of the male patient and of his sexual partners. It is the promiscuous woman, who does not have a regular sexual partner to report back to her that he has NSU, who is at particular risk of undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Routine genital investigations for chlamydia are particularly indicated in her case. Following the parallel of gonorrhoea, it seems that the use of contact tracers may be an effective method for controlling chlamydial infection.
PMCID: PMC1045760  PMID: 7427689
2.  Chlamydial genital infection in prostitutes in Iran. 
The prevalence of chlamydial genital infection was studied in 177 prostitutes in Iran; 100 in Teheran and 77 in the port of Bandar Abbas. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in eight (6.9%) of 116 patients with valid cultures. Type-specific antibodies were found against C trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital serotypes) in 94.2% and against serotypes A to C (trachoma serotypes) in 2% of the prostitutes. Type-specific IgM at a titre of greater than or equal to 8, indicating current infection, was found in 29.2%, whereas type-specific IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 64, suggesting a current or recent infection, was present in 71.5%. The lower chlamydial isolation rate in these women may have been due to previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs and because of immune responses resulting from repeated reinfection with chlamydiae. The results indicate that in Iran prostitutes are commonly infected with C trachomatis and are probably a major reservoir of chlamydial genital infection.
PMCID: PMC1046131  PMID: 6824908
3.  Chlamydial urethral infection in Teheran. A study of male patients attending an STD clinic. 
The prevalence of chlamydial infection of the urethra was studied in 172 consecutive male patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Teheran. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in 8.8% of the patients with a valid culture result. Of the five isolates serotyped, two were serotype E and three were serotypes G, H, and K. Type-specific antibodies against C trachomatis serotypes D to K were found in 16% of patients, and IgM, indicating current infection, was detected in 12%. Type-specific antibodies against serotypes A to C (trachoma agent) were detected in 5.4%. The low chlamydial isolation rate may have been due to the inclusion of a large number of patients with a mild or trivial urethritis or a history of previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs. The results indicate that in Iran where trachoma is still endemic, chlamydial infection of the urethra does occur in the urban population and is caused by serotypes D to K.
PMCID: PMC1046105  PMID: 7171980
6.  Subclinical pneumonia due to serotypes D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis. Case reports of two infants. 
Pneumonia due to serotypes D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis occurred in a 10-week-old baby, who had been successfully treated with chlortetracycline eye ointment for chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum, and in a 7-week-old baby being treated for the same condition. Clinical signs of pneumonia were minimal. Such chlamydial pneumonia in infants must be under-diagnosed. Infants with chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum are now routinely treated with erythromycin suspension by mouth in addition to chlortetracycline eye ointment.
PMCID: PMC1045820  PMID: 7427706
7.  Antichlamydial antibodies in pelvic inflammatory disease. 
The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosed without laparoscopy was assessed by measuring antichlamydial antibodies in the patient's serum and by comparing the results with those in patients with uncomplicated non-specific genital infection (NSGI) and gonorrhoea and in non-infected controls. A modified microimmunofluorescence test was used. Patients with severe PID had significantly more positive antichlamydial IgG and IgM results than did control subjects, patients with gonorrhoea, and patients with NSGI. Less severe PID was associated with significantly raised levels of antichlamydial IgG antibodies compared with NSGI and controls and with raised levels of IgM antibodies compared with controls. Two patients with PID had lower genital tract gonorrhoea, one of whom had raised antichlamydial antibody levels. These findings may indicate a mixed infection and therapy should be reviewed in such patients. A serological diagnosis of chlamydial infection is relatively easy and cheap and enables a rapid diagnosis of chlamydial infection to be made.
PMCID: PMC1045701  PMID: 526845
8.  Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in acute salpingitis. 
Recent isolation studies have shown Chlamydia trachomatis to be an important aetiological agent in acute salpingitis in women. The present serological study indicates that C. trachomatis is the probable aetiological agent in two-thirds of 143 women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In general, high levels of chlamydial antibody were found in sera and fluids aspirated from the pouch of Douglas and such antibody titres were shown to correlate with the severity of clinically graded tubal inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1045577  PMID: 427512
9.  Rapid diagnosis of chlamydial infection of the cervix. 
A rapid serodiagnostic test for the presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial infection of the cervix has been developed. The method used in based on the modified micro-immunofluorescence test using pooled chlamydial antigens and the detection of different immunoglobulin classes of chlamydial antibody in sera and cervical secretions. The presence of IgG chlamydial antibody at a level of 1/64, or IgM antibody at a level of 1/8 or greater, or both in sera and IgG or IgA antibody at a level of 1/8 or more or both in cervical secretions was closely associated with the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and non-specific genital infection. In general, serodiagnosis was three to nine times more sensitive than cultural methods, and the detection of IgG chlamydial antibody in cervical secretions alone provided the most sensitive of the serological tests. This sensitive, low-cost, rapid, and simple serodiagnostic test for the presumptive diagnosis of chlamydial infection of the cervix, coupled with transportation of specimens by post, offers advantages over conventional isolation techniques for the routine diagnosis and management of chlamydial genital infections.
PMCID: PMC1045559  PMID: 367526
10.  Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in non-acute prostatitis. 
The possible role of Chlamydia trachomatis in non-acute prostatitis was investigated by cultural and serological techniques in a study of 53 adult males. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urethra of only one of the 53 patients and from none of the 28 specimens of prostatic fluid from the same patients. By means of a modified microimmunofluorescent test, serum chlamydial IgG antibodies at a titre of 1/64 or greater, or IgM antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater, or both were detected in six of the patients, suggesting a recent or current chlamydial infection, while IgG or IgA antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater were detected in the specimens of prostatic fluid from two of the 28 men studied. In the seven patients with evidence of chlamydial infection, as well as in a further 13 of the 53 patients studied, the presenting symptoms suggested non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) rather than prostatitis. Thus in this study C. trachomatis would appear to play a minor aetiological role, if any, in non-acute prostatitis.
PMCID: PMC1045534  PMID: 709348
11.  Urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis. 
Ninety-five men suffering from gonococcal urethritis were treated and observed. Forty-nine developed postgonococcal non-specific urethritis (PGU). Seventeen men were demonstrated to be free from PGU after careful observation; these formed a control group. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from urethral material from 26 (53%) of the PGU group but from none of the controls. This difference was highly significant (P less than 0-001). It confirms that C. tachomatis is a pathogen in the urethra. The presence of specific IgM antibody to C. trachomatis in serum from some men developing PGU, from whom that organism was isolated, suggests that the infection was recent in those cases. Ureaplasma urealyticum (T strain mycoplasma) was isolated from urethral material taken from 22 (45%) of the 49 men in the PGU group, and from 12 (71%) of the 17 in the control group. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 10 (20%) of the 49 men in the PGU group, and from four (24%) of the 17 men in the control group. Thus, no evidence was obtained that mycoplasmas (U. urealyticum, M. hominis) are patogenic in the urethra.
PMCID: PMC1045386  PMID: 871894

Results 1-13 (13)