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1.  Simple method for detecting penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus. 
A filter paper acidometric test, using bromocresol purple as pH indicator, for detecting penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and Staphylococcus aureus gave complete agreement with the chromogenic cephalosporin and rapid iodometric methods when performed on 300 strains of gonococci and 70 strains of Staph aureus. The test is cheap and simple and may be used to screen for penicillinase-producing strains of N gonorrhoeae and Staph aureus.
PMCID: PMC1045891  PMID: 6783262
2.  Two dose Augmentin treatment of acute gonorrhoea in men. 
We studied 192 men with acute gonococcal urethritis, 97 of whom received two oral doses of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g and clavulanic acid 250 mg) separated by a four hour interval; the remaining 95 received 2 g kanamycin in a single intramuscular injection. Of the patients treated with Augmentin, 93 (95.9%) were cured, which was significantly more than the 83 (87.4%) patients treated with kanamycin. Augmentin was equally effective in the treatment of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and non-PPNG infections, the cure rates for which were 96.6% and 95.6% respectively.
PMCID: PMC1046291  PMID: 6428699
3.  Treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea with rosoxacin (acrosoxacin). 
An open study was designed primarily to evaluate the efficacy of rosoxacin in the treatment of gonorrhoea caused by penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and non-PPNG strains. A total of 199 patients (99 men and 100 women) satisfactorily completed follow up examinations, 50 men and 50 women having received rosoxacin 300 mg orally and the remainder having received kanamycin 2 g intramuscularly. Rosoxacin achieved an overall cure rate of 94% (96.7% for PPNG and 90% for non-PPNG strains). In patients treated with kanamycin the overall cure rate was 89.9% (92.7% for PPNG and 83.3% for non-PPNG strains). A correlation between treatment failures and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of rosoxacin was noted in non-PPNG strains but not in PPNG strains. Side effects which were mild and self limiting were noted in 15 of 100 patients treated with rosoxacin. The high failure rates associated with non-PPNG strains requiring MICs of 0.125 mg/l and the observation of a substantial rise in the MICs for isolates after treatment is of concern. Otherwise, rosoxacin in a single dose of 300 mg appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea.
PMCID: PMC1046290  PMID: 6428698
4.  Ceftriaxone in the treatment of ordinary and penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 
Ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, was used in a single intramuscular dose with oral probenecid to treat 124 men with infections due to non-penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (non-PPNG) and 64 men with infections due to PPNG. Three different doses of ceftriaxone were used--125 mg, 62.5 mg, ad 32.5 mg, and 32.5. The cure rate for all PPNG infections with the different doses was 100%. The cure rate for the non-PPNG infections with ceftriaxone 125 mg was 100%; those for non-PPNG infections treated with ceftriaxone 62.5 mg and 32.5 mg were 96.2% and 97.3% respectively. The 160 strains of non-PPNG and 60 strains of PPNG isolated were all susceptible to ceftriaxone with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.008 microgram/ml. These results are compared with those using kanamycin 2 g. Ceftriaxone is a safe and effective treatment for PPNG and non-PPNG infections.
PMCID: PMC1046083  PMID: 6289963
5.  Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae ophthalmia neonatorum in Singapore. 
The problem of ophthalmia neonatorum due to penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) has grown with the increasing prevalence of PPNG strains in Singapore. The epidemiological trends, clinical features, and treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum due to PPNG have been determined from the case histories of 11 babies with this condition treated between 1978 and 1980. All 11 cases were cured with a single intramuscular injection of kanamycin 0.5 g and 1% kanamycin eyedrops instilled for three days. In six of the 11 mothers, a non-PPNG strain was isolated.
PMCID: PMC1046081  PMID: 6812847
6.  Characteristics of Haemophilus ducreyi. A study. 
In a study of 13 local and four reference strains of Haemophilus ducreyi all grew well on a selective medium consisting of Bacto proteose No 3 agar (Difco), soluble starch, IsoVitalex, human blood, and vancomycin. All the strains reduced nitrate, were alkaline-phosphatase-positive, and (with one exception) used glucose, fructose, and mannose, beta-lactamase was produced by 12 local strains. Erythromycin was the the most effective antibiotic tested, followed by streptomycin, co-trimoxazole, and spectinomycin.
PMCID: PMC1046057  PMID: 6980682
7.  Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cefotaxime and ceftizoxime. 
Two hundred and thirty-nine penicillinase-positive and 240 penicillinase-negative strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were tested for their susceptibility to cefotaxime. All were susceptible to cefotaxime at a concentration of 0.062 micrograms/ml. Penicillinase-negative strains were less susceptible than penicillinase-positive strains. This is attributed to the use of prophylactic antibiotics by prostitutes, which has led to the selection of less susceptible penicillinase-negative strains but has not affected the susceptibility of penicillinase-positive strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime showed significant positive correlations with those of penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and kanamycin but had a negative correlation with spectinomycin. The related cephalosporin, ceftizoxime, was found to be as effective as cefotaxime against penicillinase-positive and penicillinase-negative gonococci.
PMCID: PMC1045906  PMID: 6263403
8.  Epidemiology of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Singapore. 
The number of infections with penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains in Singapore has risen from three in 1976 to 1792 in 1979. In the latter year they formed 19.2% of all infections with gonorrhoea, and 1280 of the strains isolated were from female prostitutes. The prevalence of PPNG infections is analysed according to the different sections of the community and racial groups. Despite energetic control measures PPNG strains are not being contained within Singapore. Thus global dissemination from such a busy port and tourist centre is a real danger.
PMCID: PMC1045905  PMID: 6786701
9.  Gentamicin in the treatment of infections due to penicillinase-producing gonococci. 
Ninety-seven patients with infections due to penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) were treated with single doses of gentamicin 280 mg intramuscularly. The failure rate among those followed up was 3%. No significant side effects were recorded. Gentamicin is a valuable alternative in the treatment of infections due to PPNG strains.
PMCID: PMC1045839  PMID: 6778589
10.  Comparison of methods for the detection of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 
In an evaluation of four methods for detecting penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae the chromogenic cephalosporin, rapid iodometric, and penicillin disc diffusion methods gave complete agreement for all the 202 strains of gonococci tested. No false-positive or false-negative results occurred. The filter paper iodometric method detected 99% of the penicillinase-producing strains without any false-positive result.
PMCID: PMC1045813  PMID: 6775771
11.  HR 756--a new cephalosporin in the treatment of gonorrhoea caused by ordinary and penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 
HR 756, a new cephalosporin, was used in single intramuscular doses of 500 mg to treat 108 men and women with gonorrhoea caused by penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and non-PPNG. Of 102 patients followed up, 99 (97.05%) were cured. Cure rates for PPNG infections and non-PPNG infections were 98.18% and 95.74% respectively. Few adverse side effects were recorded but possible cross-sensitisation with penicillin was observed. Clinical and laboratory antibiotic susceptibility results correlated well. It is concluded that this drug is safe and effective in treating both PPNG and non-PPNG infectons.
PMCID: PMC1045791  PMID: 6253023
12.  Inactivation of gonococci by procaine penicillin in vivo. A pilot study. 
A pilot study was carried out of 25 male volunteers with gonococcal urethritis. After intramuscular administration of 3 megaunits procaine penicillin and 1 g oral probenecid the urethral culture results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae remained positive up to five hours and thereafter became negative. These results may be useful in providing guidelines for advice on the duration of sexual abstinence following treatment. It is suggested that similar studies should be carried out in women.
PMCID: PMC1045557  PMID: 737516
13.  HLA and sexually transmitted diseases in prostitutes. 
The HLA profile of 148 unrelated, Chinese prostitutes (56 with repeated gonococcal infection, 31 with syphilis, 31 with gonorrhoea and syphilis, and 30 with no evidence of infection) was compared with that of 238 unrelated, healthy, Chinese control subjects. The joint occurrence of AW19 B17 was observed in 25.8% of prostitutes with double infections compared with 6.7% of control subjects, while that of A11 B15, on the other hand, was associated with a resistance to syphilis and gonorrhoea. The latter profile was observed in 46.7% of prostitutes in business for more than two years who were resistant to disease, in 30% of prostitutes with an overall disease resistance, in 13.4% of control subjects, and in only 3.2% of prostitutes with combined syphilis and gonorrhoea. Because of the statistical uncertainty when multiple variables are being analysed these studies should be repeated in other groups of prostitutes of the same and different ethnic origins.
PMCID: PMC1045631  PMID: 582426

Results 1-14 (14)