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1.  Toxic effect of sampling swabs and transportation test tubes on the formation of intracytoplasmic inclusions of Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cell cultures. 
The ability of Chlamydia trachomatis, immunotype E, to produce intracytoplasmic inclusions in cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells after being exposed to different types of sampling swabs in experimentally infected transport medium was studied. A larger number of inclusions was obtained with cotton-tipped aluminium and rayon-tipped plastic swabs than with calcium-alginate-tipped aluminium and cotton-tipped wooden swabs (P less than 0.0001). Transport medium stored in glass tubes caused a cytopathic effect when inoculated on to McCoy cell cultures; no such effect occurred with plastic tubes. When cotton-tipped aluminium instead of calcium-alginate-tipped aluminium swabs were used to collect 50 make urethral specimens significantly more were chlamydia-positive (P less than 0.025). This was also true when cotton-tipped aluminium swabs were used instead of alginate-tipped swabs in a study of 123 cervical specimens (P less than 0.01). When the calcium-alginate-tipped aluminium and cotton-tipped wooden swabs were shaken in the transport medium after sampling from the male urethra and the cervix, instead of being left in the medium during transport to the laboratory, more specimens were chlamydia-positive and a greater number of chlamydial inclusions were found per culture-positive sample; these results were, however, not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05).
PMCID: PMC1045939  PMID: 6268242
2.  Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection. 
In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.
PMCID: PMC1045937  PMID: 6791761
3.  Endometritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. 
Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be the aetiological agent of endometritis in three women with concomitant signs of salpingitis. All patients developed a significant antibody response to the organism. Chlamydia were recovered from aspirated uterine contents of two patients and darkfield examination of histological sections showed chlamydial inclusions in endometrial cells in one patient. Thus, C trachomatis can be recovered from the endometrium of patients in whom the cervical culture result is negative. In one patient curettage showed endometritis with a characteristic plasma-cell infiltration. The occurrence of chlamydial endometritis may explain why irregular bleeding is a common finding in patients with salpingitis. It also suggests a canalicular spread of chlamydia from the cervix to the Fallopian tubes.
PMCID: PMC1045915  PMID: 7237083
4.  Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Greenland. A seroepidemiological study. 
In a sero-epidemiological study of the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in Greenland three groups of subjects were studied--262 patients attending an outpatient department in the town of Nuuk (of whom 12% harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 54% Neisseria gonorrhoeae), 63 controls from the same town, and the entire population of 150 in the settlement of Uvkusigsat. Using a microimmunofluorescence test evidence of exposure to C trachomatis was found in 79% of the female and 26% of the male patients, in 12% and 50% of the female and male controls respectively, and in 51% and 21% of the female and male populations of Uvkusigsat respectively. Using an indirect haemagglutination test antibodies to gonococcal pili were found in sera of 92% of the female and 70% of the male patients, in 30% of the male and 10% of the female controls, and in 41% of the women and 33% of the men in Uvkusigsat. The study indicates that genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections are serious public health problems in Greenland and that such infections are acquired early in both sexes and often occur concomitantly.
PMCID: PMC1045818  PMID: 6775773
5.  Colonisation of pregnant and puerperal women and neonates with Chlamydia trachomatis. 
Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from cervical specimens of 14 (16.1%) of 231 women applying for legal abortion and from 23 (8.7%) of 273 puerperal women. The chlamydial isolation rate was related to the women's age. Of the pregnant and puerperal women under 20 years C trachomatis was isolated in 10% and 24% respectively; in those aged between 20 and 24 years the rates were 8.7% and 10.2% respectively whereas in those over 24 years the rates were 4.2% in both groups. Chlamydia were isolated more frequently from cervical specimens than from urethral specimens. However, if a cervical specimen alone had been examined the diagnosis would have been missed in three (17%) of 18 women. IgG antichlamydial antibodies (titre greater than or equal to 1/32) were detected by a micro-immunofluorescence test in samples of cord blood from 35 (25%) of 139 infants of the puerperal women. Of the 23 infants born to mothers harbouring chlamydia in the cervix C trachomatis was isolated from the conjuntival folds in five (22.5%). The chlamydial isolation rate from the eyes of the neonates was related to the time of sampling. None of the 108 infants examined between 6 and 7 days old was chlamydia-positive whereas chlamydia could be recovered from the conjunctival folds of four of them when re-examined from three to 23 days later.
PMCID: PMC1045741  PMID: 6770959
8.  Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tubes. Histological findings in two patients. 
In two patients with acute salpingitis, C. trachomatis was isolated from the cervix. In one of the patients, the organism was also recovered from the Fallopian tubes, and in the other, chlamydial inclusions were found in Giemsa-stained tubal epithelial cells. A significant change in micro-immunofluorescence antibodies to C. trachomatis occurred in both patients during the course of the disease. The Fallopian tubes of both patients were removed and studied by conventional histological techniques and, in the case of one of them, by transmission electron microscopy.
PMCID: PMC1045702  PMID: 526846
9.  Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the aetiology of nongonococcal urethritis. 
The occurrence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral specimens of 252 men attending a venereal disease clinic was studied. When using a selective broth medium containing novobiocin and nalidixic acid, Staph. saprophyticus was isolated from 20.8% of 178 men with symptoms of urethritis and from 14.9% of 74 men without such symptoms. Staph. saprophyticus was found significantly less often in controls (7.1% of 56) than in the men with symptoms of urethritis. In the 35 men from whom Staph. saprophyticus was recovered more than 10 leucocytes per high power field in urethral smears occurred more often than in those from whom this organism, or either of the other two agents, were not isolated. No differences were found in the symptoms reported by the men harbouring Staph. saprophyticus or C. trachomatis or those with negative cultures. The results of the present study tend to suggest that Staph. saprophyticus is the aetiological agent of some cases of nongonococcal urethritis.
PMCID: PMC1045684  PMID: 116708
10.  Studies of ciliated epithelia of the human genital tract. 3: Mucociliary wave activity in organ cultures of human Fallopian tubes challenged with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonococcal endotoxin. 
Quantative determinations of the mucociliary activity of human Fallopian tube epithelium maintained as organ cultures were performed using a light beam reflex method. In non-infected organ cultures the mucociliary wave (MCW) frequency slowly decreased during the first 54 hours of culture maintenance. In organ cultures experimentally infected with fresh isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae producing T1/T2 colonies the MCW frequency either decreased to subnormal values or completely ceased whereas in organ cultured infected with a laboratory-adapted gonococcal strain the MCW frequencies remained within normal range. In organ cultures exposed to gonococcal endotoxin prepared from the laboratory-adapted strain, as well as in cultures in which cell-free filtrates of medium from organ cultures infected with N. gonorrhoeae (producing T1/T2 colonies) were added to the culture medium, the ciliary activity decreased and subsequently ceased. The same phenomenon occurred when organ cultures were challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin. The ciliostatic effect appeared before any morphological changes in the surface epithelium, including the cilia, were demonstrable by scanning electron microscopy.
PMCID: PMC1045649  PMID: 114195
11.  Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in acute salpingitis. 
Recent isolation studies have shown Chlamydia trachomatis to be an important aetiological agent in acute salpingitis in women. The present serological study indicates that C. trachomatis is the probable aetiological agent in two-thirds of 143 women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In general, high levels of chlamydial antibody were found in sera and fluids aspirated from the pouch of Douglas and such antibody titres were shown to correlate with the severity of clinically graded tubal inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1045577  PMID: 427512
12.  Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in non-acute prostatitis. 
The possible role of Chlamydia trachomatis in non-acute prostatitis was investigated by cultural and serological techniques in a study of 53 adult males. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urethra of only one of the 53 patients and from none of the 28 specimens of prostatic fluid from the same patients. By means of a modified microimmunofluorescent test, serum chlamydial IgG antibodies at a titre of 1/64 or greater, or IgM antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater, or both were detected in six of the patients, suggesting a recent or current chlamydial infection, while IgG or IgA antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater were detected in the specimens of prostatic fluid from two of the 28 men studied. In the seven patients with evidence of chlamydial infection, as well as in a further 13 of the 53 patients studied, the presenting symptoms suggested non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) rather than prostatitis. Thus in this study C. trachomatis would appear to play a minor aetiological role, if any, in non-acute prostatitis.
PMCID: PMC1045534  PMID: 709348
13.  Studies on ciliated epithelia of the human genital tract. I. Swelling of the cilia of Fallopian tube epithelium in organ cultures infected with Mycoplasma hominis. 
Organ cultures of human Fallopian tubes were infected with Mycoplasma hominis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed swelling of the cilia of the tubal epithelial cells in infected cultures. In some, the entire cilia were swollen; in others, only the tips. Uninfected cultures kept for up to 7 days showed no structural changes in the cilia or other surface structures. M. hominis multiplied in organ cultures, but not in culture medium without tissue. A practical organ culture technique for the preparation of specimens for electron microscopy is described.
PMCID: PMC1045212  PMID: 1260408

Results 1-13 (13)