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2.  Bacterial interference of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by alpha-haemolytic streptococci. 
Fifty pharyngeal isolates of alpha-haemolytic streptococci were tested against 20 cervical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae for bacterial interference in vitro using the lawn-spotting method. Forty-seven (94%) isolates of streptococci showed inhibitory activity toward N gonorrhoeae, although nine of these were inhibitory to only one isolate of N gonorrhoeae. Isolates of N gonorrhoeae varied widely in their sensitivity to streptococci; the most sensitive were inhibited by 40 isolates of streptococci and the least sensitive by only 14 isolates. Species of Streptococcus found to inhibit growth of N gonorrhoeae were S mitis, S MG intermedius, S sanguis II, S mutans, and S morbillorum.
PMCID: PMC1045785  PMID: 6775764
3.  Attachment of gonococci to sperm. Influence of physical and chemical factors. 
Neisseria gonorrhoeae of pilated T1 and nonpilated T4 colony types attached themselves to human sperm in greatest numbers and most reproducibly when suspensions of the cells were incubated at 35 degrees C in Ringer's solution, pH 6-8. After incubation for 15 or 30 min. in a water bath shaker, 50 per cent. of human sperm had T1 gonococci attached and 25 per cent. T4. Sperm and both types of gonococci were pre-incubated separately with various chemical agents, selected because the agent is found in genital fluids, or has a known effect on bacterial cell walls or sperm membrane. After treatment, sperm were washed or were not washed, and were then tested for attachment by mixture with untreated gonococci. Treated gonococci were handled in the same manner. Change in the percentage of attachment was defined as deviation from the range expected on the basis of a standard curve. Treatment of sperm with the nucleotides, ATP or cAMP, curtailed attachment by T1 gonococci but had no effect on attachment by T4.
PMCID: PMC1045238  PMID: 178405
12.  Group B streptococcal infection: a review and update. 
The problems posed by the sudden increase in serious group B streptococcal disease among infants since the early 1970s are described and discussed. Virtually all offspring of colonised mothers harbour the organism and infection develops in about 1% of these infants. The mortality rate, even with immediate antibiotic treatment of early onset disease, is 30%; delay in treatment leads to much higher mortality. Late onset disease starting around the seventh to ninth day of life, but sometimes as late as the second month, is less frequently fatal. Preventive measures include active and passive immunisation or intravenous ampicillin during labour. Experimental evidence indicates that each of these methods gives protection.
PMCID: PMC1045604  PMID: 376062
13.  Method for studying the role of indigenous cervical flora in colonisation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 
A method for quantitating cervical flora has been evaluated statistically and used to study the bacterial flora of the cervix in 14 women sexually exposed to men with gonococcal urethritis. A comparison was made between those women who subsequently became colonised with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and those who did not to determine whether either total microbial populations or the different species present could be related to colonisation by N. gonorrhoeae. Two control groups of healthy women, one of patients from a public clinic and the other of patients from a private practice, were studied in the same way. Normal flora isolates were tested in vitro for antagonism or synergism toward N. gonorrhoeae or both. Cervical flora was characterised in all patient groups by wide variations between individuals, both in type and numbers of organisms. No significant differences were found in total bacterial populations or in the number of species isolated from the cervix between patient groups. Populations of N. gonorrhoeae ranged from less than 10 bacteria to log104.36. Only one normal flora isolate, a strain of Streptococcus viridans isolated from a woman exposed to but not infected by N. gonorrhoeae, demonstrated inhibition of growth towards N. gonorrhoeae.
PMCID: PMC1045555  PMID: 104769

Results 1-13 (13)