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1.  Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial embolisation in rabbit liver: investigation of the ablation zone according to the time interval between the two therapies 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1019):e987-e994.
This study was designed to evaluate the extent of the radiofrequency ablation zone in relation to the time interval between transcatheter arterial embolisation (TAE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and, ultimately, to determine the optimal strategy of combining these two therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.
15 rabbits were evenly divided into three groups: Group A was treated with RFA alone; Group B was treated with TAE immediately followed by RFA; and Group C was treated with TAE followed by RFA 5 days later. All animals underwent perfusion CT (PCT) scans immediately after RFA. Serum liver transaminases were measured to evaluate acute liver damage. Animals were euthanised for pathological analysis of ablated tissues 10 days after RFA. Non-parametric analyses were conducted to compare PCT indices, the RFA zone and liver transaminase levels among the three experimental groups.
Group B showed a significantly larger ablation zone than the other two groups. Arterial liver perfusion and hepatic perfusion index represented well the perfusion decrease after TAE on PCT. Although Group B showed the most elevated liver transaminase levels at 1 day post RFA, the enzymes decreased to levels that were not different from the other groups at 10 days post-RFA.
When combined TAE and RFA therapy is considered, TAE should be followed by RFA as quickly as possible, as it can be performed safely without serious hepatic deterioration, despite the short interval between the two procedures.
PMCID: PMC3500822  PMID: 22674711
2.  Small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas: value of diffusion-weighted imaging compared with “washout” appearance on dynamic MRI 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1018):e879-e886.
To compare the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) with the venous “washout” appearance during dynamic MRI for the assessment of small arterial hypervascular lesions in cirrhotic liver.
After exclusion of benign hypervascular lesions, including haemangiomas and subcapsular non-tumorous arterioportal shunts, indicated by typical imaging features, a total of 109 small arterial hypervascular lesions (0.5–3.0 cm in the longest diameter) in 65 patients with cirrhosis who underwent gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI and DWI (b=50, 400, 800 s mm−2) at 1.5 T during a 16-month period were retrospectively analysed to determine the presence of venous washout during dynamic imaging or sustained hyperintensity upon increasing the b factor size on DWI.
Among the 99 hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), sustained hyperintensity on DWI (92/99, 93%) was more prevalent than the washout appearance (72/99, 72%) on dynamic MRI (p<0.001). Depending on the lesion size, subcentimetre-sized HCCs had a significantly lower prevalence of venous washout (13/30, 43%) than the sustained hyperintensity on DWI (27/30, 90%) (p=0.001). In all 10 hypervascular benign conditions, there was no venous washout on dynamic MRI and no sustained hyperintensity on DWI. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of hypervascular HCCs were 92.9% and 100% in DWI and 72% and 100% in dynamic MRI, respectively.
Compared with the venous washout during dynamic imaging, DWI provides more reliable information in the MRI assessment of small hypervascular HCCs, distinguishing them from atypical hypervascular benign or pseudolesions. DWI could complement the early diagnosis of small hypervascular HCCs that do not display venous washout during dynamic imaging.
PMCID: PMC3474029  PMID: 22573299
3.  Enhancement patterns of hepatocellular carcinomas on multiphasic multidetector row CT: comparison with pathological differentiation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1017):e573-e583.
The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of typical and atypical enhancement patterns of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on multiphasic multidetector row CT (MDCT) and to correlate the enhancement patterns and morphological image findings of HCC with the degree of tumour differentiation.
MDCT images of 217 patients with 243 surgically proven HCCs were evaluated through consensus reading by two radiologists. Our MDCT protocol was composed of precontrast, arterial, portal and delayed phases. The reviewers analysed the CT images for degree of attenuation; relative timing of washout; presence of dysmorphic intratumoral vessels, aneurysms and necrosis; tumour size; tumour margin; presence of pseudocapsule; intratumoral heterogeneity; and determined enhancement pattern. The imaging features were correlated with tumour differentiation using Fisher's exact test or the χ2 test.
Among 243 HCCs, 137 (56.4%) showed the typical enhancement pattern of HCC, which is arterial enhancement and washout on portal or equilibrium phase images. In the arterial phase, 190 of 243 (78.2%) HCCs showed hypervascularity, with approximately three quarters of poorly differentiated (PD) (34 of 45, 75.6%) and moderately differentiated (MD) HCCs (92 of 123, 74.8%) showing washout during the portal or delayed phases, vs only 50% of well-differentiated (WD) HCCs (11 of 22; p<0.048). The presence of intratumoral vessels and aneurysms, tumour necrosis, attenuation of precontrast, the relative timing of washout, intratumoral attenuation heterogeneity, tumour margin and tumour size were correlated with the pathological differentiation of HCCs (p<0.05).
A typical enhancement of HCCs on MDCT was not unusual (43.6%) and WD and PD HCCs account for most of the atypical enhancement patterns. Early washout favoured MD and PD HCCs rather than WD HCCs, whereas in our study the presence of intratumoral aneurysm was a highly specific finding for PD HCC.
PMCID: PMC3487070  PMID: 22919011
4.  MRI features of serous oligocystic adenoma of the pancreas: differentiation from mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1013):571-576.
The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI features of the benign pancreatic neoplasm serous oligocystic adenoma (SOA) that differ from those of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), a neoplasm with the potential for malignant degeneration.
Seven patients with SOA (seven women; mean age 36.6 years) and eight patients with MCN (eight women: mean age 39.9 years) were included. Several imaging features were reviewed: mass size, location, shape, wall thickness, cyst configuration (Type I, unilocular; Type II, multiple clustered cyst; Type III, cyst with internal septation) and signal intensity of the lesion with heterogeneity.
SOA lesions were smaller (3.4 cm) than those of MCN (9.3 cm) (p=0.023). The commonest lesion shape was lobulated (85.7%) for SOA, but oval (50.0%) or lobulated (37.5%) for MCN (p=0.015). The most common cyst configuration was Type II (85.7%) for SOA and Type III (75.0%) for MCN (p=0.008). Heterogeneity of each locule in T1 weighted images was visible in all cases of MCN, but in no case for SOA (p=0.004).
SOA could be differentiated from MCN by identifying the imaging features of lobulated contour with multiple clustered cyst configurations and homogeneity of each locule in T1 weighted MR images.
PMCID: PMC3479889  PMID: 21304008
5.  Colour Doppler sonography of hepatic haemangiomas with arterioportal shunts 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1010):142-146.
To determine the frequency of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow using colour Doppler sonography (CDS) on hepatic haemangiomas with arterioportal shunt (APS), and to investigate possible factors that may affect the capability of CDS to depict such findings.
The study included 45 patients (35 men, 10 women; mean age, 56 years) with hepatic haemangiomas with APS on CT or MRI. Locating the tumour on greyscale sonography, the depth, size and echogenicity of the tumour were evaluated. CT or MR images were evaluated for fatty liver. CDS was performed to determine the presence of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow. Differences in frequency of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow according to the depth, size, echogenicity and fatty liver were evaluated by Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test.
On CDS, intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow were found in 66.7% and 60%, respectively. The tumour depth was the significant variable that affected the capability of CDS to depict such findings. The frequencies of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow were as high as 88% and 80% for shallow (≤30 mm) lesions, and they were 40% and 35% for deep (>30 mm) lesions (p=0.0012; p=0.0051).
CDS can commonly depict intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow in patients with hepatic haemangiomas with APS. Therefore, CDS should be routinely performed when an incidental mass is encountered during the screening sonography, especially when the lesion is shallow.
PMCID: PMC3473947  PMID: 21385916
6.  Acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change arising from the pancreas 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1008):e226-e228.
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant tumour developing from acinar cells, accounting for approximately 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumours. We experienced a case of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change in the clinical literature.
PMCID: PMC3473822  PMID: 22101587
7.  MRI findings of uncommon non-hepatocyte origin primary liver tumours with pathological correlation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(996):1080-1086.
The objective of this article was to illustrate the MRI findings of uncommon non-hepatocyte origin primary liver tumours, correlate them with the pathological features and discuss differential diagnoses. In conclusion, the MRI findings of uncommon benign and malignant non-hepatocyte-origin primary liver tumours vary. Awareness of characteristic MRI features can aid differential diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.
PMCID: PMC3473623  PMID: 20923912
8.  Double contrast-enhanced MRI of viral hepatitis-induced cirrhosis: correlation of gross morphological signs with hepatic fibrosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(987):212-217.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of the expanded gallbladder fossa and right posterior hepatic notch signs for hepatic fibrosis determined by double contrast-enhanced MRI. For patients with chronic viral hepatitis B (n = 96) or hepatitis C (n = 13) who underwent gadopentate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI followed by ferucarbotran-enhanced gradient-echo imaging, the degree of parenchymal fibrosis was categorised into three groups based on the extent of reticulation and nodularity: (1) pre-cirrhotic or minimal fibrosis; (2) mild to moderate fibrosis; (3) advanced cirrhosis. Each group was evaluated for the presence of a sharp notch in the posterior–medial surface of the right lobe of the liver and expanded gallbladder fossa. The expanded gallbladder fossa sign gradually increased with an increasing degree of fibrosis (Group 1, 50%; Group 2, 61%; Group 3, 78%), and there was no significant difference (p>0.5) between hepatitis B (67%) and C (73%). In the case of the right posterior hepatic notch sign, only 6% of Group 1 and Group 2 patients were positive; 27% of hepatitis B patients and 90% of hepatitis C patients in Group 3 exhibited the sign (p<0.05). Owing to its low prevalence, even in advanced cirrhosis, the right posterior hepatic notch sign is of little value in the diagnosis of cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B virus infection, whereas an expanded gallbladder fossa could be used as a non-specific indicator of early fibrosis before the gross appearance of advanced hepatic fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3473544  PMID: 19505965
9.  Haemodynamic events and localised parenchymal changes following transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation for hepatic malignancy: interpretation of imaging findings 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(985):71-81.
Following transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE), the appearances on CT or MR images are largely related to the chemical and ischaemic insults to the portal tract. Understanding the mechanism of TACE-induced changes is essential for radiologists in order to determine the therapeutic effect as well as to distinguish these changes from recurrent tumours. This pictorial review illustrates the haemodynamic and substantial parenchymal changes related to TACE for hepatic malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3487253  PMID: 19581309

Results 1-9 (9)