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1.  Small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas: value of diffusion-weighted imaging compared with “washout” appearance on dynamic MRI 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1018):e879-e886.
To compare the value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) with the venous “washout” appearance during dynamic MRI for the assessment of small arterial hypervascular lesions in cirrhotic liver.
After exclusion of benign hypervascular lesions, including haemangiomas and subcapsular non-tumorous arterioportal shunts, indicated by typical imaging features, a total of 109 small arterial hypervascular lesions (0.5–3.0 cm in the longest diameter) in 65 patients with cirrhosis who underwent gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI and DWI (b=50, 400, 800 s mm−2) at 1.5 T during a 16-month period were retrospectively analysed to determine the presence of venous washout during dynamic imaging or sustained hyperintensity upon increasing the b factor size on DWI.
Among the 99 hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), sustained hyperintensity on DWI (92/99, 93%) was more prevalent than the washout appearance (72/99, 72%) on dynamic MRI (p<0.001). Depending on the lesion size, subcentimetre-sized HCCs had a significantly lower prevalence of venous washout (13/30, 43%) than the sustained hyperintensity on DWI (27/30, 90%) (p=0.001). In all 10 hypervascular benign conditions, there was no venous washout on dynamic MRI and no sustained hyperintensity on DWI. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of hypervascular HCCs were 92.9% and 100% in DWI and 72% and 100% in dynamic MRI, respectively.
Compared with the venous washout during dynamic imaging, DWI provides more reliable information in the MRI assessment of small hypervascular HCCs, distinguishing them from atypical hypervascular benign or pseudolesions. DWI could complement the early diagnosis of small hypervascular HCCs that do not display venous washout during dynamic imaging.
PMCID: PMC3474029  PMID: 22573299
2.  Treatment results of post-operative radiotherapy in patients with salivary duct carcinoma of the major salivary glands 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1018):e947-e952.
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare malignancy of high-grade pathological type. We evaluated clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in 35 patients with SDC treated post-operatively with adjuvant radiation.
We retrospectively assessed overall survival, locoregional control and disease-free survival in 35 patients with SDC of the major salivary glands who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with radiotherapy. The evaluated prognostic factors included gender, age, symptom duration, tumour site, tumour size, TNM classification, and the following pathological features: perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, extraparenchymal invasion and resection-margin status.
Of the 35 patients, 30 (85.7%) were male. Median age at initial diagnosis was 62 years (range 38–75 years). The parotid gland was the main site affected in 22 patients (62.9%). 18 patients (51.5%) had pathological T3/T4 tumours, and 26 (74.3%) showed pathological nodal involvement. Actuarial 5-year locoregional control, disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 63.3%, 47.4% and 55.1%, respectively. The cause-specific death rate was 31.4% (n=11). Pathological nodal involvement was correlated with distant metastasis (p=0.011). Lymphovascular invasion was significantly prognostic for distant metastasis-free survival (p=0.049), locoregional control (p=0.012) and overall survival (p=0.003) in a Cox proportional hazard model, whereas perineural invasion was only significantly prognostic for overall survival (p=0.005).
Surgery and post-operative radiotherapy were effective for locoregional control. Lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion were significant prognostic factors in patients with SDC.
PMCID: PMC3474035  PMID: 22573301
3.  MRI features of serous oligocystic adenoma of the pancreas: differentiation from mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1013):571-576.
The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI features of the benign pancreatic neoplasm serous oligocystic adenoma (SOA) that differ from those of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), a neoplasm with the potential for malignant degeneration.
Seven patients with SOA (seven women; mean age 36.6 years) and eight patients with MCN (eight women: mean age 39.9 years) were included. Several imaging features were reviewed: mass size, location, shape, wall thickness, cyst configuration (Type I, unilocular; Type II, multiple clustered cyst; Type III, cyst with internal septation) and signal intensity of the lesion with heterogeneity.
SOA lesions were smaller (3.4 cm) than those of MCN (9.3 cm) (p=0.023). The commonest lesion shape was lobulated (85.7%) for SOA, but oval (50.0%) or lobulated (37.5%) for MCN (p=0.015). The most common cyst configuration was Type II (85.7%) for SOA and Type III (75.0%) for MCN (p=0.008). Heterogeneity of each locule in T1 weighted images was visible in all cases of MCN, but in no case for SOA (p=0.004).
SOA could be differentiated from MCN by identifying the imaging features of lobulated contour with multiple clustered cyst configurations and homogeneity of each locule in T1 weighted MR images.
PMCID: PMC3479889  PMID: 21304008
4.  Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(999):210-215.
Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility.
A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8).
The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01).
Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent.
PMCID: PMC3473868  PMID: 21325363
5.  Double contrast-enhanced MRI of viral hepatitis-induced cirrhosis: correlation of gross morphological signs with hepatic fibrosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(987):212-217.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of the expanded gallbladder fossa and right posterior hepatic notch signs for hepatic fibrosis determined by double contrast-enhanced MRI. For patients with chronic viral hepatitis B (n = 96) or hepatitis C (n = 13) who underwent gadopentate dimeglumine-enhanced dynamic MRI followed by ferucarbotran-enhanced gradient-echo imaging, the degree of parenchymal fibrosis was categorised into three groups based on the extent of reticulation and nodularity: (1) pre-cirrhotic or minimal fibrosis; (2) mild to moderate fibrosis; (3) advanced cirrhosis. Each group was evaluated for the presence of a sharp notch in the posterior–medial surface of the right lobe of the liver and expanded gallbladder fossa. The expanded gallbladder fossa sign gradually increased with an increasing degree of fibrosis (Group 1, 50%; Group 2, 61%; Group 3, 78%), and there was no significant difference (p>0.5) between hepatitis B (67%) and C (73%). In the case of the right posterior hepatic notch sign, only 6% of Group 1 and Group 2 patients were positive; 27% of hepatitis B patients and 90% of hepatitis C patients in Group 3 exhibited the sign (p<0.05). Owing to its low prevalence, even in advanced cirrhosis, the right posterior hepatic notch sign is of little value in the diagnosis of cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B virus infection, whereas an expanded gallbladder fossa could be used as a non-specific indicator of early fibrosis before the gross appearance of advanced hepatic fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC3473544  PMID: 19505965
6.  Haemodynamic events and localised parenchymal changes following transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation for hepatic malignancy: interpretation of imaging findings 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(985):71-81.
Following transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE), the appearances on CT or MR images are largely related to the chemical and ischaemic insults to the portal tract. Understanding the mechanism of TACE-induced changes is essential for radiologists in order to determine the therapeutic effect as well as to distinguish these changes from recurrent tumours. This pictorial review illustrates the haemodynamic and substantial parenchymal changes related to TACE for hepatic malignancy.
PMCID: PMC3487253  PMID: 19581309

Results 1-6 (6)