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2.  Clinical and research applications of simultaneous positron emission tomography and MRI 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;87(1033):20130464.
Evaluation of the molecular processes responsible for disease pathogenesis and progression represents the new frontier of clinical radiology. Multimodality imaging lies at the cutting edge, combining the power of MRI for tissue characterization, microstructural appraisal and functional assessment together with new positron emission tomography (PET) tracers designed to target specific metabolic processes. The recent commercial availability of an integrated clinical whole-body PET-MRI provides a hybrid platform for exploring and exploiting the synergies of multimodal imaging. First experiences on the clinical and research application of hybrid PET-MRI are emerging. This article reviews the rapidly evolving field and speculates on the potential future direction.
PMCID: PMC3898970  PMID: 24234585
3.  Radiological and clinical characterization of the lysosomal storage disorders: non-lipid disorders 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;87(1033):20130467.
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a large group of genetic metabolic disorders that result in the accumulation of abnormal material, such as mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, amino acids and lipids, within cells. Since many LSDs manifest during infancy or early childhood, with potentially devastating consequences if left untreated, timely identification is imperative to prevent irreversible damage and early death. In this review, the key imaging features of the non-lipid or extralipid LSDs are examined and correlated with salient clinical manifestations and genetic information. Disorders are stratified based on the type of excess material causing tissue or organ dysfunction, with descriptions of the mucopolysaccharidoses, mucolipidoses, alpha-mannosidosis, glycogen storage disorder II and cystinosis. In addition, similarities and differences in radiological findings between each of these LSDs are highlighted to facilitate further recognition. Given the rare and extensive nature of the LSDs, mastery of their multiple clinical and radiological traits may seem challenging. However, an understanding of the distinguishing imaging characteristics of LSDs and their clinical correlates may allow radiologists to play a key role in the early diagnosis of these progressive and potentially fatal disorders.
PMCID: PMC3898971  PMID: 24234586
4.  MRI in necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;87(1033):20130560.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft-tissue infection of bacterial origin, which involves mainly the deep fascia. Early recognition of this condition may be hampered by the uncommon nature of the disease and non-specificity of initial clinical signs and symptoms in less fulminant cases, making the role of imaging important. MRI is the most useful imaging modality in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The presence of thick (>3 mm) hyperintense signal in the deep fascia (particularly intermuscular fascia) on fat-suppressed T2 weighted or short tau inversion–recovery images is an important marker for necrotizing fasciitis. Contrast enhancement of the thickened necrotic fascia can be variable, with a mixed-pattern of enhancement being more commonly encountered. Involvement of multiple musculofascial compartments increases the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis. It is important to remember that T2-hyperintense signal in the deep fascia is not specific to necrotizing fasciitis and can also be seen in cases such as non-infective inflammatory fasciitis or muscle tear. In this pictorial essay, we aim to review the MRI findings in necrotizing fasciitis, discuss its limitations and pitfalls and identify differentiating features from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections, such as cellulitis and infective myositis/pyomyositis, conditions which may clinically mimic necrotizing fasciitis.
PMCID: PMC3898976  PMID: 24288403
5.  Transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI): a review 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;87(1033):20130595.
The introduction of transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) has transformed the care provided for patients with severe aortic stenosis. The uptake of this procedure is increasing rapidly, and clinicians from all disciplines are likely to increasingly encounter patients being assessed for or having undergone this intervention. Successful TAVI heavily relies on careful and comprehensive imaging assessment, before, during and after the procedure, using a range of modalities. This review outlines the background and development of TAVI, describes the nature of the procedure and considers the contribution of imaging techniques, both to successful intervention and to potential complications.
PMCID: PMC3898978  PMID: 24258463
7.  “Dazed and diffused”: making sense of diffusion abnormalities in neurologic pathologies 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1032):20130599.
To review diffusion abnormalities seen in diffusion-weighted MRI in neurological pathologies. We examine the clinical significance of the abnormalities in a broad spectrum of neurological diseases and highlight our current understanding of their causes. Diffusion abnormalities seen on diffusion-weighted MRI can play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. A thorough understanding of the appearance and significance of these abnormalities is critical in patient management.
PMCID: PMC3856542  PMID: 24167185
8.  SPECT-CT: applications in musculoskeletal radiology 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1031):20120519.
This article reviews the technique, basic science principles and applications of integrated single photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT in musculoskeletal radiology. A review of the current evidence on the topic was undertaken, and selected clinical cases from the authors' institution have been used for illustration. SPECT-CT is a technology with emerging applications that offers technical advantages to image fusion of separately acquired SPECT and CT studies. The prevailing evidence indicates that there may be benefit in adding SPECT-CT to conventional imaging algorithms during the evaluation of some malignant and benign musculoskeletal conditions. SPECT-CT can improve both sensitivity and specificity by reducing equivocal interpretation in comparison to planar scintigraphy or SPECT alone. The evidence base for SPECT-CT in musculoskeletal radiology is still evolving. There is a lack of evidence comparing SPECT-CT with MRI in many key indications, and further research is required in these areas.
PMCID: PMC3830427  PMID: 24096590
9.  Venous compression syndromes: clinical features, imaging findings and management 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1030):20130284.
Extrinsic venous compression is caused by compression of the veins in tight anatomic spaces by adjacent structures, and is seen in a number of locations. Venous compression syndromes, including Paget–Schroetter syndrome, Nutcracker syndrome, May–Thurner syndrome and popliteal venous compression will be discussed. These syndromes are usually seen in young, otherwise healthy individuals, and can lead to significant overall morbidity. Aside from clinical findings and physical examination, diagnosis can be made with ultrasound, CT, or MR conventional venography. Symptoms and haemodynamic significance of the compression determine the ideal treatment method.
PMCID: PMC3798333  PMID: 23908347
10.  Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1030):20130398.
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detection of complications in HME, including chondrosarcomatous transformation. We review the role and imaging features of these different modalities in HME.
PMCID: PMC3798337  PMID: 24004486
11.  Imaging pancreas transplants 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1030):20130428.
Pancreas transplants are performed in multiple centres across the UK with good graft survival rates. This places an increasing demand on radiology services, particularly as the complication rates are not insignificant. The imaging appearances of pancreas transplants and their complications can be difficult to interpret. This review provides an illustrative journey through the anatomical appearances of a graft and the imaging appearances of complications, as a reference tool for radiologists.
PMCID: PMC3798339  PMID: 24026227
12.  Characterisation of breast papillary neoplasm on automated breast ultrasound 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1029):20130215.
Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the breast form a wide spectrum of pathological changes with benign intraductal papilloma and papillary carcinoma. They can occur anywhere within the breast ductal system. This review illustrates some characteristic appearances of breast papillary neoplasms on coronal planes reconstructed by automatic breast volume scan. Such manifestations are not uncommon in papillary neoplasms, and familiarity will enable confident diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3755396  PMID: 23833033
13.  Planning comparison between standard and conformal 3D techniques in post-operative radiotherapy of gastric cancer: a systematic review 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1029):20130274.
The objective of this study was to establish the impact of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique in post-operative radiotherapy of gastric cancer. A bibliographical research was performed using the PubMed. On the database, Search was carried out using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) database; the algorithm for search was ‘‘Radiotherapy” (MeSH) AND ‘‘Stomach Neoplasms” (MeSH). Only planning comparative studies on conformal techniques vs standard techniques in post-operative radiotherapy of gastric cancer were included in the review process. We identified 185 papers, five of them fulfilling the inclusion criteria. A great inhomogeneity was observed regarding the analysed dosimetric end points. Three of the five studies reported a benefit in favour of 3D-CRT for target irradiation despite a minimal advantage in most cases. The liver was better spared from irradiation by the traditional technique in all studies. No univocal result was obtained for the right kidney: the traditional technique performed better in two studies, 3D-CRT yielded better results in two others, whereas in the fifth study, each technique was either better or worse according to the different considered end point. 3D-CRT, however, allowed for better sparing of the left kidney in four studies. There is no absolute reason to prefer 3D-CRT with multiple beams in every patient. It may be preferable to choose the technique based on individual patient characteristics. Because there is no proof of superiority for 3D-CRT, there is no absolute reason to exclude patients who are treated in centres equipped with only the two-dimensional technique from the potential benefit of post-operative chemoradiation.
PMCID: PMC3755397  PMID: 23894149
14.  Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the UK: current status and developments 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1029):20130331.
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has developed from the principles and techniques used in the stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of brain metastases. Advances in computer technology, imaging, planning and treatment delivery and evidence from retrospective analysis of single- and multi-institutional early-phase studies have established SABR in the treatment of medically inoperable early lung cancer. Effective multidisciplinary team working is crucial to safe delivery of SABR. The variation in patient selection, radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques has led to a collective approach to SABR implementation across the UK. Centres developing the technique are represented in the UK SABR Consortium, which is supported by the relevant UK professional bodies and represents a platform to develop extracranial SABR across the UK. The uptake of SABR in the UK has been slowed by workforce issues, but at least 15 centres are currently delivering treatment with over 500 patients treated using UK SABR Consortium guidance. A mentoring program is being piloted helping new centres to develop their programs, and over 30 UK centres are expected to be offering SABR treatment by the end of 2014. The use of consistent guidance for patient selection, treatment planning and delivery in the UK gives the opportunity to collect and audit toxicity and outcome across the centres, contributing to the internationally reported SABR experience. Having established this service in the UK, the development of SABR through clinical research is a priority, and with input from the Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, the UK is developing a national study program that includes participation in international trials.
PMCID: PMC3755401  PMID: 23873906
15.  Dropped gallstones: spectrum of imaging findings, complications and diagnostic pitfalls 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1028):20120588.
Spillage of gallstones into the abdominal cavity, referred to as “dropped gallstones” (DGs), occurs commonly during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The majority of these spilled stones remain clinically silent; however, if uncomplicated DGs are not correctly identified on subsequent imaging, they may mimic peritoneal implants and cause unduly concern. A small percentage of DGs cause complications, including abscess and fistula formation. Recognising the DG within the abscess is critical for definitive treatment. This pictorial review illustrates the imaging appearances and complications of DGs on CT, MRI and ultrasound and emphasises pitfalls in diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3745054  PMID: 23747395
16.  Deoxyribonucleic acid damage-associated biomarkers of ionising radiation: current status and future relevance for radiology and radiotherapy 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1027):20130173.
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation technology has developed dramatically in recent years, and its use has increased significantly, bringing clinical benefit. The use of diagnostic radiology has become widespread in modern society, particularly in paediatrics where the clinical benefit needs to be balanced with the risk of leukaemia and brain cancer increasing after exposure to low doses of radiation. With improving long-term survival rates of radiotherapy patients and the ever-increasing use of diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures, concern has risen over the long-term risks and side effects from such treatments. Biomarker development in radiology and radiotherapy has progressed significantly in recent years to investigate the effects of such use and optimise treatment. Recent biomarker development has focused on improving the limitations of established techniques by the use of automation, increasing sensitivity and developing novel biomarkers capable of quicker results. The effect of low-dose exposure (0–100 mGy) used in radiology, which is increasingly linked to cancer incidences, is being investigated, as some recent research challenges the linear-no-threshold model. Radiotherapy biomarkers are focused on identifying radiosensitive patients, determining the treatment-associated risk and allowing for a tailored and more successful treatment of cancer patients. For biomarkers in any of these areas to be successfully developed, stringent criteria must be applied in techniques and analysis of data to reduce variation among reports and allow data sets to be accurately compared. Newly developed biomarkers can then be used in combination with the established techniques to better understand and quantify the individual biological response to exposures associated with radiology tests and to personalise treatment plans for patients.
PMCID: PMC3700735  PMID: 23659923
17.  C-arm CT for histomorphometric evaluation of lumbar spine trabecular microarchitecture: a study on anorexia nervosa patients 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1027):20120451.
Bone histomorphometry measurements require high spatial resolution that may not be feasible using multidetector CT (MDCT). This study evaluated the trabecular microarchitecture of lumbar spine using MDCT and C-arm CT in a series of young adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). 11 young females with AN underwent MDCT (anisotropic resolution with a slice thickness of ∼626 μm) and C-arm CT (isotropic resolution of ∼200 µm). Standard histomorphometric parameters the of L1 vertebral body, namely the apparent trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (TbTh), trabecular number (TbN) and trabecular separation (TbSp), were analysed using MicroView software (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular parameters derived from MDCT and C-arm CT were compared, and their association with BMD parameters was evaluated. Histomorphometric parameters derived from C-arm CT, namely TbTh, TbN and TbSp, were significantly different from the corresponding MDCT parameters. There were no significant correlations between C-arm CT-derived parameters and the corresponding MDCT-derived parameters. C-arm CT-derived parameters were significantly (p<0.001) correlated with anteroposterior L1 spine BMD and Z-scores: TbTh (r=0.723, r=0.744, respectively), TbN (r=−0.720, r=−0.712, respectively) and TbSp (r=0.656, r=0.648, respectively). BV/TV, derived from C-arm CT, was significantly associated with body mass index (r=0.636) and ideal body weight (r=0.730) (p<0.05). These associations were not present in MDCT-derived parameters. This study suggests that the spatial resolution offered by C-arm CT more accurately captures the histomorphometric parameters of trabecular morphology than MDCT in patients with AN.
PMCID: PMC3922178  PMID: 23640801
18.  Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1027):20120614.
Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings.
PMCID: PMC3922179  PMID: 23659926
19.  Assessment of the spine with CT and MRI prior to interspinous/interlaminar spinal procedures: a pictorial review 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1026):20130066.
Imaging of the spine is increasingly available, whether as dedicated spine examinations or as studies that include the spine in the images obtained (e.g. CT abdomen). This pictorial review discusses imaging of the spine with CT and MRI and how prior review of this imaging can be helpful with potentially difficult spinal procedures. Pathologies illustrated include osteoarthritis, scoliosis, inflammatory spondyloarthropathies and post-operative spines.
PMCID: PMC3664985  PMID: 23568363
20.  CT colonography for investigation of patients with symptoms potentially suggestive of colorectal cancer: a review of the UK SIGGAR trials 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1026):20130137.
This paper argues for the use of CT colonography (CTC) to investigate patients with symptoms potentially suggestive of colorectal cancer. It describes the rationale for the UK Special Interest Group in Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (SIGGAR) randomised controlled trials that compared CTC with barium enema (BE) or colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal cancer or large polyps in symptomatic patients. Diagnostic outcomes from the trials are detailed for both intra- and extracolonic disease, along with psychological reactions of patients to the tests, and cost-effectiveness of the different diagnostic strategies. The author concludes that BE should be replaced by CTC immediately and that CTC is a sensitive, acceptable and equally cost-effective alternative to colonoscopy in patients in whom colonoscopy is contraindicated or undesirable.
PMCID: PMC3664986  PMID: 23568360
21.  Improving radiotherapy quality assurance in clinical trials: assessment of target volume delineation of the pre-accrual benchmark case 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20120398.
As the complexity of radiotherapy (RT) trials increases, issues surrounding target volume delineation will become more important. Some form of outlining assessment prior to trial entry is increasingly being mandated in UK RT trials. This document produced by the Outlining and Imaging Subgroup (OISG) of the National Cancer Research Institute will address methods to reduce interobserver variation in clinical trials and how to conduct an assessment of outlining through a pre-accrual benchmark case. We review currently available methods of describing the variation and identify areas where further work is needed. The OISG would encourage ongoing discussion with chief investigators in order to provide advice on individual aspects of benchmark case assessment for current and future trials.
PMCID: PMC3635785  PMID: 23392188
22.  High-intensity focused ultrasound: advances in technology and experimental trials support enhanced utility of focused ultrasound surgery in oncology 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1024):20130044.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly maturing technology with diverse clinical applications. In the field of oncology, the use of HIFU to non-invasively cause tissue necrosis in a defined target, a technique known as focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), has considerable potential for tumour ablation. In this article, we outline the development and underlying principles of HIFU, overview the limitations and commercially available equipment for FUS, then summarise some of the recent technological advances and experimental clinical trials that we predict will have a positive impact on extending the role of FUS in cancer therapy.
PMCID: PMC3635791  PMID: 23403455
23.  Breast cancer subtypes: response to radiotherapy and potential radiosensitisation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1023):20120601.
Radiotherapy (RT) is of critical importance in the locoregional management of early breast cancer. Over 50% of patients receive RT at some time during the treatment of their disease, equating to over 500 000 patients worldwide receiving RT each year. Unfortunately, not all patients derive therapeutic benefit and some breast cancers are resistant to treatment, as evidenced by distant metastatic spread and local recurrence. Prediction of individual responses to RT may allow a stratified approach to this treatment permitting those patients with radioresistant tumours to receive higher doses of RT (total and/or tumour cavity boost doses) and/or radiosensitising agents to optimise treatment. Also, for those patients unlikely to respond at all, it would prevent harmful side effects occurring for no therapeutic gain. More selective targeting would better direct National Health Service resources, ease the burden on heavily used treatment RT machines and reduce the economic cost of cancer treatment. Unfortunately, there are no robust and validated biomarkers for predicting RT outcome. We review the available literature to determine whether classification of breast cancers according to their molecular profile may be used to predict successful response to, or increased morbidity from, RT. Class-specific biomarkers for targeting by radiosensitising agents are also discussed.
PMCID: PMC3608055  PMID: 23392193
24.  Quantitative parametric MRI of articular cartilage: a review of progress and open challenges 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1023):20120163.
With increasing life expectancies and the desire to maintain active lifestyles well into old age, the impact of the debilitating disease osteoarthritis (OA) and its burden on healthcare services is mounting. Emerging regenerative therapies could deliver significant advances in the effective treatment of OA but rely upon the ability to identify the initial signs of tissue damage and will also benefit from quantitative assessment of tissue repair in vivo. Continued development in the field of quantitative MRI in recent years has seen the emergence of techniques able to probe the earliest biochemical changes linked with the onset of OA. Quantitative MRI measurements including T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxometry, diffusion weighted imaging and magnetisation transfer have been studied and linked to the macromolecular structure of cartilage. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage, sodium MRI and glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer techniques are sensitive to depletion of cartilage glycosaminoglycans and may allow detection of the earliest stages of OA. We review these current and emerging techniques for the diagnosis of early OA, evaluate the progress that has been made towards their implementation in the clinic and identify future challenges in the field.
PMCID: PMC3608060  PMID: 23407427
25.  Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection 
The British Journal of Radiology  2013;86(1022):20120289.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures.
A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D™, Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, Hp(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out.
The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01 mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09 mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented.
Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20 mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit.
Advances in knowledge:
Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter.
PMCID: PMC3608047  PMID: 23385992

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