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1.  Subcutaneous calcification in the pectoralis major flap: a late complication of radiotherapy 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1007):e223-e225.
Heterotopic calcification following radiotherapy is a very rare event. Here, we report a case of a patient who underwent surgical intervention including pectoralis major flap reconstruction for locally advanced pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with skin invasion. He was followed up post-operatively with adjuvant radiotherapy. 13 years after the treatment, suspect resistance in the myocutaneous flap region appeared and was diagnosed as a calcification. To date, the occurrence of subcutaneous calcification in the myocutaneous flap in the neck has not been described as a late complication of neck irradiation.
PMCID: PMC3473691  PMID: 22011827
2.  Pre-existing oral contrast from lanthanum carbonate: a confounding factor in CT mesenteric angiography 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e073-e075.
A 69-year-old male was referred from the renal unit to radiology for investigation of bleeding per rectum. A CT mesenteric angiogram was performed. However, it was noted on the pre-contrast images that the large bowel contained positive oral contrast media. The procedure was abandoned as it would have been difficult to see extravasation of intravenous contrast from a bleeding point in the large bowel. The initial belief was that either the patient had been given oral contrast by ward staff on the assumption that it would be needed, or had had a recent radiological study requiring contrast, which was still present. Neither was the case; it emerged that the patient was taking Fosrenol (Shire Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, PA), a lanthanum carbonate medication used in the treatment of hyperphosphataemia. Lanthanum is densely radio-opaque and appears as positive bowel contrast on CT and plain radiography studies. When considering radiological studies specifically requiring the absence of oral contrast, it is important to be aware of the patient's drug history to avoid non-diagnostic scans with the associated radiation exposure.
PMCID: PMC3486678  PMID: 22457410
4.  Vanishing bone metastases — a pitfall in the interpretation of contrast enhanced CT in patients with superior vena cava obstruction 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1005):e176-e178.
We describe a previously unreported case of vertebral marrow enhancement owing to collateral circulation in a patient with superior vena cava obstruction. Failure to recognise this phenomenon led to the misdiagnosis of sclerotic bone metastases.
PMCID: PMC3473785  PMID: 21849358
5.  Post-traumatic rapidly enlarging mucinous carcinoma of the breast with intratumoural haemorrhage: MRI appearances with pathological correlation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1002):e118-e120.
Pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a histological type of invasive carcinoma and generally shows a slow growth pattern. Rapid growth and intratumoural haemorrhage are rare and there have been no reports presenting such a clinical course and associated radiographic findings. We report a case with atypical rapidly enlarging mucinous carcinoma of the breast after trauma, in which MRI closely reflected the histopathological background and was thought to be useful for differential diagnosis from other highly malignant breast tumours.
PMCID: PMC3473633  PMID: 21606064
6.  Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(994):e198-e199.
Myelolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of adipose tissue and haematopoietic cells that are typically found in adrenal glands but have also appeared in extra-adrenal sites. Distinguishing between extra-adrenal myelolipomas and malignant tumours, such as liposarcomas, is crucial to avoid an invasive procedure. To this end, we present a comprehensive report of the CT imaging characteristics of a pathologically proven bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
PMCID: PMC3473743  PMID: 20846975
7.  Increased renal uptake of technetium-99m HEDP in a patient with breast cancer 
The British Journal of Radiology  2010;83(985):82-84.
PMCID: PMC3486722  PMID: 20139250
8.  A right atrial mass—but where is it coming from? 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1020):1581-1583.
PMCID: PMC3611717  PMID: 23175481
9.  An unusual case of duodenal beaking 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1019):1517-1521.
PMCID: PMC3500796  PMID: 23091291
10.  Can you diagnose this condition on plain radiography? 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1017):1327-1328.
PMCID: PMC3487066  PMID: 22919010
11.  Lower extremity and pelvic stress fractures in athletes 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1016):1148-1156.
Stress fractures occur following excessive use and are commonly seen in athletes, in whom the lower limbs are frequently involved. Delayed diagnosis and management of these injuries can result in significant long-term damage and athlete morbidity. A high index of suspicion may facilitate diagnosis, but clinical presentation may be non-specific. In this regard, imaging in the form of plain radiograph, CT, MRI and bone scintigraphy may be of value. This article reviews the incidence, presentation, radiological findings and management options for athletes with stress fractures of the lower limb.
PMCID: PMC3495575  PMID: 22815414
12.  Tendon and ligament imaging 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1016):1157-1172.
MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease.
PMCID: PMC3495576  PMID: 22553301
13.  Imaging of muscle injury in the elite athlete 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1016):1173-1185.
Injuries to muscle in the elite athlete are common and may be responsible for prolonged periods of loss of competitive activity. The implications for the athlete and his/her coach and team may be catastrophic if the injury occurs at a critical time in the athlete's diary. Imaging now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, prognostication and management of athletes with muscle injuries. This article discusses the methods available to clinicians and radiologists that are used to assess skeletal muscle injury. The spectrum of muscle injuries sustained in the elite athlete population is both discussed and illustrated.
PMCID: PMC3495577  PMID: 22496067
14.  Radiological interventions for soft tissue injuries in sport 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1016):1186-1193.
Injection therapy has played an integral role in the rehabilitation of sports injuries for many years. The athlete's primary goal is a rapid return to sporting activity. This may be achieved by a combination of either a temporary or permanent reduction in pain, and by a pharmacological or physiological effect that promotes or accelerates a healing response. A wide variety of pharmacological agents are used. However, there is often a lack of good evidence that quantifiable effects can be achieved. There are restrictions on the use of some pharmaceutical agents. This article reviews the various pharmacological agents and bioactive substrates that are available, and discusses the current evidence base of their use in common sports injuries.
PMCID: PMC3495578  PMID: 22553303
15.  A physiotherapy perspective of musculoskeletal imaging in sport 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1016):1194-1197.
This paper presents a physiotherapy perspective on the role that imaging is now playing in the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal and sporting injuries. Although the Royal College of Radiologists and the UK Chartered Society of Physiotherapy were founded in the latter part of the nineteenth century, it is 100 years later that developments in the UK NHS have led to increased roles for non-medical healthcare professionals and allied health professionals, such as physiotherapists, in an extended clinical role. Physiotherapists, perhaps because of their knowledge of clinical and applied anatomy, have keenly taken up the opportunities offered to request and interpret imaging in its various forms; the most commonly available are plain radiography, musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI. This has meant taking formal courses under the auspices of universities with mentorship and tutoring within the clinical setting, which are part of a continuing professional development. The ability to request several forms of imaging has enhanced physiotherapy practice and has increased the appreciation of the responsibilities which accompany this new role.
PMCID: PMC3495579  PMID: 22815415
16.  An uncommon cause of abdominal pain following blunt abdominal trauma 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1015):1025-1026.
PMCID: PMC3474045  PMID: 22745207
17.  “Primum non nocere”—first, do no harm 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1014):838-840.
PMCID: PMC3474118  PMID: 22665928
18.  Calcification in biliary hamartomatosis 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e099-e101.
We report a case of histologically confirmed biliary hamartomatosis with calcifications studied by CT.
PMCID: PMC3486658  PMID: 22457417
19.  Primary anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma of the breast in a male patient 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e079-e082.
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare lymphoma subtype. We describe the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in a 51-year-old male patient who suffered from a palpable lump caused by this rare disease.
PMCID: PMC3486659  PMID: 22457412
20.  Abundant macroscopic fat in intra-abdominal lymph nodes involved in the course of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: presentation of imaging findings with biopsy correlation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e091-e093.
The presence of a small amount of macroscopic fat is not unusual in the hilar region of normal lymph nodes. However, abundant replacement of the lymph node with fat is highly unusual and may appear as metastatic lymph node disease in the course of fat-predominant liposarcomas or in the case of coeliac disease complicated by cavitating lymph node syndrome. In this case report, a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma who demonstrated an increasing abundance of macroscopic fat in the diseased lymph nodes is presented. To the best of our knowledge, the imaging findings of abundant fat in lymph nodes in the course of lymphoma have not been reported before. The presence of macroscopic fat may be seen in the presence of actively involved lymph nodes in the presence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
PMCID: PMC3486662  PMID: 22457415
21.  PET/CT and MRI of intra-osseous haemangioma of the tibia 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e094-e098.
Intra-osseous haemangioma is a rare, benign neoplasm that usually involves the vertebrae and craniofacial bones. Furthermore, its occurrence in the long bones is extremely rare. We report the findings of fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and MRI in a patient with intra-osseous haemangioma in the proximal tibia, who was initially misdiagnosed as having a malignancy based on 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed a well-marginated osteolytic lesion with abnormal FDG uptake. The mass demonstrated low signal intensity on T1 weighted MRI. On T2 weighted images, the lesion appeared as a cluster of high signal intensity lobules and showed strong enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1 weighted images. Surgical curettage was performed and histopathological examination of the excised tissue confirmed a cavernous haemangioma.
PMCID: PMC3486666  PMID: 22457416
22.  Radioiodine retention on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e076-e078.
An 80-year-old male with recurrent thyroid cancer and a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in situ was referred for radioiodine therapy and was administered 5510 MBq I-131 sodium iodide intravenously. Sequential whole-body images taken over the subsequent 7 days for dosimetric evaluation revealed an area of persistent high uptake in the abdomen. Delayed imaging with single photon emission CT/CT at 15 days post administration revealed this uptake to be at the junction of the PEG tube with the anatomically normal stomach wall. We hypothesise that the PEG tube became contaminated by radioiodine secreted in the gastric mucosa during therapy and this radioactivity subsequently decayed with an increased effective half-life relative to the stomach, leading to the apparent hot spot.
PMCID: PMC3486668  PMID: 22457411
23.  Endovascular treatment of isolated systemic arterial supply to normal lung with coil and glue embolisation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e083-e086.
Surgery is the standard treatment for the extremely rare pathology of isolated anomalous systemic arterial supply to normal lung (ISSNL). We describe our experience with this anomaly in a 29-year-old male presenting with recurrent haemoptysis that was successfully treated with a combination of metallic coils and cyanoacrylate glue. In addition to contributing to the extremely limited data on endovascular therapeutic options in ISSNL, we also intend to raise the awareness among endovascular therapists of the need to be cautious ofand preserve the radiculomedullary/pial branches arising from an anomalous artery before embolising it.
PMCID: PMC3486677  PMID: 22457413
24.  MRI findings of corticosubcortical lesions in osmotic myelinolysis: report of two cases 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1012):e087-e090.
Reports on the MRI findings of cerebral corticosubcortical lesions in osmotic myelinolysis (OM) are rare despite several pathological descriptions of this involvement. We report two patients with subcortical lesions associated with OM that were characteristically distributed along the crowns and sides of the cerebral gyri on T2 weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI. We also discuss the MRI characteristics of corticosubcortical lesions in OM.
PMCID: PMC3486681  PMID: 22457414
25.  MRI and CT findings of metastatic pulmonary calcification 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1011):e069-e072.
Metastatic pulmonary calcification is a consequence of calcium deposition in the normal pulmonary parenchyma, secondary to abnormal calcium metabolism. The most characteristic radiological manifestation is poorly defined nodular opacities that are mainly seen in the upper lung zone. The aim of this report is to describe the CT and MRI findings observed in two patients with metastatic pulmonary calcification. The disease may present in CT as consolidations with calcification, and with a high lesion/muscle signal intensity ratio on T1 weighted imaging without contrast in MRI. The high signal on T1 weighted imaging probably occurs because the low calcium concentration of the lesion changes the surface effects of diamagnetic calcium particles, causing T1 shortening of water protons. MRI is a good option for characterising calcium accumulation caused by a metabolic disorder.
PMCID: PMC3473981  PMID: 22391505

Results 1-25 (191)