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1.  Degree of physical handicap, education, and occupation of 51 adults with spina bifida. 
51 adults with spina bifida, aged between 18 and 56 years, resident in South Wales, were interviewed in their home. Although only four had obvious hydrocephalus, one-third of them were severely handicapped and a further 40% had moderate handicap. Over half of them had had their secondary education in a normal school, with the remainder having special schooling or home tuition. Seventy per cent of the series was in normal, full-time occupation, including half those severely handicapped. Those in work were largely in managerial/technical, clerical, and light manual occupations. It is concluded that extendance and training, followed by special job placement, would help to integrate them into the community. These patients show that, in the absence of mental retardation, even severe physical handicap is no bar to normal occupation and that paralysis and incontinence alone are probably not valid selection factors for or against 'aggressive' treatment for spina bifida.
PMCID: PMC478964  PMID: 788821
2.  An investigation of space and space-time clustering in a large sample of infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff. 
Altogether 406 infants with neural tube defects born in Cardiff between 1956-71 were investigated for evidence of space-time clustering and 100 similarly affected infants, together with matched controls born in Cardiff between 1964-66 were investigated for evidence of spatial clustering. No evidence of excessive prevalence in either dimension was observed.
PMCID: PMC478915  PMID: 1104033
3.  Some sources of stress found in mothers of spina bifida children. 
The scores on a malaise inventory for 51 mothers of spina bifida children born between 1956 and 1962 in South Wales revealed significantly higher scores when the child was incontinent, had a severe locomotor disability, had an IQ less than 80, and was attending a special school rather than a normal school. No difference in scores was found between the sexes or for size of family, and only a slight difference occurred between the malaise scores of mothers of mildly and moderately handicapped children.
PMCID: PMC478883  PMID: 124188

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