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1.  Fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings suggesting tissue remodelling in retinal pigment epithelium tear 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;96(9):1211-1216.
Aim
To study tissue remodelling and wound healing after retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears due to age-related macular degeneration.
Methods
Retrospective longitudinal study of 36 eyes (33 patients) with RPE tears. Imaging was performed using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) (λ=488 nm) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Presence of intraretinal hyper-reflective dots in SD-OCT, which correlated with hyperfluorescent dots in FAF, indicating RPE migration was studied. Morphology of subretinal mass and RPE layer integrity in the RPE denuded area over time were examined.
Results
7 of 36 eyes (19.4%) showed patchy or hazy hyperfluorescent areas in FAF, and the majority of eyes (83.3%) showed hyper-reflective dots, which possibly represent intraretinal RPE migration and hard exudates. Homogenous subretinal mass was encountered in about half of all cases. In one case (2.8%), the RPE layer proliferated and covered the defect.
Conclusions
SD-OCT and FAF showed a considerable amount of RPE proliferation, migration and repopulation. Intraretinal RPE migration did not form a functional RPE layer. A small defect might be repaired by cell proliferation. But this RPE proliferation is not sufficient to cover large defects.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301750
PMCID: PMC3432490  PMID: 22826551
Retinal pigment epithelium tear; pigment migration; spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; fundus autofluorescence; macula; pharmacology; neovascularisation; drugs; clinical trial; treatment surgery
2.  Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in subjects over 60 years of age, and its implications for designing clinical trials 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;96(10):1325-1330.
Aims
To study the variability of central retinal thickness (CRT), its concordance to the fellow eye, and the implications for designing future clinical trials using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Methods
Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of European Genetic Database. 632 eyes of 316 subjects over 60 years of age without macular pathology were examined using SD-OCT.
Results
Mean CRT was 280.22 µm and 281.02 µm for the right and left eyes, respectively. There was a strong concordance for all measured values between right and left eyes. Men had significantly thicker CRT than women. Variation up to 23 µm difference between both eyes was seen. To detect a change of at least 30 µm in CRT, a sample size of 90 or 176 per group is needed for a single-arm or double-arm study, respectively (α=0.05, power=0.80, no loss to follow up, assuming SD in future studies=100 µm).
Conclusions
Clinical trials using CRT as an endpoint are feasible in terms of sample size needed.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-301885
PMCID: PMC3595499  PMID: 22863948
Imaging; Macula; Retina
3.  In vitro emulsification assessment of new silicone oils 
Aim
To investigate whether the emulsification of conventional silicone oils can be reduced by adding small amounts of silicone molecules of a very long chain length.
Methods
Siluron 1000, Siluron 2000, Siluron 5000, Acri.Sil-Ol 5000, Oxane 5700, Densiron 68 LV, Densiron 68 and Densiron 68 HV (0.5 ml) were each tested along with either plasma or serum (0.5 ml) in a glass cuvette. Emulsification was induced by sonication and documented by photography. The total area of emulsified oil was assessed using the ImageJ software.
Results
The addition of small amounts of very-long-chain silicone molecules significantly reduced the emulsification for 1000 cSt silicone oil (Siluron 2000) and for 1000 cSt silicone oil with an admixture of F6H8 (Densiron 68 HV).
Conclusion
New low-viscosity silicone oils show a reduced emulsification similar to that of 5000 cSt oils. In future, it may be possible to avoid using 5000 cSt oils. The findings may foster silicone oil surgery in general, and in particular the application of small-incision techniques.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2009.170852
PMCID: PMC2976467  PMID: 19955199
Silicone oil; polydimethylsiloxane; emulsification; vitreous; treatment surgery
4.  Autologous translocation of choroid and retinal pigment epithelium in geographic atrophy: long-term functional and anatomical outcome 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2009;94(8):1040-1044.
Purpose
To evaluate the long-term outcome of autologous graft of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with geographic atrophy.
Methods
Ten patients with progressive geographic atrophy underwent translocation of an autologous graft of RPE, Bruch membrane and choroid. The visual acuity (VA), reading performance, microperimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography were assessed.
Results
No recurrence of RPE atrophy was seen. All but one transplant were revascularised. Vascularisation persisted throughout the 3 years' follow-up. Spectral-domain OCT in some cases showed intact photoreceptors or intact outer nuclear and outer plexiform layer overlying the graft. In three cases, the grafts were positioned eccentrically; these patients did not benefit from surgery. The mean VA decreased from 20/80 (range: 20/800 to 20/40) at baseline to 20/200 (range: perception of hand movements to 20/32) at last follow-up. In two patients, VA were stable from 20/50 to 20/32 and 20/40 at the last follow-up, respectively. Postoperative complications included retinal detachment due to proliferative vitreoretinopathy, macular pucker, iritis, branch retinal vein occlusion and secondary ocular hypertension.
Conclusions
Some patients benefit for at least 3 years from a functioning RPE-choroid graft. Functional outcome in most patients, however, was limited due to complications and unfavourable patient selection.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2009.161299
PMCID: PMC2976216  PMID: 19692368
Age-related macular degeneration; geographic atrophy; retinal pigment epithelium; treatment surgery; retina; macula; choroid

Results 1-4 (4)