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1.  Correction 
PMCID: PMC1069485
8.  Treatment of rapidly progressive rheumatoid pneumoconiosis 
Davies, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 396-401. Treatment of rapidly progressive rheumatoid pneumoconiosis. Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis is often a fairly benign condition but in some patients it progresses rapidly and causes severe disability. One patient with rheumatoid pneumoconiosis was treated with chloroquine followed by corticosteroids, and another patient was treated with corticosteroids only. Both showed considerable symptomatic and objective improvement with radiographic regression. Treatment has been continued for five and six years respectively but some progression of the disease has again occurred over this time and with a reduced dose of corticosteroids.
PMCID: PMC1069483  PMID: 4753724
10.  A new method for determination of mandelic acid excretion at low level styrene exposure 
Slob, A. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 390-393. A new method for determination of mandelic acid excretion at low level styrene exposure. A method is described for the determination of mandelic acid in urine. It is possible to determine styrene exposure levels in the air down to 5 mg/m3. The method is based on ethyl acetate extraction of the urine, followed by a paper chromatographic combined with a gas chromatographic separation.
The method was evaluated in industrial situations and compared with a method used frequently hitherto. The inclusion of a hydrolytic step indicates that part of the mandelic acid is excreted in conjugated form. Workers exposed to styrene levels in the air of less than 5 mg/m3 showed a very significant increase in mandelic acid excretion compared with `no exposure' conditions.
PMCID: PMC1069481  PMID: 4753722
11.  Symptomatology of chronic brucellosis 
McDevitt, D. G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 385-389. Symptomatology of chronic brucellosis. A survey of the occurrence of symptoms commonly attributed to chronic brucellosis was carried out by questionnaire in four different occupational groups in Northern Ireland—veterinary surgeons working in private practice, veterinary surgeons employed by the Ministry of Agriculture, general medical practitioners, and a group of forestry workers. The veterinary surgeons generally had a higher incidence of symptoms than the other two groups. This could not be accounted for by age, heavy physical exertion or professional familiarity with disease but could be related to contact with cattle and hence to possible brucella infection. Of the symptoms investigated, sweating, weakness, malaise, irritability, depression, rheumatism, arthritis, and backache occurred significantly more often in the veterinary surgeons than in the others, with selective differences between the types of veterinary practice: the alimentary system symptoms, headache, and insomnia were more evenly distributed between all groups and their inclusion as part of the chronic brucellosis symptom complex must be seriously questioned. The lack of specificity of the symptoms, their occurrence in normal persons, and the finding of high serological brucella antibody titres in asymptomatic persons who are exposed to brucella infection emphasize the need for caution against overdiagnosis. This need is illustrated by the fact that a higher proportion of Ministry veterinary surgeons unexpectedly complain of symptoms now than five years ago. The incidence of symptoms in this group is now approximately equal to that of the veterinary surgeons in private practice, although the latter continue to have much greater exposure to brucella infection. Alternative explanations for this increase are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1069480  PMID: 4270991
12.  Pharmacological prevention of acute ventilatory capacity reduction in flax dust exposure 
Valić, F., and Žuškin, E. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 381-384. Pharmacological prevention of acute ventilatory capacity reduction in flax dust exposure. The protective effect of the preshift application of a bronchodilator (orciprenaline), an antihistamine drug (diadril), and ascorbic acid on flax-induced acute bronchoconstriction was studied in 13 byssinotic and 7 non-byssinotic female workers exposed to airborne fibres of biologically retted flax. Orciprenaline was applied by inhalation, while diadril and ascorbic acid were given orally. All the three drugs exerted a significant preventive effect, diminishing the acute fall of ventilatory capacity during the shift. The fall in forced expiratory volume (FEV1·0) was reduced by 50% and the fall in maximal flow rate at 50% vital capacity (V̇max 50% VC) by over 65%.
PMCID: PMC1069479  PMID: 4148157
13.  Respiratory response in simultaneous exposure to flax and hemp dust 
Žuškin, E., and Valíc, F. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 375-380. Respiratory response in simultaneous exposure to flax and hemp dust. The effect of exposure to high concentrations of mixtures of hemp and flax dust was studied in 124 workers in two textile mills (mill A: 65-70% hemp and the rest flax, mean dust concentration 13·9 mg/m3; and mill B: about 35% hemp and the rest flax, mean dust concentration 15·8 mg/m3). A high prevalence of byssinosis was found in both mills (80% in mill B; 46·8% in mill A) after a mean exposure of no more than 13 years. In both mills, byssinotics had a higher prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms than non-byssinotics. This difference was more pronounced in mill A. Forty-eight percent of byssinotic women and 43% of byssinotic men had byssinosis of grade 2 or 3. Significant mean acute reductions in FEV1·0 and ˙Vmax 50% VC on Monday were recorded in subjects with and without byssinosis with a significantly larger mean reduction in byssinotics (FEV1·0, P < 0·01; ˙Vmax 50% VC, P < 0·05). ˙Vmax 50% VC proved to be a more sensitive test for detecting acute effects of vegetable dust than FEV1·0. The acute respiratory response of the subjects exposed to similar concentrations of flax and mixtures of two different proportions of flax and hemp dust was found to be equal.
PMCID: PMC1069478  PMID: 4753721
14.  A comparison of conventional and grid techniques for chest radiography in field surveys 
Washington, J. S., Dick, J. A., Jacobsen, M., and Prentice, W. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 365-374. A comparison of conventional and grid techniques for chest radiography in field surveys. The effect on the quality of chest radiographs using a reciprocating grid with a moderately high kilovoltage (96 to 105 kV) has been studied. A total of 1 710 mineworkers had two postero-anterior chest radiographs taken at the same visit to a linked pair of mobile ϰ-ray units. One film was taken with conventional exposure factors and the other with moderately high kilovoltage and a reciprocating grid. The grid was exchanged between the two units according to a randomized plan so that the first radiograph was not always taken with the same technique.
The 3 420 films so produced were subsequently assessed for quality by five doctors experienced in reading chest films. The films were examined singly in random order and the reader did not know which technique had been used for a given film.
Four of the readers recorded improved quality using the grid technique for films from men whose antero-posterior chest measurements exceeded 254 mm (10 in), but they preferred the conventional exposure technique for films from men whose chest measurements were less than 254 mm. Results from all film pairs where a difference in quality was recorded showed no overall advantage for either technique.
PMCID: PMC1069477  PMID: 4753720
15.  Comparative study of effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on blood δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase in man 
Lauwerys, R. R., Buchet, J.-P., and Roels, H. A. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 359-364. Comparative study of effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on blood δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase in man. δ-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA1-D) of red blood cells, lead concentration in blood (Pb-B) and in urine (Pb-U), cadmium concentration in blood (Cd-B) and in urine (Cd-U), and ALA in urine (ALA-U) were measured in 77 workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, and in 73 control workers.
An excellent negative correlation was found between log ALA-D and Pb-B (r = - 0·660) or Pb-U (r = - 0·501), but no significant correlation was found between Cd-B and log ALA-D activity.
Unlike ALA-D, ALA-U is not correlated with Pb and Pb-U in the `normal' range of Pb concentration investigated. Mean ALA-D activity in smokers is lower than in nonsmokers, and this is probably related to the fact that a higher mean Pb-B concentration is found in smokers than in nonsmokers.
It is clear from this investigation that in the general population, and even in Cd-exposed workers, Cd has no significant effect on ALA-D. Moreover, all the available evidence indicates that ALA-D activity of erythrocytes is a very sensitive and specific parameter of lead in blood.
PMCID: PMC1069476  PMID: 4753719
16.  Electroencephalographic studies on petrol intoxication: comparison between nonleaded and leaded white petrol 
Saito, K. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 352-358. Electroencephalographic studies on petrol intoxication: comparison between nonleaded and leaded white petrol. The effect of nonleaded and leaded petrol on the brains of rats was studied electroencephalographically. Bipolar electrodes were implanted on the brain surface between the frontal and occipital lobes of the left hemisphere. The rats were divided into two groups and were given by intraperitoneal injection 1 ml of either nonleaded white petrol (WP) or leaded petrol (LP) containing 1 000 ppm of tetraethyl lead per 100 g body weight. The electrocorticogram was observed for 10 days and the lead content of the brain, liver, and kidney was estimated.
The rats injected with leaded petrol showed excessive tension and excitement by the sixth or seventh day, and their body weight had diminished significantly by 10 days. One to three days after both LP and WP injection, the δ, θ, and α waves decreased significantly but the electrocorticogram from six or seven days after LP injection showed marked α and θ waves. The lead content in organs of the LP group was far greater than in those of the WP group and a correlation between the electrocorticogram and lead content was recognized.
PMCID: PMC1069475  PMID: 4753718
17.  Interindividual differences in circadian fatigue patterns of shift workers 
Östberg, O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 341-351. Interindividual differences in circadian fatigue patterns of shift workers. Data from 37 computer operators and output-handlers, working on discontinuous 8-16-24 alternating shifts, were collected in the morning, evening, and night shifts during a one-year period. The study was directed to the interindividual differences in the workers' circadian patterns of activity, sleep, oral temperature, time estimation, physical fitness, and food intake. By means of a questionnaire on preferences and habits of activity and time of day, three subgroups of five subjects each were selected—`morning', `middle', and `evening' groups. Significant differences were found between the groups and between the shifts. Most interesting was the significant interaction of group × shift, on the basis of which it could be concluded that the `morning' type of subjects had the most pronounced difficulty in adapting to the shift system practised. It is thought that a refinement of the questionnaire used should eventually result in a tool for assessing a person's circadian type and the interaction of type × shift.
PMCID: PMC1069474  PMID: 4753717
18.  Comfort studies of rail passengers 
Nicol, J. F., Doré, C., Weiner, J. S., Lee, D. E., Prestidge, S. P., and Andrews, M. J. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 325-334. Comfort studies of rail passengers. A short series of trials is described in which a specimen car of the new High Density Rolling Stock was laden with passengers at different densities and under different environmental constraints, designed to simulate `shut-down' conditions.
The results suggest that the limit for comfort, 21·8°C corrected effective temperature (CET), proposed by Bell and Watts (1971) is reasonable but that temperatures some 3 or 4°C higher can be tolerated without undue discomfort.
The physiological limit for safety recommended by Bell and Watts is a CET of 30·6°C. This will be reached in less than 20 minutes if there is a power failure in warm conditions in crowded trains.
An undesirable, possibly dangerous, level of discomfort will be experienced by passengers in ventilated but crowded trains after 30 minutes.
In any case it is recommended that the globe temperature in a carriage should not exceed 30°C.
PMCID: PMC1069472  PMID: 4753715
19.  Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice 
Fanger, P. O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 313-324. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice. A review is given of existing knowledge regarding the conditions for thermal comfort. Both physiological and environmental comfort conditions are discussed. Comfort criteria are shown diagrammatically, and their application is illustrated by numerous practical examples. Furthermore, the effect on the comfort conditions of age, adaptation, sex, seasonal and circadian rhythm, and unilateral heating or cooling of the body is discussed. The term `climate monotony' is considered. A method is recommended for the evaluation of the quality of thermal environments in practice.
PMCID: PMC1069471  PMID: 4584998
20.  Effect of treatment on physiological responses to exercise in East African industrial workers with iron deficiency anaemia 
Davies, C. T. M., and van Haaren, J. P. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 335-340. Effect of treatment on physiological responses to exercise in East African industrial workers with iron deficiency anaemia. The physiological responses to exercise on an upright bicycle ergometer have been investigated in groups of anaemic (mean Hb = 7·8 g/100 ml) and control (mean Hb = 13·7 g/100 ml) East African industrial workers before and after treatment with oral iron (Fe 200 mg) tablets and on a third group of anaemic subjects (mean = 7·4 g/100 ml) who received no treatment.
Before treatment anaemic subjects exercised with an increased cardiac frequency at a fixed oxygen intake (V̇o2) of 1·5 1/min and a marked reduction in predicted maximum aerobic power output when compared to normal controls. The effect of therapy was to reverse these changes so that no significant differences existed between the two treatment groups but both were significantly different from their anaemic controls. The pulmonary minute ventilation at a V̇o2 of 1·5 1/min and the V̇o2 at a work load of 8 820 Nm/min (900 kpm/min) were similar in all three groups of subjects and remained constant throughout the experimental investigation. The findings carry important implications for those engaged in industrial medicine in developing countries and show clearly that the debilitating effects of iron deficiency anaemia can be rapidly eliminated by simple and inexpensive therapy in factory workers without seriously disturbing their normal work routine.
PMCID: PMC1069473  PMID: 4753716
PMCID: PMC1009533

Results 1-25 (81)