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5.  Leptospira hebdomadis associated with an outbreak of illness in workers on a farm in North Yorkshire. 
Four cases of illness attributed to Leptospira hebdomadis occurred on a cattle farm in North Yorkshire. The clinical features were a febrile illness that resembled influenza; in one case there was a lymphocytic meningitis. This infection is probably more common than is recognised at present, and prevention of further cases may be possible if diagnosed promptly.
PMCID: PMC1008759  PMID: 7448136
6.  Placental and stillbirth tissue lead concentrations in occupationally exposed women. 
The lead values in maternal and infant blood, in placental tissue, and in stillbirth liver, kidney, and rib- and skull-bones have been determined in samples from the Stoke-on-Trent area. The lead values in antenatal blood and placenta increase with occupational exposure; liver and kidney stillbirth lead values are lower than those of much older children and rib-bone lead values from stillbirths were on average three times as high as those from a control group comprised of cot deaths and early infant deaths from accidental causes.
PMCID: PMC1008758  PMID: 7448135
7.  Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on hepatic metabolism of aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats. 
The activities of liver drug-metabolising enzymes for 16 aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons were measured in male rats after a three-week daily intake of ethanol amounting to 30% of total energy intake. Although the ethanol feeding produced only a slight increase in the microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, it increased the in-vitro metabolism of most hydrocarbons three-to six-fold. That a major part of this enhanced activity disappeared after one-day withdrawal of ethanol suggests that recent intake of ethanol plays an important part in accelerating the metabolism of hydrocarbons. The enzyme activity enhanced by ethanol was found to be related with changes occurring not in the soluble but in the microsomal fractions. A metabolism study using toluene as a model substrate indicated that chronic ethanol consumption increases the in-vivo metabolism of this hydrocarbon in rats.
PMCID: PMC1008756  PMID: 7192567
8.  Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis of mineral deposits in lungs of a patient with pleural mesothelioma. 
Scanning electron microscopy of lung tissue, ashed at low temperature, and obtained from an insulation worker who had died of pleural mesothelioma, showed the presence of numerous inorganic particles and fibres. A regional variation in fibre concentration in different tissue samples was found, and the size distribution of naked fibres and asbestos bodies was determined. By energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis the fibres were identified mainly as amphibole asbestos. This method also showed the presence of particles containing titanium and of fragments of diatom shells. Despite a mean concentration of 33 x 10(6) fibres per gram of dry tissue no significant lung fibrosis was found.
PMCID: PMC1008755  PMID: 7448133
9.  Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung. 
Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.
PMCID: PMC1008754  PMID: 7448132
10.  Pulmonary disease from occupational exposure to an artificial aluminium silicate used for cat litter. 
All available workers engaged in bagging an artificial crystalline aluminium silicate--the kiln-dried residue from the calcining and water extraction of alunite (a hydrated sulphate of aluminium and potassium) that is currently classified as a nuisance dust--were studied after a complaint of respiratory and systemic symptoms, including arthritis, by an employee of the factory, who showed physiological and radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis and in whom lung biopsy showed diffuse fibrosis with granulomas. Inhalation challenge produced a transient decrease in transfer factor and transfer factor standardised for alveolar volume. Twenty-five subjects were known to have been exposed at some time to the dust of alunite-residue. Of the 17 who could be contacted, all agreed to attend for respiratory questionnaire and occupational history, pulmonary function testing (spirometry, lung volumes, gas transfer), and posteroanterior chest radiograph. Six subjects considered that occupational exposure to the dust was responsible for respiratory symptoms. Three subjects had abnormality of the chest radiograph consistent with pulmonary fibrosis. The mean percentage of predicted transfer factor standardised for effective alveolar volume was 71.1% in subjects with abnormal chest radiographs and 86.6% in subjects with normal radiographs (p = 0.10). There was a trend in the correlation between the percentage of predicted transfer factor standardised for effective alveolar volume and total dust exposure (sum of the products of grade of severity of each exposure period and duration of each exposure period in months) (r = 0.40 p = 0.10). This study suggests that there may be a relation between inhalation of the dust of this form of aluminium silicate and pulmonary fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC1008753  PMID: 7448131
11.  Observations on the lungs of vanadium workers. 
Out of a total of 79 employees at a factory making vanadium pentoxide from magnetite ore 63 were investigated by respiratory questionnaire, chest radiography, and tests of ventilatory function. The findings were compared with a reference group of 63 men, matched for age (to within two years) and for smoking habit (to within five cigarettes daily) selected from workers at a magnetite ore mine. Analysis of the ventilation tests showed no significant differences between the reference group and the men exposed to low concentrations of vanadium (0.01--0.04 mg/m3), despite previous exposure for an average of 11 years to concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 3.9 mg/m3. Complaint of wheezing was significantly more common among the workers exposed to vanadium than among their referents, but there were no other subjective differences between the groups. Localized fibrotic foci were reported in the radiographs of four reference cases and two men exposed to vanadium, but there were no cases of pneumoconiosis in either group.
PMCID: PMC1008752  PMID: 7448130
12.  Epoxides--is there a human health problem? 
The purpose of this review is to consider whether epoxides represent a hazard to human health. Possible means of occupational and non-occupational exposure are discussed with reference to the production and uses of industrially important compounds and other epoxides, such as naturally occurring plant and fungal products. In addition to epoxides themselves, unsaturated compounds that may be metabolised in vivo to epoxides are included, since this appears to be a further important means of exposure. The toxicology, in particular carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, is discussed, along with a brief outline of the biochemistry such as metabolism, binding to cell constituents, and DNA repair mechanisms. The question of interactions between different epoxides in vivo is also raised.
PMCID: PMC1008750  PMID: 7004476
13.  Role of family susceptibility, occupational and family histories and individuals' blood groups in the development of silicosis. 
A previous investigation has shown that family susceptibility and occupational and family histories have a decisive role in the development of byssinosis among workers exposed to flax dust. Results of investigation of silicosis in 814 male workers exposed to silica-bearing dust showed that family susceptibility has an important role in the development of silicosis among examined workers, and workers whose fathers had an occupational history of exposure to silica-bearing dust were more resistant to the development of the disease than those with non-exposed fathers. The degree of consanguinity of parents and individuals' blood groups, also, have a role. Workers with cousin parents were relatively highly susceptible to the development of silicosis as well as workers with blood groups "O" or "AB". It has been concluded that the investigated factors might have a role in the development of other occupational diseases and further investigations are indicated.
PMCID: PMC1008760  PMID: 6255981
14.  Influence of chronic carbon disulphide intoxication on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in rats. 
Rats fed on atherogenic diets containing 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid with or without 0.15% thiouracil were exposed to carbon disulphide (CS2) vapours (1 mg/l of air), five hours a day, six days a week for 6-10 months. Serum and aorta lipid contents were determined, and the extent of atherosclerotic changes was investigated. The following effects of chronic exposure to CS2 were found: (1) slower gain in body weight when rats were fed on atherogenic diet; (2) greater increase in serum cholesterol content (after thiouracil supplemented diet); (3) moderate increase in total cholesterol content in the aorta wall with a significantly increased esterified cholesterol fraction but none in phospholipid level in this tissue; and (4) more advanced lipid infiltrates of coronary arteries and endocardium, the latter predominantly in the aortic valves. These results together with data from previous studies indicate that metabolism of arterial lipids participates in the process of artheroma formation after chronic exposure to CS2 vapours.
PMCID: PMC1008757  PMID: 7448134
15.  Deposition, retention, and clearance of inhaled particles. 
The relation between the concentrations and characteristics of air contaminants in the work place and the resultant toxic doses and potential hazards after their inhalation depends greatly on their patterns of deposition and the rates and pathways for their clearance from the deposition sites. The distribution of the deposition sites of inhaled particles is strongly dependent on their aerodynamic diameters. For normal man, inhaled non-hygroscopic particles greater than or equal to 2 micrometers that deposit in the conducting airways by impaction are concentrated on to a small fraction of the surface. Cigarette smoking and bronchitis produce a proximal shift in the deposition pattern. The major factor affecting the deposition of smaller particles is their transfer from tidal to reserve air. For particles soluble in respiratory tract fluid, systemic uptake may be relatively complete for all deposition patterns, and there may be local toxic or irritant effects or both. On the other hand, slowly soluble particles depositing in the conducting airways are carried on the surface to the glottis and are swallowed within one day. Mucociliary transport rates are highly variable, both along the ciliated airways of a given individual and between individuals. The changes in clearance rates produced by drugs, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants can greatly increase or decrease these rates. Particles deposited in non-ciliated airways have large surface-to-volume ratios, and clearance by dissolution can occur for materials generally considered insoluble. They may also be cleared as free particles either by passive transport along surface liquids or, after phagocytosis, by transport within alveolar macrophages. If the particles penetrate the epithelium, either bare or within macrophages, they may be sequestered within cells or enter the lymphatic circulation and be carried to pleural, hilar, and more distant lymph nodes. Non-toxic insoluble particles are cleared from the alveolar region in a series of temporal phases. The earliest, lasting several weeks, appears to include the clearance of phagocytosed particles via the bronchial tree. The terminal phases appear to be related to solubility at interstitial sites. While the mechanisms and dynamics of particle deposition and clearance are reasonably well established in broad outline, reliable quantitative data are lacking in many specific areas. More information is needed on: (1) normal behaviour, (2) the extent of the reserve capacity of the system to cope with occupational exposures, and (3) the role of compensatory changes in airway sizes and in secretory and transport rates in providing protection against occupational exposures, and in relation to the development and progression of dysfunction and disease.
PMCID: PMC1008751  PMID: 7004477
16.  Fever induced by fluorine-containing lubricant on stainless steel tubes. 
Three subjects, all smokers, handling stainless steel tubes suffered repeated attacks of general malaise, chills, and fever lasting for several hours, mainly after gas soldering. Provocations by rubbing smoking tobacco against a tube produced similar attacks, and leucocytosis, after a few hours. The presence of fluorine on the tubes and in the febrifacient tobacco was shown. A fluorocarbon polymer lubricant was suspected of causing the attacks. Heating (1000 degrees C) of the tubes eliminated the effect.
PMCID: PMC1008712  PMID: 7426482
17.  48-hour ambulatory electrocardiography in dynamite workers and controls 
ABSTRACT Sudden deaths and chronic cardiovascular diseases have been reported in excess frequency from the explosives industry. Forty-two active dynamite workers and 43 healthy, unexposed workers have been studied by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring during two 24-hour periods covering an exposed shift and the “abstinence phase,” 40-64 hours after the last exposure to dynamite. To achieve comparability the non-exposed individuals were screened for risk factors of heart disease in the same way as those employed in exposed work. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups concerning the mean individual number of ventricular or supraventicular ectopic beats per hour or per 10 000 heart beats during the whole recorded time. Among those who showed only ectopic beats in one of the two periods dynamite workers tended to have more ectopic beats in the second period. “Complicated” ventricular ectopic beats (multifocal, bigemeny, or coupled) were seen in six dynamite workers and four controls. The only observed period of ventricular tachycardia was seen in a dynamite worker on Monday morning. The mean individual corrected QT-time was similar between the two groups, and there was no tendency towards longer QT-times among the dynamite workers during the abstinence period. Continuous monitoring detected several cases with pronounced ventricular arrhythmias despite normal short-time ECG and may be used to investigate the heart rhythm in active workers.
PMCID: PMC1008711  PMID: 6775683
18.  High affinity of lead for fetal haemoglobin. 
In-vitro experiments using 203Pb were performed to identify lead-binding components in human haemoglobin. Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange chromatography of haemolysate showed that different types of haemoglobin had different affinities for lead. For the haemolysate from adults, lead was present in both Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2) and Hb A2 (alpha 2 delta 2), whereas, in the haemolysate from new-born infants, the haemoglobin of fetal origin, Hb F (alpha 2 gamma 2) showed a much greater affinity for 203Pb than the adult haemoglobin Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2), obtained from maternal blood. Analysis of the 203 Pb-labelled haemoglobin suggested that about 82% of 203Pb was in the globin polypeptide. Further analysis with carboxylmethyl (CM) cellulose chromatography indicated that the gamma globin of fetal origin had a higher affinity for 203Pb than the beta globin, whereas alpha globin appeared to be unimportant in lead binding. The results of the different affinities for lead of different Hb types are discussed with regard to the effect of lead upon haemoglobin synthesis.
PMCID: PMC1008710  PMID: 6158989
19.  Application of mathematical modelling for assessing the biological half-times of chromium and nickel in field studies. 
The biological half-times of urinary chromium and nickel excretion and plasma nickel concentration were calculated for four welders and four electroplaters. A linear one-compartment kinetic model gave estimates of the half-times ranging from 15 to 41 hours for chromium in urine, from 17 to 39 hours for nickel in urine, and from 20 to 34 hours for nickel in plasma. The model allows a precise description to be made of a worker's state of exposure as affected by a varying concentration of the metals in the air.
PMCID: PMC1008709  PMID: 7426481
20.  Cadmium-induced osteomalacia. 
The detailed study of a battery plate maker, who had worked with cadmium for 36 years, showed that proteinuria, typical of renal tubular dysfunction, had been observed for 25 years and during the last 12 years of his life the patient had suffered increasing disability from gross bone disease. Several bone biopsies and detailed metabolic studies showed typical severe osteomalacia, which responded well initially to calcium and vitamin D treatment. Examination of the liver both in life and after death showed a gross excess of cadmium. This was also found in the kidneys after death. Previously unreported changes were present in the bones, especially the lumbar vertebrae which were probably more the result of gross bone deformity than cadmium deposition. The mechanism of development of the severe acquired Fanconi syndrome was thought to be a combination of dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency and impaired calcium absorption from abnormal vitamin D synthesis, related to the cadmium deposition in the renal tubules, which also caused the defect in renal tubular reabsorption.
PMCID: PMC1008708  PMID: 7426480
21.  Clearance of asbestos bodies from the lung: a personal view. 
In histological sections asbestos bodies in human lungs may be either transparent, yellow, strongly Perls-positive structures as described in published reports, or opaque, black structures, the ferroprotein coating having been converted into haemosiderin. The transparent asbestos bodies fragment into segments; the black asbestos bodies disintegrate into a mass of haemosiderin granules that accumulate as dense deposits, particularly near to blood vessels. The presence of haemosiderin granules indicates that asbestos bodies have broken down. When a patient has died with a mesothelioma there is little evidence of phagocytic activity in many areas of the lung. When exposure to asbestos ceased many years before a mesothelioma developed there may be few recognisable asbestos bodies remaining in the lung.
PMCID: PMC1008707  PMID: 7426479
22.  Radiological findings as predictors of mortality in Quebec asbestos workers. 
Two cohorts of chrysotile miners and millers in Quebec were selected to study the extent to which chest radiographs taken while still employed predict mortality. The paper presents mainly findings in much the larger cohort, which consisted of 4559 men (two-thirds past workers) whose latest radiograph had been assessed by one of six experienced readers into what became the UICC/Cincinnati (U/C) classification; by the end of 1975 there had been 1543 deaths in this cohort. The findings were generally confirmed in the other cohort, comprising 988 current male workers, who had been examined in 1967-8 by questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and smoking and by lung function tests, and for whom all six readers had assessed their 1966 radiographs into the U/C classification; 130 men had died by the end of 1975. Men with any radiographic abnormality, heavy dust exposure, or a history of cigarette smoking had relative risks (RRs) of total mortality greater than unity. Death from pneumoconiosis was associated with small parenchymal opacities, usually irregular, of profusion l/l or more, and with heavy dust exposure but not with smoking. Most who died from lung cancer had smoked cigarettes, or had been heavily exposed to dust, or both. Small parenchymal opacities were present in most but not all the excess deaths due to lung cancer. Deaths from other malignant diseases showed no consistent dust or x-ray patterns. RRs of deaths from most other causes were raised for certain radiographic features. Failures in forecasting mortality were primarily due to deaths in which asbestos-related disease was not the primary cause but may have been a contributing factor. The main findings validated the U/C classification convincingly, particulary as the films had been taken as routine and were of modest quality. Despite objective rules for the reading and the fact that all six readers were contributing to the development of the classification, there was inevitably some observer variation. The importance of radiographic technique and the need for careful control of the reading is evident. Our results provide support for the use of the chest radiograph for surveillance of asbestos workers, and for environmental monitoring. Its protective value for individual workers, however, is limited to the extent that radiological progression continues after withdrawal from exposure, and by the carcinogenic risk associated with dust already retained.
PMCID: PMC1008705  PMID: 7426477
23.  Changes in lung function after exposure to vanadium compounds in fuel oil ash 
ABSTRACT Seventeen men were studied during the cleaning of bottom ash from the boiler of an oil-fired electricity generating station. The men were exposed to a time weighted average respirable dust (<10 μ) of 523 μg/m3, containing 15·3% vanadium. Sixteen of the men wore respirators, subsequently found to have peak leakages of up to 9%, while one volunteer had a one-hour exposure wearing only a compressed paper oronasal mask. Symptoms experienced by the men were recorded, urine samples were collected for assessment of vanadium concentration 24 hours after the first exposure, and spirometry was performed daily for four days and on the eight day. Pronounced reductions in forced vital capacity (mean 0·5 l), forced expiratory volume (mean 0·5 l), and forced mid-expiratory flow (mean 1·16 l/s) had occurred within 24 hours of first exposure to the dust, and had not returned to pre-exposure levels by the eight day. Four weeks after exposure no residual deficits were present. A urinary vanadium concentration of 280 μg/l was found in the volunteer, but none of the others had concentrations above the test-threshold of 40 μg/l. Symptoms and signs of airway irritation were noted. The timing, duration, and quality of changes in lung function, however, indicated that the response could not be attributed solely to a reflex bronchial reaction to irritation by an inert dust.
PMCID: PMC1008704  PMID: 7426476
24.  Occupational type bronchial provocation tests: testing with soluble antigens by inhalation. 
Thirty-seven patients with asthma or alveolitis thought to result from exposure to materials commonly encountered at their work were tested by inhalation of an aerosol of these materials. Twenty-four (65%) developed an immediate asthmatic reaction, which was followed by a non-immediate reaction in 10, of whom six developed the signs and symptoms of alveolitis. Eighteen (76%) patients with asthmatic reactions to test material were prick test positive to that material while only two our of 13 with a negative inhalation test were prick test positive (15%). Precipitating antibody to test material was measured in 23 and was present in nine (39%) of those with positive inhalation tests, and one (12%) of those with negative tests. It was present in five of the six with a reaction in the gas exchanging portions of the lung.
PMCID: PMC1008703  PMID: 7426475
25.  A comparative study on the neurotoxicity of n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane in the rat. 
The neurotoxicity of n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane have been studied in Wistar strain male rats after exposure to 3000 ppm of n-pentane, n-hexane, or n-heptane for 12 hours a day for 16 weeks. The nerve conduction velocity and the distal latency were measured before the beginning of the exposure and after exposure for four, eight, 12, and 16 weeks. The experiment showed that n-hexane disturbed the conduction velocity of the motor nerve and the mixed nerve and prolonged the distal latency in the rat's tail, but that n-pentane and n-heptane did not. The light and electron microscopic examination showed that the peripheral nerve, the neuromuscular junction, and the muscle fibre of the rats exposed to n-hexane were severely impaired, but those of the rats exposed to n-pentane or n-heptane showed no particular changes even after 16 weeks of exposure. These results show that n-hexane is far more toxic to the peripheral nerve of the rat than n-pentane or n-heptane. It is necessary to study the neurotoxicity of other petroleum hydrocarbons, since some reports suggest that petroleum solvents might possibly contain neurotoxic hydrocarbons other than n-hexane.
PMCID: PMC1008702  PMID: 7426474

Results 1-25 (67)