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2.  Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers 
ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway.
PMCID: PMC1009074  PMID: 7138800
3.  Comparison of independent randomised reading of radiographs with direct progression scoring for assessing change in asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural lesions. 
Direct scoring of progression of pleural and parenchymal lesions was compared with change assessed by independent readings to the ILO classification among 155 men from HM Dockyard, Devonport, followed-up for 10 years. For pleural calcification the two methods agreed closely, whereas direct scoring yielded relatively too little progression of small opacities and too much progression of pleural thickening. The choice of method for assessing progression should depend on objectives.
PMCID: PMC1008928  PMID: 7066221
6.  Sodium azide poisoning in five laboratory technicians 
ABSTRACT Five laboratory technicians accidentally ingested sodium azide, in quantities varying from 20 to 80 mg, in tea made from distilled water kept in a laboratory. Four had short-lived symptoms of dizziness, pounding heart, and faintness, while another developed a picture of myocardial ischaemia. He had further episodes of chest pains necessitating admission to hospital. These later symptoms were thought to be psychogenic in origin.
PMCID: PMC1009030  PMID: 7093160
14.  A mortality study of lead workers 1925-76. 
The principal causes of mortality of 754 individuals from a population of 1898 pensioners from four lead acid battery factories during the period 1 January 1925 to 31 December 1976 were studied. In addition the causes of 553 deaths occurring before retirement was also studied. All subjects were placed into one of three groups according to their history of lead exposure. Group 1 had no occupational lead exposure, group 2 low, and group 3 the highest. Mortality was studied in 16 principal disease groups as well as all causes combined. A significant excess of deaths from cerebrovascular accidents was found among pensioners dying between 1925 and 1976 in group 3 but not among men in the same exposure group dying in employment. There was also a significant excess of deaths from renal disease among this group. After 1958, however, the causes of most of the deaths from renal disease were not those likely to be associated with exposure to lead. There was no significant excess of deaths from all causes, nor was there a significant excess of deaths in any of the exposure groups from cancer, hypertensive disease, nor any other circulatory disease. There was no excess of observed to expected deaths among any of the three groups of women in any of the cause groups examined. After the introduction of regular blood lead analysis in 1964 the blood lead distribution in men in group 3 had by 1976 come down to roughly the same level as group 2 in 1965-7. Since there was no excess of deaths in any of the 16 categories studied among group 2 subjects present conditions are probably now adequate to prevent any excess of mortality in any of the three groups.
PMCID: PMC1009075  PMID: 7138801
15.  Cutaneous absorption of trivalent chromium: tissue levels and treatment by exchange transfusion 
ABSTRACT A man was accidentally immersed in hot acidic trivalent chromium sulphate solution but none was swallowed. The clinical course was dominated by burns, intravascular haemolysis, and acute renal failure. Blood concentrations of chromium were measured during treatment and tissue concentrations were measured at death. Exchange transfusion reduced blood chromium concentrations by two-thirds. The total quantities of chromium absorbed and removed by various routes were calculated. In-vitro studies showed that the chromium solution did not directly cause haemolysis.
PMCID: PMC1009073  PMID: 7138799
16.  Anaerobes: a new aetiology in cavitary pneumoconiosis. 
The role of mycobacteria in the cavitation of large pneumoconiotic masses is well established. In other cases softness is attributed to an ischaemic or aseptic necrosis. Five cases are described in which cavitation of the pulmonary masses was caused by anaerobic bacteria, confirmed by the growth of such bacterial in cultures after transtracheal or transpleural puncture. Repeated cultures for mycobacteria gave negative results. Two cases were acute, having serious complications such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema, and serious respiratory insufficiency. The role of anaerobes in cavitary pneumoconiosis has not been recognised previously, probably because of the special conditions required to culture these bacteria and the infrequent use of transtracheal puncture in the diagnosis of this entity. The prevalence of anaerobes as agents capable of cavitating pneumoconiotic masses remains to be established.
PMCID: PMC1009072  PMID: 6128024
17.  Digital blood pressure after local cooling as a diagnostic tool in traumatic vasospastic disease. 
Measurement of digital blood pressure before and after local cooling was performed in 10 men with traumatic vasospastic disease (TVD), 10 men who worked with vibrating tools but had no symptoms in arms or hands, and 10 men who had never worked with vibrating tools. The reduction in finger systolic pressure was significantly larger in the group with TVD than in either of the reference groups (p less than 0.001). There was no difference between the two reference groups. Nine of the 10 patients with TVD had a larger reduction in their finger systolic pressure after local cooling than anyone in either control group. The effects of two different room temperatures (17 degrees C and 23 degrees C) were evaluated. At the higher temperature the overlap between patients with TVD and controls was greater. The method described seems a feasible way to obtain an objective verification of TVD.
PMCID: PMC1009071  PMID: 7138798
18.  Relationships between distribution of lead in erythrocytes in vivo and in vitro and inhibition of ALA-D. 
Proteins in the ALA-D (delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase) fraction from gel filtration of erythrocyte supernatant (ES) have the highest affinity for lead among erythrocyte constituents in vivo and in vitro. It takes 20-40 hours for erythrocyte components to be equilibrated with lead added in vitro. AT low lead concentrations, under 60 micrograms/100 ml ES, the extent of decrease in ALA-D activity indicates the extent of lead saturation of ALA-D fraction proteins. The saturation is attained at 80-110 micrograms/100 ml ES. Although an appreciable amount of lead is also found in the haemoglobin fraction that contains certain factors concerned in ALA-D inhibition, lead responsible for inducing the inhibition is not bound to haemoglobin fraction proteins but to ALA-D fraction proteins. Of three treatments or agents recovering the enzyme from lead effects, zinc is the only one that can fully restore the inhibition.
PMCID: PMC1009070  PMID: 7138797
19.  Organophosphorous poisoning at a chemical packaging company 
ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1009069  PMID: 7138796
20.  Pesticide lung: a pilot investigation of fruit-growers and farmers during the spraying season. 
A fruit-grower with large, atypical lung infiltrations and lung fibrosis triggered off an investigation of fruit-growers during the spraying season. An interview was carried out together with a Wright peak flow meter test and an x-ray examination of the chest. No fewer than 156 spray preparations were used by the group; individual fruit-growers used between three and 27. In connection with spraying, 41% of subjects had one or other type of symptom; peak flow was reduced in 19% and x-ray changes were seen in 24%. A questionnaire was returned by 132 of 235 farmers. Of these, 60 had worked with biocides, 72 had not. A non-significant higher frequency of symptoms was found among those who used biocides. The results would indicate that biocides (or "pesticides") can give rise to a lung disease, "biocide lung," which comprises (1) pneumonia, radiologically demonstrable by more or less transient round infiltrations and (2) chronic progressive lung fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC1009068  PMID: 7138795
21.  A retrospective mortality study of substituted anthraquinone dyestuffs workers 
ABSTRACT Because short-term bacterial tests have previously shown that about one-third of substituted anthraquinones tested are capable of causing reverse mutation, and two-year feeding studies of three such dyestuffs in rats have shown an excess of hepatocellular carcinomas, a retrospective cohort mortality study was carried out on a population of 1975 male workers employed in a dyestuffs manufacturing plant in Scotland. The population was identified as having worked for more than six months within the factory during the decade 1 January 1956-31 December 1965, and their mortality experience was followed up to 30 June 1980. Age-standardised mortality rates did not show any excess in total or cancer-related mortality.
PMCID: PMC1009066  PMID: 7138794
22.  Asbestos bodies in the lung: Southampton (UK) and Wellington (New Zealand). 
Two series of surgically removed and unselected necropsy lungs were examined for asbestos bodies. In the series from Southampton (UK) 30-mu sections were used and in the Wellington (New Zealand) series a modified Gold's digestion method was used for all cases, together with 30-mu sections for some. A further series of Southampton lungs was assessed by Gold's method six years after the initial study. The 30-mu section technique found asbestos bodies in 13% of Southampton men and none in women: the corresponding Wellington figures were 8% for men and nil for women. In Wellington the more sensitive digestion method found asbestos bodies in 78% of men and 63% of women. In Southampton the investigation by Gold's method found asbestos bodies in 83% of men and 74% of women. No statistically significant association was found between the number of asbestos bodies and the various types of lung carcinoma. The prevalence of asbestos in lungs removed between 1956 and 1965 did not differ significantly from its prevalence in those removed in the late 1970's. There was no significant increase in asbestos after the age of 20.
PMCID: PMC1009065  PMID: 6753915
23.  Mortality of two groups of women who manufactured gas masks from chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: a 40-year follow-up 
ABSTRACT Two groups of women were exposed to asbestos while manufacturing gas masks in Lancashire before and during the second world war. One group (in Blackburn) is believed to have been concerned almost exclusively with the manufacture of civilian respirators (containing chrysotile) while the other (in Leyland) made respirators for the armed Forces (containing crocidolite) and a much smaller number of civilian respirators. Excess mortality ascribed to lung cancer and ovarian cancer were found at the second factory (statistically significant at the 1% level) but not at the first. Mesothelioma was mentioned on the death certificates of five women who had worked in Leyland and one woman in Blackburn.
PMCID: PMC1009064  PMID: 6291580
24.  Lung function and radiographic change in chrysotile workers in Swaziland. 
The effect on lung function and radiographic indices of exposure to chrysotile asbestos was investigated by cross-sectional studies in two groups of men at Havelock Mine, Swaziland. The first group consisted of 214 employees and ex-employees, mean age 52, who had been employed for at least 10 years, and whose dust exposure ranged from minimal for surface workers to very heavy for those in the grading and bagging sections of the mill. In this group 29% had category 1 or more simple pneumoconiosis and 4.5% category 2 or more. For surface and mine workers, the estimated annual deterioration in FEV1 and FVC and the increase in category of pneumoconiosis was similar to that due to age alone, while the heaviest exposure almost doubled the decline in lung function and trebled the rate of progression of pneumoconiosis. The second group consisted of 224 men, mean age 33, all currently working in the mill and having been employed there for at least a year. In this group 30% had category 1 or more simple pneumoconiosis, and 2.7% category 2. Exposure in the dustiest sections of the mill more than doubled the estimated annual decline in lung function and doubled the rate of progression of pneumoconiosis.
PMCID: PMC1009063  PMID: 6291579
25.  Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. 
The purpose of this study was to determine whether grain handlers underwent work-related changes in their pulmonary function and, if so, to examine the dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. The pulmonary function of grain handlers was measured at the beginning and end of work shifts over a period of one week, during which their exposure to dust was measured daily. The results showed changes indicative of a within-day obstructive change, in addition to a small restrictive defect occurring over the course of a week. Civic outside labourers who were examined as a control group showed a similar within-week obstructive change without any associated restriction of lung volume. The data on the grain handlers were also used to examine the dose-effect relationships of dust exposure, both on baseline pulmonary function and on within-day changes in these measurements. The baseline flow rates of workers who did not wear a mask were found to vary inversely with their average exposure to respirable dust. In addition, the flow rates underwent a within-day decrease that varied directly with their corresponding exposure to respirable dust and was unrelated to mask wearing. The median of the slopes for this relationship indicated that 50% of the subjects had a decrease of at least 923 ml/s in the value of their Vmax50%VC for each 1 mg/m3 increase in the concentration of respirable dust. Non-respirable dust did not have a measurable effect either on the baseline or the within-day changes in pulmonary function. The acute changes were unaffected by age, duration of employment, or extent of smoking.
PMCID: PMC1009062  PMID: 7138793

Results 1-25 (77)