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1.  Role of histamine in the aetiology of byssinosis. I Blood histamine concentrations in workers exposed to cotton and flax dusts. 
The formation or the accumulation, or both, of histamine in the lungs may be potentiated by agent(s) present in cotton dust at higher level(s) than in flax dust and negligible in cottonseed dust. It has been suggested that such potentiation may be due to the activation of the ability of the lung to produce histamine and/or produce or recruit mast cells; this may present an acceptable explanation of the mechanism by which the propagation of the chronic effect of the dust proceeds in cotton and flax workers. Histamine accumulated in the lung over the weekend is released on exposure to dust causing the symptoms of byssinosis. The difference in the rate of histamine metabolism relative to the rate of histamine formation in byssinotic subjects leads to a more prolonged histamine accumulation than in symptom free subjects, with the consequent appearance of the symptoms of byssinosis. Continuous exposure to dust, without weekend interruption, leads to equivalent rates of histamine formation and metabolism with non-considerable histamine accumulation in the lungs and consequent absence of the symptoms of byssinosis.
PMCID: PMC1009284  PMID: 6202313
2.  Acute lung function response to cotton dust in atopic and non-atopic individuals. 
Acute spirometric responses to inhaled cotton dust were examined in a population of 226 healthy, non-asthmatic adults whose atopic status had been evaluated by skin prick tests to 10 common environmental allergens. Exposure to cotton dust occurred in model cardrooms where elutriated dust levels were carefully controlled (1.02 mg/m3). Atopy, defined as positive prick tests to at least two allergens, was observed in 26% of subjects. Significant forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) decrements occurred after exposure to cotton dust independent of atopic status (p less than 0.001). The mean FEV1 decline in atopic subjects, however, was significantly greater than in non-atopic subjects (p less than 0.05). Degree of atopy, as measured by number of positive skin tests, also exhibited a significant association with cotton induced decrements in FEV1 (p less than 0.05). These data suggest that atopy may be an important determinant of the magnitude of the acute pulmonary response to cotton dust. This may reflect the non-specific airways hyperresponsiveness that has been described in non-asthmatic, atopic individuals.
PMCID: PMC1009374  PMID: 6498112
3.  Scrotal cancer in the West Midlands 1936-76. 
Between 1936 and 1976, 344 cases of scrotal cancer were registered in the West Midlands Region. There was a considerable increase in the number of registrations after 1955, the figures remaining high until the 1970s since when they appear to be falling towards the low level seen in the early years of registration. By the end of December 1981 250 deaths had occurred. The cause of death was known in 226 cases and of these, 97 (42.9%) were attributed to cancer of the scrotum, 40 (17.7%) to other malignancies, and 89 (39.4%) to other causes, scrotal cancer not being mentioned on the death certificate. The mean age at registration was 59.3 years and at death 66 years. Mean survival was 6.6 years with a five year survival rate of 51%. Survival was shorter in men who presented with palpable lymph nodes and greater in those treated with surgery alone. Occupations were known for all but 28 of the cases and of these, 61.9% had been exposed to mineral oil and a further 7.8% to pitch and tar. Among the occupations with exposure to mineral oil, tool setters and tool fitters accounted for the greatest proportion, 89 men having followed those trades. In 74 cases second primary tumours were registered after the scrotal primary, mostly in the skin and bronchus. There was no relation between the development of second primary tumours and exposure to mineral oil or to pitch and tar.
PMCID: PMC1009366  PMID: 6498107
4.  Classification of progressive massive fibrosis of coalminers by type of radiographic appearance. 
In a pilot study the chest radiographic appearances of 112 coalminers who developed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) over an 11 year period have been classified into six types based on the appearances of the large radiographic opacities. The most common type of PMF was one or more large shadows of homogeneous radiodensity. Less common types included markedly rounded shadows usually less than 3 cm in diameter, non-homogeneous shadows appearing to consist of conglomerations of small rounded opacities, and condensations of linear or streaky shadows. Good reproducibility by one reader between two readings were obtained. The lifetime exposures to mixed respirable coal mine dust, and to its quartz component, of these 112 men were compared with those of control subjects matched for age and starting category of simple pneumoconiosis but without PMF. Overall, the men with PMF had been exposed to more mixed dust than controls, confirming that one of the reasons some men with simple pneumoconiosis develop PMF is that they have inhaled more dust than others. Eleven of the 112 cases had large opacities that were not homogeneous and appeared to consist of conglomerations of "r" type small rounded opacities. The average quartz exposures of these men were much higher than in control subjects, suggesting that in this type of PMF quartz was an important causative factor.
PMCID: PMC1069354  PMID: 6743580
5.  Symptoms of vibration syndrome and radiographic findings in the wrists of lumberjacks. 
In a cross sectional study 279 lumberjacks exposed to chain saw vibration and a reference group of 178 peat bog workers were examined. The mean ages of the two groups were 34.6 and 33.1 years, respectively. The lumberjacks' mean duration of exposure to vibration was 10.4 years. The study consisted of a questionnaire and a clinical examination, including radiographs of the wrists. The prevalence of reported white finger symptoms was 18% for the lumberjacks and 3% for the referents, whereas that of numbness in the upper extremities was 51% and 22%, respectively. Among lumberjacks the occurrence of white finger symptoms increased significantly with the duration of exposure to vibration but was not associated with age or smoking. The prevalence of the numbing of the upper extremities increased linearly with age in both groups, but it was not associated with duration of exposure after adjustment for age. Among lumberjacks there was a significant association between the numbing symptom and the white finger symptom, but not among the referents. A high prevalence of numbing in the upper extremities among the lumberjacks could be at least partly explained by occupational factors other than vibration--work posture, for example. Radiographically, cysts were found in the wrist bones of 8-9% of both groups. The exposure to chain saw vibration no longer seems to be a determinant in the development of vacuoles in the carpal bones.
PMCID: PMC1009247  PMID: 6318799
6.  Histological types of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure. 
The Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program abstracts hospital pathology records on almost all cases of cancer occurring in the county. Those cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma that occurred between 1972 and 1978 were identified. Occupational histories were obtained from interviews, and the histopathology of the tumours was reviewed by a member of a mesothelioma reference panel who was unaware of the exposure histories. The relation of asbestos exposure to the three histological types of mesothelioma (epithelial, mesenchymal, and mixed) was studied among the 29 cases for whom occupational histories were available and who were also considered to have histopathology consistent with mesothelioma. The proportion of cases exposed to asbestos was high for both the epithelial (11/17, 65%) and mixed histological types (6/11, 55%). The single case of mesothelioma classified as a mesenchymal type was also exposed to asbestos. Cases who had worked in shipyards were represented in each of the three groups. In cases who had worked in asbestos production and manufacture an exclusively epithelial type of tumour was observed. In cases who had worked as insulators or in heating trades the histological type was predominantly (3/4) mixed. These data do not support the hypothesis that any specific histological type of mesothelioma is especially related to asbestos exposure.
PMCID: PMC1009378  PMID: 6498114
7.  Exposure to oxides of nitrogen: respiratory symptoms and lung function in British coalminers. 
Five hundred and sixty British coalminers with relatively high or relatively low exposures to oxides of nitrogen, based on measurements of concentrations of these gases at nine collieries over four years, and records of the men's places of work and colliery mining conditions over a total of eight years have been studied. Data on these men's respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity (FEV1), obtained as part of an epidemiological study of British coalminers, have been used to investigate possible adverse effects of exposure to oxides of nitrogen. Exposures to oxides of nitrogen were generally well below threshold limit values, though occasional peaks after shotfiring and during diesel locomotive use did exceed short term limits. No relationship was found between exposure and respiratory symptoms or decline in FEV1 nor was there any evidence of differences in symptoms of FEV1 between 44 pairs of men matched for age, dust exposure, smoking habit, coal rank, and type of work, but differing in respect of exposure to oxides of nitrogen. It has not been possible to detect any adverse effects on the health of this working population of the levels of nitrogen oxides that have occurred in British mines over the past decade. With the current levels of these gases, any long term effects on respiratory health are so small as to be undetectable in the presence of smoking and dust exposure.
PMCID: PMC1009286  PMID: 6722049
8.  Isolated liver damage in chemical workers. 
During a period of 18 months three workers were admitted to hospital with jaundice that had developed two to four months after beginning work at a chemical plant. Liver biopsies showed severe centrilobular, haemorrhagic liver cell necrosis. The pathological changes resolved within six to 18 months. No damage to other organs was observed. The only worker who resumed work at the plant developed clinical and biochemical evidence of relapse of liver damage. Exposure to carbon disulphide, isopropanol, toluene, and acrylonitrile among others was shown, but liver damage may have been caused by a synergistic, hepatotoxic reaction mediated through the hepatic microsomal enzyme system. It was not possible to decide which chemical was responsible.
PMCID: PMC1009250  PMID: 6691931
9.  Pulmonary effects of exposures in silicon carbide manufacturing. 
Chest x rays, smoking histories, and pulmonary function tests were obtained for 171 men employed in the manufacturing of silicon carbide. A lifetime exposure to respirable particulates (organic and inorganic fractions) and sulphur dioxide was estimated for each worker. Chest x ray abnormalities were related to respirable particulates (round opacities) and to age and smoking (linear opacities). Pulmonary function was affected by respirable particulates (FVC) and by sulphur dioxide and smoking (FEV1). Pleural thickening was related to age. No exposures exceeded the relevant standards; we therefore conclude that the current standards do not provide protection against injurious pulmonary effects, at least in this industry.
PMCID: PMC1009244  PMID: 6691928
10.  Characterisation of textile dust extracts: I. Histamine release in vitro. 
Cotton, flax, hemp, and cotton bracts extracts did not release histamine from mouse, rat, guinea pig, horse, cow, and monkey lung. Neither rat peritoneal mast cells nor mouse mastocytoma cells released histamine when incubated with textile dust extracts. Compound 48/80 caused a considerable release of histamine from all these tissues and the extracts released histamine from pig and human lung tissues. Whereas dusts that cause bronchospasm in man released histamine--for instance, cotton--those that are inactive, such as pericarps, did not. Histamine release was not quantitatively related to the concentration of extract used. Cotton bracts extract released histamine from pig lung tissue whereas in the same preparations methyl piperonylate was inactive. The active releasing agent was highly water soluble but could not be steam distilled from, nor extracted by, ether from bracts extract. These physicochemical properties are not characteristic of methyl piperonylate. There was no correlation between the induction of histidine decarboxylase and the histamine releasing capacity of the extracts. We conclude that pig lung is a useful qualitative assay tissue for the further characterisation of the histamine releasing agent(s) in textile dust extracts.
PMCID: PMC1009237  PMID: 6197990
11.  Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro effects of lead on the pH-activity relationship of human erythrocytic delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase. 
The effect of lead in vitro on the pH-activity relationship of human erythrocytic delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) and on the assessment of lead exposure with ratios of delta-ALAD activity measured at specific pH values was investigated. The addition of lead nitrate to whole blood at concentrations ranging from 0.40 to 8.1 mumole Pb2+/1, for periods of contact ranging from 16 h to 20 days at 4 degrees C, resulted in a time and dose dependent shift of the enzyme's pH optimum to a more acid value. The pH optimum shift obtained at raised lead concentrations or after long periods of contact at 4 degrees C, in both, closely approximated that observed in vivo. The loss of enzyme activity, however, was significantly less in vitro than that in vivo for similar whole blood lead concentrations. These findings indicate that the presence of trace amounts of lead in blood collection devices can seriously affect results obtained with the pH activity ratio method of assessing lead exposure.
PMCID: PMC1009318  PMID: 6743588
12.  Mobility of diesel versus non-diesel coal miners: some evidence on the healthy worker effect. 
Workers who are particularly susceptible to the effects of their occupational exposure, from the perspective of the healthy worker effect, soon leave the workplace. The result of this mobility, called survival bias, is that cross sectional studies based on the survivors underestimate the true risk of occupational exposures. Two questions are addressed in this empirical study of the "survival bias" component of the "healthy worker" effect. Do miners with respiratory impairment or symptoms disproportionately leave jobs that have a potentially harmful respiratory exposure? And does the presence of an additional potentially harmful respiratory exposure, in this case diesel emissions, accelerate the rate of mobility for miners with respiratory impairment or symptoms? No confirmation was found for the survival effect in a study of 738 diesel and 420 non-diesel US underground coal miners. No additional increment in mobility was associated with exposure to both coal mine dust and diesel emissions.
PMCID: PMC1009283  PMID: 6722047
13.  Respiratory function in tea workers. 
Respiratory function was studied in five groups of tea workers employed in processing different types of tea. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in workers processing dog-rose, sage, and gruzyan tea than in control workers. During the Monday workshift there was a significant mean acute decrease in maximum expiratory flow rates at 50% vital capacity (range: 4.1-8.8%) and at 25% VC (range: 7.8-21.8%) except in those exposed to camomile. Acute reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second were considerably smaller and mostly not significant. Mean acute reductions on Wednesday were similar to those on Monday with no significant differences between preshift Monday and Wednesday data. Acute decreases in flow rates at low lung volumes suggest that the bronchoconstrictor effect of the dust acts mostly on smaller airways. Preshift administration of disodium cromoglycate significantly diminished acute reduction in flow rates except in workers processing Indian tea. A comparison of Monday preshift values of ventilatory capacity in tea workers with those in controls indicates that exposure to tea dust may, in some workers, lead to chronic respiratory impairment.
PMCID: PMC1009241  PMID: 6691940
14.  Characterisation of textile dust extracts: II. Bronchoconstriction in man. 
Aqueous extracts of cotton bracts induce a concentration dependent decrease in flow rates on partial expiratory flow volume curves. It has been shown that the active substance(s) is stable to moderate heat and to acid or alkaline conditions. Results of dialysis and gel filtration suggest that the active component(s) has a molecular size of about 1000 daltons. The component(s) is not absorbed on to ion exchange resins but is readily removed from aqueous extract by activated charcoal. The bronchoconstrictor agent cannot be steam distilled or extracted by ether. It is readily soluble in water; a single extraction of bracts removes all biologically active material. It is proposed that healthy subjects, responsive to cotton bracts extract, can be used qualitatively to fractionate and quantitatively to assay the active substance(s) in this material.
PMCID: PMC1009238  PMID: 6691938
15.  Job related mortality risks of Hanford workers and their relation to cancer effects of measured doses of external radiation. 
This paper continues the series by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale (MSK) on studies of cancer risks for radiation workers at Hanford. It concentrates on the statistical problems posed by the need to estimate and control for job related mortality risks when there are several changes of occupation and no certainty about how different occupations are related to two socioeconomic factors which have strong health associations--namely, education and income. The final conclusion is that for tissues which are sensitive to cancer induced by radiation there is a risk of cancer for Hanford exposures whose dose response is curvilinear with long latency and increasing effect with increasing exposure age.
PMCID: PMC1009229  PMID: 6691941
16.  n-Hexane metabolism in occupationally exposed workers. 
Lung uptake and excretion of n-hexane were studied in ten workers in a shoe factory. Simultaneous samples of inhaled and alveolar air were collected with the aid of a Rhan-Otis valve, personal samplers, and charcoal tubes. Alveolar excretion was monitored during a six hour postexposure period. Uptake was calculated from lung ventilation, the retention coefficient, and environmental concentrations. The amount of exhaled n-hexane was calculated from the decay curve. According to the experimental data, alveolar retention was about 25% of the inhaled n-hexane, corresponding to a lung uptake of about 17%. The postexposure alveolar excretion was about 10% of the total uptake. The main metabolites of n-hexane were identified and measured by capillary GC/MS in spot urine samples collected before, at the end, and 15 hours after the same working shift. Urinary concentrations were low, though related to n-hexane in the air. 2,5-Hexanedione in the end of shift samples gave the best estimate of overall exposure. About 3 mg/g creatinine of 2,5-hexanedione would correspond to about 50 ppm of n-hexane in the air (mean daily exposure).
PMCID: PMC1009381  PMID: 6498115
17.  Respiratory morbidity in wollastonite workers. 
Medical and environmental surveys were conducted at a wollastonite mine and mill in 1976 and in 1982. Health testing included chest radiography, spirometry, and a questionnaire. Workers at a nearby electronics plant were also examined in 1982 for a comparison of lung function and respiratory symptoms. Both wollastonite and control workers showed significant smoking effects for chronic respiratory symptoms, but differences between the groups were not detected. Pneumoconiosis was found in 3% (3/108) of the wollastonite workers in 1982, but none showed a significant progression from their 1976 radiographs. The lung function tests of the 108 wollastonite workers examined in 1982 showed dust related changes in FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak flow rate which were independent of age, height, and smoking habit (p less than 0.01). For non-smokers alone, only the FEV1/FVC ratio declined significantly with dust-years of exposure (p less than 0.01). The comparison of lung function in 1982 between a high dust exposed subgroup of wollastonite workers and the control population showed a significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate in the study group (p less than 0.05). Analysis of 1976-82 changes in pulmonary function showed that wollastonite workers with higher dust exposure had a significantly greater decline in peak flow over the period than workers with lower exposures (p less than 0.01). These data suggest that long term cumulative exposure to wollastonite may impair ventilatory capacity as reflected by changes in the FEV1/FVC ratio and peak flow rate.
PMCID: PMC1009372  PMID: 6093849
18.  Exposure to cotton dust in an experimental cardroom. 
Changes in respiratory function (FEV1) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) on nasal epithelium were studied in 68 students and 39 cotton mill workers in an experimental cardroom. The exposure was characterised by the vertical elutriator dust and endotoxin levels. A dose related decrease was found for FEV1 which was more pronounced in smoking workers. The thresholds for no FEV1 reaction were 0.58 mg/m3 dust and 0.17 micrograms/m3 endotoxin for students and 0.43 mg/m3 and 0.08 micrograms/m3 for smoking workers. The PMN increased in most of the experiments but no dose response relationship could be shown. In experiments with smoking workers or when washed cotton was carded a better correlation was obtained between FEV1 decrease and endotoxin levels than for dust levels.
PMCID: PMC1069355  PMID: 6743581
19.  Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres. 
A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers.
PMCID: PMC1009316  PMID: 6331497
20.  Thin layer chromatography of p-aminophenol in urine after mixed exposure to aniline and toluene. 
A simple method of evaluating p-aminophenol in the urine of people exposed simultaneously to aniline and toluene relies on separating p-aminophenol from hippuric acid and other physiological components of the urine by thin layer chromatography. The adsorbents and developing system have been thus fixed to make possible the separation of p-aminophenol from hippuric acid, urea, and creatinine and their quantitative determination. This method also makes possible the determination of p-aminophenol in urine in the presence of hippuric acid. Hippuric acid is a physiological component of urine and also the metabolite of toluene, so the determination of p-aminophenol is possible also after simultaneous exposure to both compounds: aniline and toluene. At the same time the concentrations of urea and creatinine as additional factors may be determined. The limit of detection of the method is: 5 micrograms/ml for p-aminophenol, 9 micrograms/ml for hippuric acid, 8 micrograms/ml for urea, and 6 micrograms/ml for creatinine.
PMCID: PMC1069344  PMID: 6722055
21.  Lipid abnormalities in workers exposed to dioxin. 
Ten years after an incident in which workers were exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) a controlled biochemical study showed statistically significant increases in the serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of workers both with and without chloracne. Urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid was significantly higher for all workers.
PMCID: PMC1009292  PMID: 6232943
22.  Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA. 
Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA 2Na but was mobilised lead, rapidly excreted in the urine. ALA-D activity in blood increased at the end of the experiment with a transient decrease during the infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. As zinc concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma did not decrease during the infusion despite an increase in the urinary excretion of zinc, the transient decrease of ALA-D activity was not due to a loss of zinc caused by Ca-EDTA 2Na. From the results of additional experiments in vitro, this transient decrease could be related neither to Ca-EDTA 2Na nor to lead in the blood.
PMCID: PMC1009289  PMID: 6426500
23.  Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers. 
Cinnamon, which is the bark of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum tree, contains cinnamic aldehyde, which is an irritant. Workers processing cinnamon before export are exposed to much cinnamon dust. Forty such workers with an average of four years' service in the industry were examined. Thirty five workers (87.5%) had symptoms, nine having had asthma (22.5%). Other symptoms, probably related to the irritant nature of cinnamon dust, were irritation of skin (50%), loss of hair (37.5%), and smarting of eyes while at work (22.5%). Loss of weight (65%) was the commonest finding. Contact dermatitis which has previously been described was not found in any of the workers.
PMCID: PMC1009288  PMID: 6232942
24.  Mortality of fire fighters in Western Australia. 
All except 17 (1.7%) of 990 fire fighters employed by the Western Australian Fire Brigade between 1 October 1939 and 31 December 1978 were successfully followed up to 31 December 1978. Mortality from all causes was less than expected (SMR 0.80 with 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.96). There was evidence of the healthy worker effect but none that mortality increased with increasing duration of employment. A small proportional excess of deaths from road traffic accidents ( SPMR 1.66) appeared to be unrelated to fire service. Deaths from other accidents, poisonings, and violence were significantly less than expected (SMR 0.35 with 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.90) and may indicate an effect of training and experience on accident proneness. There was no evidence of increased mortality from cardiovascular or respiratory disease, or from any other cause.
PMCID: PMC1009280  PMID: 6722044
25.  Dust exposure and mortality in an American chrysotile asbestos friction products plant. 
Cohort studies in three American asbestos factories were undertaken to investigate the effect of fibre type and manufacturing process on lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Reports have been published on a chrysotile textile plant in South Carolina and a mainly textile plant in Pennsylvania, which also used amphiboles. In the third plant in Connecticut friction products and packings were made from chrysotile only. In a cohort of 3641 men employed for one month or more, 1938-58, 3513 (96.5%) were traced, 1267 (36%) had died, and death certificates were obtained for 1228 (96.9%). Individual exposures were estimated (in mcpf . years) from impinger measurements. Life table analyses using Connecticut mortality rates gave an SMR for all causes of 108.5 (USA 107.9). The SMR (all causes) for men who had worked for less than a year was 129.9 and for those who had worked for a year or more, 101.2. The equivalent SMRs for respiratory cancer were 167.4 and 136.7 respectively. Excluding men who had worked for less than a year, there was possible evidence of some increase in risk of lung cancer with increasing exposure, supported also by a "log-rank" (case-control) analysis, of the same order as that observed in chrysotile mining and milling. These findings may be compared with chrysotile textile manufacture where the risk of lung cancer was some 50-fold greater. It is suggested that the differences in risk are perhaps related to the higher proportion of submicroscopic fibres in textile manufacture that may result from the traumatic carding , spinning, and weaving processes. No case of mesothelioma was found, consistent with a much lower risk of this tumour with chrysotile than with amphiboles. Twelve deaths (nine in men with very short and low asbestos exposure) were given ICD code 523 (pneumoconiosis); all but two were ascribed to anthracosilicosis or silicosis and none to asbestosis.
PMCID: PMC1009276  PMID: 6326794

Results 1-25 (96)