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2.  Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry. 
OBJECTIVE--To describe cause specific mortality and site specific cancer morbidity among workers employed in factories that produce polyurethane foams, and to determine if any part of the experience may be due to occupation, and in particular to exposure to diisocyanates. DESIGN--Historical prospective cohort study. SETTING--11 factories in England and Wales. SUBJECTS--8288 male and female production employees with some employment in the period 1958-79, and with a minimum period of employment of six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Observed and expected numbers of deaths for the period 1958-88, and corresponding figures for cancer registrations for the period 1971-86. RESULTS--Compared with the general population of England and Wales, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all causes and all neoplasms were 97 (observed deaths (Obs) 816) and 88 (Obs 221) respectively. Statistically significant excesses were found among women for cancer of the pancreas (expected deaths (Exp) 2.2, Obs 6, SMR 271, 95% CI 100-595) and cancer of the lung (Exp 9.1, Obs 16, SMR 176, 95% CI 100-285). Similar excesses were not found among male employees, and the SMRs for cancers of the lung and pancreas among the total study population were 100 (Obs 81) and 136 (Obs 14) respectively. Overall incidence of cancer was also below expectation (SRR 94, Obs 277), although statistically significant excesses among women were found for cancers of the larynx and kidney, based on three and four cases respectively. Incident cancers of the lung and pancreas among women were also in excess, although these findings were not independent of the findings for mortality. Poison regression did not indicate that ever having been employed in jobs attracting either higher or lower exposure to isocyanates was a risk factor for the mentioned cancers. A nested case-control design was used to investigate any associations with nine other occupational exposures. No statistically significant association was found. CONCLUSIONS--In general, cancer rates in this population were lower than those for the general population. All increased cancer rates among women occurred at sites of cancer known to be related to cigarette smoking, and these excesses are probably due to a combination of cigarette smoking, chance, and factors unrelated to the industry under study.
PMCID: PMC1035480  PMID: 8329319
6.  Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85. 
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 United Kingdom steel foundry workers during the period 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 77.4, O = 106, SMR = 137) and cancer of the lung (E = 229.2, O = 441, SMR = 147). A statistically significant deficit was found for cancer of the brain (E = 19.4, O = 10, SMR = 51). Involvement of occupational exposures was assessed by the method of regression models and life tables (RMLT). This method was used to compare the duration of employment in the industry, in "dust exposed" jobs, in "fume exposed" jobs, in foundry area jobs, in fettling shop jobs, and in foundry area or fettling shop jobs, of those dying from cancers of the stomach and lung with those of all matching survivors. The RMLT analyses provided evidence of an occupational involvement in the risk of death from lung cancer from work in the foundry area or fettling shop, and weaker evidence of an occupational involvement in the risk of death from stomach cancer from work in the foundry area.
PMCID: PMC1009731  PMID: 2923828
7.  Mortality in the British rubber industry 1946-85. 
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 36,691 rubber workers during 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 13 participating factories in 1946-60; all had worked continuously in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the pharynx (E = 20.2, O = 30, SMR = 149), oesophagus (E = 87.6, O = 107, SMR = 122), stomach (E = 316.5, O = 359, SMR = 113), lung (E = 1219.2, O = 1592, SMR = 131), and all neoplasms (E = 2965.6, O = 3344, SMR = 113). Statistically significant deficits were found for cancer of the prostate. (E = 128.2, O = 91, SMR = 71), testis (E = 11.0, O = 4, SMR = 36), and Hodgkin's disease (E = 26.9, O = 16, SMR = 59). Involvement of occupational exposures was assessed by the method of regression models and life tables (RMLT). This method was used to compare the duration of employment in the industry, the duration in "dust exposed" jobs, and the duration in "fume and/or solvent exposed" jobs of those dying from causes of interest with those of all matching survivors. Positive associations (approaching formal levels of statistical significance) were found only for cancers of the stomach and the lung. The results of the RMLT analysis are independent of those from the SMR analysis, and the study continues to provide limited evidence of a causal association between the risks of stomach cancer and dust exposures, and the risks of lung cancer and fume or solvent exposures in the rubber industry during the period under study.
PMCID: PMC1009715  PMID: 2920137
8.  Mortality from lung cancer among a cohort of nickel cadmium battery workers: 1946-84. 
The lung cancer mortality experienced by a cohort of 3025 workers from a nickel cadmium battery factory during the period 1946-84 has been investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of 75 jobs: eight with "high," 14 with "moderate" or slight, and 53 with minimal or zero exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide) dust. The Mantel-Haenszel technique applied to prospective (or historical prospective) studies was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures (durations of exposed employment) of those dying from lung cancer with those of matching survivors in the same year of follow up, while controlling for sex and year, and age of starting employment. Among workers first employed in the period 1923-46, there was some evidence of an association between the risk of dying from lung cancer and duration of employment in "high or moderate" exposure jobs, although the evidence relied heavily on the findings for the single highest exposure category. Among workers first employed in the period 1947-75, there was no evidence whatsoever of such an association.
PMCID: PMC1007924  PMID: 3689715
9.  A mortality study of nickel/chromium platers. 
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 2689 nickel/chromium platers between 1946 and 1983 has been investigated. All members of the study cohort had some period of chrome exposed employment. Overall, compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant differences relating to cancer were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 16.2, O = 25), primary cancer of the liver (E = 0.8, O = 4), cancer of the nose and nasal cavities (E = 0.3, O = 3), cancers of the lung and bronchus (E = 48.1, O = 72), and all cancers (E = 164.2, O = 213). Chrome bath workers are the more heavily exposed workers, and a striking difference in SMRs was found for lung cancer among men first employed as chrome bath workers (SMR = 199) and men first employed as other chrome workers (SMR = 101). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the durations of chrome exposed employment of those dying from causes of interest with those of all matching survivors in the same year of follow up, while controlling for sex, and for year and age of starting employment. Significant positive associations were found only for cancers of the lung and bronchus and duration of chrome bath work. In this study exposure to nickel was shown not to be an important confounding exposure.
PMCID: PMC1007816  PMID: 3567099
10.  Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry: 1946-80. 
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 36445 rubber workers during 1946-80 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 13 participating factories in 1946-60; all had worked continuously in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 245.9, O = 282, SMR = 115), primary cancer of the liver (E = 12.8, O = 22, SMR = 172), cancer of the lung (E = 892.7, O = 1191, SMR = 133), and all neoplasms (E = 2165.2, O = 2487, SMR = 115). Statistically significant deficits were found for cancer of the prostate (E = 79.7, O = 59, SMR = 74) and cancer of the testis (E = 10.3, O = 4, SMR = 39). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the duration of employment in the industry, the duration in "dust exposed" jobs, and the duration in "fume and/or solvent exposed" jobs of those dying from causes of interest with those of all matching survivors. Significant positive associations were found only for cancer of the stomach and cancer of the lung. The results of the RMLT analysis are independent of those from the SMR analysis, and the study has provided further evidence of a causal association between the risks of lung and stomach cancer and certain occupational exposures in the rubber industry.
PMCID: PMC1007665  PMID: 3718880
11.  Cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of semiconductor workers. 
The cancer mortality experienced by a cohort of 1807 workers from a semiconductor factory during the period 1970-82 has been investigated (as has cancer morbidity for 1970-81). Expectations for mortality were calculated on the basis of rates of mortality for the general population of England and Wales. Expectations for cancer incidence were calculated on the basis of incidence rates for the West Midland Region. For the total study cohort, observed numbers of deaths and incident cases for all cancers were close to expectation. For melanoma incidence, an observed of 3 cases was compared with an expectation of 0.68.
PMCID: PMC1007525  PMID: 4016006
12.  Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables. 
The mortality experienced by a cohort of 3025 nickel-cadmium battery workers during the period 1946-81 has been investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of some 75 jobs: eight with "high", 14 with "moderate" or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide). The method of regression models in life tables (RMLT) was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures (durations of exposed employment) of those dying from causes of interest with those of matching survivors in the same year of follow up, while controlling for sex, for year and age of starting employment, and for duration of employment. No new evidence of any association between occupational exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide) and cancer of the prostate was found.
PMCID: PMC1069325  PMID: 6871118

Results 1-12 (12)