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22.  Squamous cell skin cancer in the North-west of England, 1967-69, and its relation to occupation 
ABSTRACT During the three years 1967-69, 781 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin were reported to the Manchester Regional Cancer Registry. The proportions of males to females were significantly different (p <0·001) among the skin cancer sites. The age-specific incidence rates were significantly different (p <0·001) between the sexes for the five-year age groups of 55 years and above. Full occupational histories were obtained on 598 (77%) patients; a further 148 (19%) patients gave one main occupation only, while the remaining 35 (4%) patients were untraced. The numbers of patients observed in broad occupational groups (occupational orders) were compared with the numbers expected using the 1931 and 1951 censuses. For all skin cancer sites combined the occupations of farming and textiles were found to have highly significant excesses of 150% and 135% respectively for males. The corresponding excesses for females were 30% for textile workers and varied from 1140% to 590% for farmers, but only for the farmers were the excesses highly significant. For males the occupation of metal worker also showed excesses of 38% and 23% which were of borderline significance. The association between occupation and individual skin cancer sites was then considered. For males there were excesses in the arm for the occupational orders of chemical workers, paper/printing workers and fishermen, and in the ears for builders, but these excesses were of borderline significance. There was a significant difference (p <0·05) in the proportion of male patients with atopic skin conditions in each cancer site. However, this was not found for the female patients. For both male and female patients no significant associations were found between the skin site and either eye colour, residence in the tropics or smoking habit.
PMCID: PMC1008491  PMID: 444440
23.  Some ethical problems of hazardous substances in the working environment1 
ABSTRACT Exposure of persons to conditions at work may involve some risk to health. It is not possible always to ensure that exposure can be kept below a level from which it may be categorically stated that there is no risk. The decision that has to be made, what ought to be done, poses an ethical problem. What principles are available for examining such ethical problems? Two theories from the study of ethics seem relevant. On the one hand Intuitionism asserts that we possess a moral sense which, correctly applied, enables us to determine what is a right action. The familiar use of 'conscience' and the teachings of some of the influential Western religions follow this theory. On the other hand Utilitarianism (in particular Objective Utilitarianism) asserts that we may judge the rightness of an action by looking at its consequences. This theory, translated into legislative reform, has provided a substantial basis for much of the social reforming legislation of the last century. In economic terms it appears as cost benefit analysis. Despite its attraction and almost plausible objectivity, Utilitarianism requires the quantification and even costing of consequences which cannot always be measured (for example, emotions) but which from an important part of the totality of life. Decisions about the right course of action are required politically but cannot always be made objectively. They may require an element of judgement—a correct application of the moral sense—to use the Intuitionists' phrase. Doctors, used to making ethical decisions in the clinical setting, must examine carefully their role when contributing to ethical decisions in the industrial setting.
PMCID: PMC1008277  PMID: 588483
25.  Occurence of oral and pharyngeal cancers in textile workers 
Moss, E. and Lee, W. R. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 224-232. Occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers in textile workers. The occupations of male textile workers who died of oral and pharyngeal cancers in the five years 1959-63 have been examined to discover whether the high incidence of oral cancer in these workers noted by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1972) is associated with particular textile occupations or fibres.
There was a 77% excess of deaths from these cancers in male textile workers as a whole compared with the male population of England and Wales, the excess being significant at the 0·1% level. An excess occurred in each of the three sites tongue (ICD 141), mouth (ICD 143, 144), and pharynx (ICD 145-148) and is significant at the 5% level in the first two sites but not in the third.
Fibre preparers had an excess of 330% which is significant at the 0·01% level. Weavers and knitters had a deficit of 32% and the remaining three groups had moderate excesses of from 32 to 85%, none of the four being statistically significant.
In the 1951 census there were 8 414 male cotton workers and 14 723 male wool workers engaged in fibre preparing. There was one death from oral cancer in cotton fibre preparers and 18 deaths in wool fibre preparers. The difference is significant at the 1% level. The difference is also significant for the individual sites pharynx and tongue but not mouth.
PMCID: PMC1009588  PMID: 4479250

Results 1-25 (40)