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7.  An investigation of lead absorption in an electric accumulator factory with the use of personal samplers 
Williams, M. K., King, E., and Walford, Joan (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 202-216. An investigation of lead absorption in an electric accumulator factory with the use of personal samplers. Thirty-nine lead workers and controls, in stable conditions of exposure, each wore personal lead-in-air samplers daily for two weeks. During the second week samples for blood lead, urinary lead, urinary coproporphyrin, urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the punctate basophil count, and haemoglobin were taken daily. Duplicate estimations were made on one day.
The lead exposures of men doing almost identical jobs differed by ratios of up to four to one. This could be attributed only to personal differences in working habits.
The correlation coefficients and regression equations of the biochemical tests with lead-in-air and with each other were determined. The mean values and 95% confidence limits of single determinations of some of the biochemical tests corresponding to the two commonly accepted TLVs of lead-in-air (0·20 and 0·15 mg./m.3) were calculated from the regression equations.
For each biochemical test the variation due to analytical error, the variation from day to day within subjects and the residual variation due to analytical error, and the residual variation about the regression on lead-in-air were calculated. Previous estimates of the latter are not known. Excessive confidence may be placed in an index of exposure due to its low coefficient of variation within subjects unless the coefficient of variation between subjects about regression is taken into account.
This correction for specific gravity of estimations of lead and ALA in spot samples of urine was found to reduce slightly the residual variation between subjects about the regression on lead-in-air and to increase the correlations with lead-in-air and with the other biochemical tests, but these changes were not statistically significant.
The modified method used for estimating blood lead and urinary lead is described and validated.
PMCID: PMC1008940  PMID: 5794945
8.  A Trial of Terylene Overalls for Lead-Acid Electric Accumulator Pasters 
A comparison of Terylene and cotton overalls has been made in the lead-acid electric accumulator industry. Six hand pasters wore personal lead-in-air samplers for two weeks. Three of the men wore cotton overalls the first week and Terylene overalls the second; the other three men wore Terylene overalls the first week and cotton overalls the second. The mean lead-in-air concentration in the breathing zone when the men wore Terylene overalls was slightly greater than when they wore cotton overalls but the difference was not statistically significant. Significant differences of lead-in-air concentrations were found between men and between the two weeks but not between days within the weeks. The lead-in-air concentration did not increase during the week. Neither a change to Terylene overalls nor more frequent laundering of overalls should be recommended for pasters in this factory on the basis of this study.
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PMCID: PMC1008725  PMID: 5647976
9.  Pulmonary Fibrosis and Encephalopathy Associated with the Inhalation of Aluminium Dust 
The clinical, radiographic, pathological, and environmental features of a case of extensive aluminium fibrosis of the lungs are reported in a man of 49 years of age who had worked for 13½ years in the ball-mill room of an aluminium powder factory.
It is noteworthy that his symptoms were referable to the central nervous system, and that he died from terminal broncho-pneumonia following rapidly progressive encephalopathy, associated with epileptiform attacks. He had no presenting pulmonary symptoms, and ϰ-ray examination of the chest showed only slight abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the chests of 53 other workers in the same factory, and clinical examination with lung function tests of 23 of them revealed no other definite cases of aluminium fibrosis of the lung, nor any other cases with neurological signs and symptoms.
Estimations of the aluminium contents of the body tissues such as the lungs, brain, liver, and bone are also recorded. When compared with normal values, it was found that the lungs and brain contained about 20 times and the liver 122 times more than normal. As a contribution to the study of the aluminium content of normal tissues, and as a control series for the results given by Tipton, Cook, Steiner, Foland, McDaniel, and Fentress (1957), and Tipton, Cook, Foland, Rittner, Hardwick, and McDaniel (1958, 1959), the aluminium content of eight “normal” brains was estimated and in all cases it was found to be less than 0·6 μg. Al/g. wet weight.
The results of a survey of the dust concentrations in the factory are also given.
The use of aluminium compounds in the experimental production of epilepsy in primates is reviewed, and it is suggested that the neurological signs and symptoms with epileptiform convulsions which occurred in this case might have been related to aluminium intoxication. We hold the view, however, that the interstitial and nodular fibrosis found in the lungs was undoubtedly associated with the inhalation and retention of aluminium dust.
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PMCID: PMC1038218  PMID: 13932137
10.  Renal Lesions in Experimental Cadmium Poisoning 
A series of controlled experiments was carried out on rats to study the effects on the kidneys of the repeated administration of small doses of cadmium for periods of up to 12 months. Renal lesions consisting essentially of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were produced, and the evidence that these lesions were due solely to cadmium is discussed. No similar lesions occurred in a series of control animals, litter mates of the experimental animals. The lesions were shown to be reproducible in two prolonged experiments on two strains of rats. The relationship between the lesions and the concentration of cadmium in the tissues of the rats is discussed and a comparison is made with tissues from human cases of chronic cadmium poisoning. It is of interest that the cadmium concentration of human tissues and rat experimental tissue is of the same order of magnitude. Animals in which the administration of cadmium was discontinued after five months of the experiment had developed as severe lesions seven months later as those animals which had received cadmium for 12 months. It has been shown previously that the first sign of chronic cadmium poisoning can occur in man for the first time many years after the last exposure, and that the disease once established in man is progressive despite the absence of further exposure.
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PMCID: PMC1037995  PMID: 13802553
11.  A Follow-up Study of Men Exposed to Cadmium Oxide Fume 
The results of a follow-up study of 100 men first examined in 1953 after exposure to cadmium oxide fume are presented and discussed.
In 1953 there were 19 cases of chronic cadmium poisoning amongst these men. Twenty-four new cases are now described. The first signs of chronic cadmium poisoning could be seen after a latent interval after exposure had ended. Respiratory function tests showed a greater deterioration in performance with increase in age in the exposed groups compared with the control group. The results in individual cases of clinical and radiological examination and of the respiratory function tests showed a deterioration in the condition of those men with emphysema in the original survey, and took place despite the fact that the majority of the men with chronic cadmium poisoning were not further exposed to cadmium after 1953. Eighteen of the 24 new cases had proteinuria only.
The evidence that chronic cadmium poisoning is associated with renal damage is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1037906  PMID: 13651557

Results 1-12 (12)