PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-14 (14)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
2.  Extreme airborne asbestos concentrations in a public building. 
Fibre concentrations of asbestos were measured in the air of a communal dining room in which the damaged ceiling had a sprayed on coating of insulation containing asbestos. The average concentration of crocidolite asbestos fibres was 4 f/cm3, 20 times the highest air concentration that appears to have been reported previously for a public building. It is concluded that although air concentrations of asbestos fibres in public buildings containing asbestos insulation materials are usually low, high concentrations can occur. This may have implications for the risk of exposed persons developing diseases associated with asbestos.
Images
PMCID: PMC1039269  PMID: 1322159
3.  Clinical findings among hard metal workers. 
In 1940, the first report appeared describing a pulmonary disorder associated with occupational exposures in the cemented tungsten carbide industry. The disease, known as "hard metal disease," has subsequently been characterised in detail and comprises a wide range of clinical signs and symptoms. In this report, clinical findings in a group of 41 hard metal workers employed until recently are described. A high prevalence of respiratory symptoms was found. Thirteen workers (31%) had abnormal chest radiographs indicative of interstitial lung disease. Fifty per cent of these had been employed in hard metal manufacturing for less than 10 years. Abnormalities of pulmonary function were also frequent and included a restrictive pattern of impairment and decrease in diffusing capacity (27%). Associations were found between diffusing capacity, chest radiographic abnormalities and right ventricular ejection fraction at exercise indicating cardiopulmonary effects. The findings show the continuous need to control excessive occupational exposures to prevent hard metal disease, the history of which now enters its sixth decade.
PMCID: PMC1039228  PMID: 1733452
4.  Respiratory findings among ironworkers: results from a clinical survey in the New York metropolitan area and identification of health hazards from asbestos in place at work. 
Diseases associated with asbestos are prevalent in the construction trades primarily as the result of the previously widespread use of insulation materials containing asbestos in the building industry. Workers in metal related trades, who are employed at construction sites, but who do not routinely use such materials in their work, may also be at risk for asbestos hazards. To assess such risk, a clinical survey was conducted on 869 ironworkers from the New York metropolitan area. A high prevalence of abnormalities on chest radiographs was found. Three hundred and twenty nine (38%) of the examined workers had pleural abnormalities on their chest radiographs consistent with asbestos induced effects. The prevalence of radiographic abnormalities indicating interstitial lung disease was low (7%) as was the prevalence of restrictive pulmonary function impairment (7%). Association was found between forced vital capacity (FVC) and pleural abnormalities on chest radiographs. Although ex-smokers appeared to have the highest prevalence of abnormalities, regression analyses showed that duration of employment in the ironworkers' trade was the most important factor associated with them.
PMCID: PMC1035387  PMID: 2064979
5.  Asbestosis, laryngeal carcinoma, and malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in an insulation worker. 
Asbestos associated diseases consist of both benign and malignant conditions. A rare constellation of asbestosis, laryngeal carcinoma, and malignant peritoneal mesothelioma occurring in a patient with long term occupational exposure to airborne asbestos fibres is presented. The observation illustrates the powerful disease-causing potential of occupational exposure to asbestos. A brief discussion of multiple primary neoplasms associated with exposure to asbestos is also presented.
Images
PMCID: PMC1012044  PMID: 2039746
6.  Desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with chrysotile asbestos fibres. 
The drywall construction trade has in the past been associated with exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. This paper reports a drywall construction worker with 32 years of dust exposure who developed dyspnoea and diminished diffusing capacity, and showed diffuse irregular opacities on chest radiography. He did not respond to treatment with corticosteroids. Open lung biopsy examination showed desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Only a single ferruginous body was seen on frozen section, but tissue examination by electron microscopy showed an extraordinary pulmonary burden of mineral dust with especially high concentrations of chrysotile asbestos fibres. This report emphasises the need to consider asbestos fibre as an agent in the aetiology of desquamative interstitial pneumonia. The coexistent slight interstitial fibrosis present in this case is also considered to have resulted from exposure to mineral dust, particularly ultramicroscopic asbestos fibres.
Images
PMCID: PMC1012043  PMID: 1645584
8.  Persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome after exposure to toluene diisocyanate. 
Two police officers developed asthma like illness after a single but prolonged exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) by being in the immediate vicinity of a tank car that had overturned on a highway. One officer experienced upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms with chest tightness about 4.5 hours after initial exposure. Shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing were noted the following day. The other experienced symptoms immediately on exposure, developed shortness of breath 20 minutes later, and presented with wheezing four hours after that. Follow up examinations over seven years showed persistence of respiratory symptoms and continuation of airway hyperreactivity requiring treatment.
PMCID: PMC1035144  PMID: 2159772
10.  Evaluation of right and left ventricular function in hard metal workers. 
Ingested cobalt has previously been associated with the development of a congestive cardiomyopathy. Despite occasional reports of cardiomyopathy after industrial exposure to cobalt, this association remains controversial. In a study of 30 cemented tungsten carbide workers with a mean duration of exposure to cobalt of 9.9 +/- 5.3 years radionuclide ventriculography was performed to study right and left ventricular ejection fractions at rest and exercise. For the entire group, rest and exercise biventricular function was normal. There was, however, a weak but significant inverse correlation between duration of exposure and resting left ventricular function (r = -0.40, p less than 0.03). Workers with abnormal chest x ray findings (9/30) had relatively lower exercise right ventricular ejection fractions (45% +/- 6 v 52% +/- 7, p less than 0.02). An inverse relation was also found between rest and exercise right ventricular ejection fraction and severity of parenchymal abnormalities on x ray examination (r = -0.44, p less than 0.01 and r = -0.41, p less than 0.02). Diminished right ventricular reserve was probably due to fibrotic lung disease and early cor pulmonale. Although overt left ventricular dysfunction was not present, prolonged exposure to industrial cobalt may be a weak cardiomyopathic agent with unknown long term significance.
PMCID: PMC1009691  PMID: 3203078
11.  An analysis of the validity of self reported occupational histories using a cohort of workers exposed to PCBs. 
An investigation was conducted to examine the validity of self reported work histories obtained from a sample of 326 capacitor manufacturing workers who had participated in an epidemiological study relating health abnormalities to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Based on objective personnel records obtained for 288 members of the sample group, validity scores ranged from 20% to 100% with most falling between 70% and 75%. This validity range corresponded to misclassification proportions ranging from 13% to 29%. Exposure misclassification tended to be random for men but non-random for women (overestimation of exposure). By means of multiple regression analysis, the diversity of the job categorical pattern was found to be a significant independent predictor of validity. The factors sex, duration, and time lapse were also significant validity predictors but only interactively with job diversity. There were also indications that interviewer skill could be an important factor. Knowledge of the magnitude of these factor effects could be critical in planning retrospective epidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC1007903  PMID: 3118933
13.  Modified nucleosides in asbestos workers at high risk of malignant disease: results of a preliminary study applying discriminant analysis. 
Patients with asbestos related malignant mesothelioma excrete high levels of modified nucleosides in their urine. The purpose of the present report was to explore further the usefulness of measuring these breakdown products of transfer RNA (tRNA) in male asbestos insulation workers who are at high neoplastic risk but without clinical signs of malignancy. Modified nucleoside levels (psi, m'A, m'I, m2G, and ac4C) were used as discriminator variables in a computer generated discriminant function in which 96% of the controls and 95% of the insulation workers were correctly classified. It was also found, using a similar multiple regression model, that 10 of 13 were correctly classified as having normal chest radiographs and 27 of 30 asbestos exposed subjects as exhibiting alterations in either the parenchyma, pleura, or both. The results suggest that measuring modified nucleosides levels in the urine of asbestos exposed workers, and perhaps others exposed to carcinogenic agents, has the potential for identifying, through multivariate statistical techniques, individuals who are at high neoplastic risk.
PMCID: PMC1007528  PMID: 4016008
14.  Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 
Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with long term occupational exposure to PCBs, a group of 326 workers employed in two capacitor manufacturing facilities were investigated in 1976, and 195 of these again in 1979. The median blood values of lower homologues of PCBs were 63 ppb (in plasma) in 1976 and 49 ppb (in serum) in 1979, and of the higher homologues 18 ppb and 17 X 5 ppb respectively. The prevalence of oculodermatological findings potentially related to the effects of PCBs were 9 X 4% and 13 X 3% at the two examinations. There was no significant association between such abnormalities and blood plasma/serum concentrations of PCBs. The observations in this work population exposed to PCBs differ from the yusho and yu-cheng experiences in that fewer clinical abnormalities were found. Suggestions are made that it may be inappropriate to extrapolate findings from the well known PCB poisoning episodes to exposures in occupational settings and that attention should be paid to the importance of polychlorinated dibenzofurans as an aetiological factor in human PCB poisoning.
PMCID: PMC1007503  PMID: 3924093

Results 1-14 (14)