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1.  A case-control study of motor neurone disease: its relation to heritability, and occupational exposures, particularly to solvents. 
Motor neurone disease (MND) was studied in relation to various determinants in a case-control study covering nine counties in southern Sweden. A questionnaire about occupational exposures, medical history, lifestyle factors etc was given to all cases in the age range 45-79 and to a random sample of 500 population controls in the same age range. The questionnaires were answered by 92 cases and 372 controls, a response rate of 85% and 75% respectively. Among men high Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (MHORs) were obtained for electricity work (MHOR = 6.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-32.1), welding (MHOR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-13.0), and impregnating agents (MHOR = 3.5, 95% CI 0.9-13.1). Heritability with regard to a neurodegenerative disease or thyroid disease seemed to predispose to a risk of developing MND (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). The highest OR was found for the combination of such heritability, exposure to solvents, and male sex (OR = 15.6, 95% CI 2.8-87.0), a combination that occurred for seven cases and three controls. Hereditary factors and external exposures had a different distribution among cases with the spinal type of MND than among cases with involvement of the pyramidal tract or bulbar paresis also.
PMCID: PMC1039327  PMID: 1463680
2.  Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study. 
The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.
PMCID: PMC1012093  PMID: 1554616
3.  Dust exposure in coeliac disease: a case-referent study. 
Case series of coeliac disease show that chronic allergic alveolitis (farmers' lung) and fever reactions due to exposure to organic dust (organic dust toxic syndrome) commonly occur among subjects with coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis, these being related disorders. In this case-referent study 105 cases of coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis were compared with 237 referents from the general population by means of a mail inquiry regarding exposure to various environmental factors. Increased odds ratios were obtained with exposure to various farm animals and more clearly for cotton dust, although numbers were few. Animal husbandry in Sweden invariably means heavy exposure to organic dust. The fact that comparatively few persons reported dust exposure may be of doubtful validity in view of the high frequency of exposure to farm animals reported by the cases.
PMCID: PMC1012066  PMID: 1931732
4.  Mortality pattern of silicotic subjects in the Latium region, Italy. 
A mortality study was carried out on 595 workers who were compensated for silicosis in the Latium region, Italy, during the period 1946-84 who died between 1 January 1969 and 31 December 1984. Respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, lung cancer, bone cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver showed significantly increased risk ratios (4.1, 3.7, 1.5, 4.1, and 1.9 respectively); excesses of brain cancer and leukaemia did not reach statistical significance. Lung cancer mortality was further analysed by age, period of compensation, final degree of disability, and occupational activity. The possible confounding role of smoking was assessed by comparing the lifetime smoking habits of a sample of silicotic subjects with those of the general male population as estimated by a national health survey; the prevalence of ever smokers among silicotic subjects (70.7%) was similar to that estimated for the general population (68.5%). The present study indicates that silicosis is associated with lung cancer even though it does not clarify the respective roles of exposure to silica and silicosis.
PMCID: PMC1009886  PMID: 2611162
5.  Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures. 
The effects of potential risk factors for Hodgkin's disease (HD) and for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) were evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 54 cases of HD, 106 cases of NHL, and 275 referents, all alive. Exposure information was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for various occupational exposures including solvents, welding, wood preservatives, phenoxy acids, and fresh wood (sawmill workers, lumberjacks, paper pulp workers). After further analyses based on logistic regression occupational exposures to welding and creosote remained as significant risk factors for HD. For NHL, occupational exposures to solvents, phenoxy acids, and creosote but also work as carpenter or cabinet maker and contacts with pets (other than dogs, cats, and birds) were associated with significantly increased risks.
PMCID: PMC1009820  PMID: 2775671
9.  Formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine by asbestos and man made mineral fibres. 
Samples of rockwool and glass fibre were compared with chrysotile fibres for their capacity to hydroxylate 2-deoxyguanosine to 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a reaction that is mediated by formation of hydroxyl radicals. All three fibres produced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the absence of H2O2. The chrysotile fibres were most potent and produced about ten times more of the modified nucleoside than rockwool and glass fibre. This investigation shows that not only asbestos but also man made mineral fibres are able to modify nucleosides.
PMCID: PMC1008000  PMID: 2837271
10.  Chronic lymphatic leukaemia and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and DDT: a case-referent study. 
The effect of potential risk factors for chronic lymphatic leukaemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 111 cases and 431 randomised referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for occupational exposure to solvents. DDT, engine exhausts, fresh wood (lumberjacks, paper pulp workers, and sawmill workers, for example) and also in farming. Further analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique reduced the number of rate ratios significantly exceeding unity to encompass only occupational exposure to engine exhaust, fresh wood, DDT, and contact with horses.
PMCID: PMC1007942  PMID: 2449239
11.  Mortality and cancer incidence among workers in an abrasive manufacturing industry. 
Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aluminium oxide and silicon carbide might carry with it an increased risk of lymphomas, stomach cancer, and non-malignant respiratory disease. To elucidate further this possible hazard, the cancer morbidity and the total mortality pattern was studied among 521 men manufacturing abrasive materials who had been exposed to aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, and formaldehyde. Total dust levels were in the range of 0.1-1.0 mg/m3. The cohort was followed up from 1958 until December 1983. No significant increase was found in total mortality, cancer mortality, or incidence of non-malignant respiratory diseases.
PMCID: PMC1007779  PMID: 3814536
12.  Cancer mortality among leather tanners. 
Workers were studied at a tannery that operated from 1873 to 1960, once one of the biggest in Scandinavia. The results show a slight numerical increase of deaths from cancer of the stomach and a significant, threefold excess mortality from cancer of the pancreas. Even in view of critical questions about validity it seems likely that this excess might be related to exposure to chemicals in tannery work.
PMCID: PMC1007690  PMID: 3718898
13.  Mortality pattern in a glass producing area in SE Sweden. 
Because of discharges, mainly of lead, from glassworks in an otherwise rural and unpolluted area in southeast Sweden the population became concerned about the potential risks of cancer and an epidemiological study was requested. The total and the specific cancer mortality in the three parishes around the glassworks were found to be approximately normal, both by comparison with national death rates and the death rates of another, similarly rural, area. More interesting results, however, were obtained in several case-referent studies also undertaken to study mortality from specific cancer sites and cardiovascular disease with regard to employment in the glassworks. A significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer, especially in glassblowers, lung cancer, and cardiovascular disease was observed among the glassworkers. Occupational exposures in the glassworks, especially to arsenic, may be of aetiological importance.
PMCID: PMC1007500  PMID: 4005195
14.  Quantitative aspects of radon daughter exposure and lung cancer in underground miners. 
Epidemiological studies have shown an excessive incidence of lung cancer in miners with exposure to radon daughters. The various risk estimates have ranged from six to 47 excess cases per 10(6) person years and working level month, but the effect of smoking has not been fully evaluated. The present study, among a group of iron ore miners, is an attempt to obtain quantitative information about the risk of lung cancer due to radon and its daughters among smoking and non-smoking miners. The results show a considerable risk for miners to develop lung cancer; even non-smoking miners seem to be at a rather high risk. An additive effect of smoking and exposure to radon daughters is indicated and an estimate of about 30-40 excess cases per 10(6) person years and working level month seems to apply on a life time basis to both smoking and non-smoking miners aged over 50.
PMCID: PMC1009169  PMID: 6830715
15.  Cancer morbidity among polishers. 
The mortality pattern among 86 men was determined to investigate the possible hazards of polishing steel. The men had polished steel with polishing paste for at least five years. The polishing pastes had contained tallow, beeswax, carnauba wax, alundum, carborundum, ferric oxide, and chalk. A total of 18 men had died compared with 13.3 expected. Four had died of stomach cancer compared with 0.44 expected (p less than 0.005). The mortality for other causes of death was not increased. The study does not permit any definite conclusion but indicates a possible cancer hazard among polishers.
PMCID: PMC1008974  PMID: 7066237
16.  Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study. 
In 1977 several patients were seen with soft-tissue sarcomas and previous exposure to phenoxy acids. This clinical observation resulted in a cases-referent (case-control) study being undertaken which showed that exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols, which are chemically related, gave a roughly six-fold increase in the risk for this type of tumour. A further case-referent study of soft-tissue sarcomas has now been performed to confirm these earlier findings and also to obtain further information on the effects of different phenoxy acids. This new investigation gave an increase of the same magnitude in the risk for soft-tissue sarcomas after exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols, but this risk related also to exposure to phenoxy acids free from impurities, such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.
PMCID: PMC1008794  PMID: 7470401
17.  A cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence in ethylene oxide production workers. 
Ethylene oxide, important as an intermediate product in the chemical industry and for sterilising hospital equipment, is mutagenic in several organisms; carcinogenicity has been suspected although this had not been supported by clinical data. Ethylene oxide has been produced by a Swedish company since the beginning of the 1940s. This paper describes a cohort study of the mortality and the cancer incidence among full-time exposed workers in ethylene oxide production, a group of maintenance workers with intermittent exposure and a group of unexposed controls. Investigation of the production processes in the building at different times has shown that workers were exposed to ethylene dichloride, ethylene chlorohydrin, ethylene, and small amounts of bis-(2-chloroethyl) ether as well as to ethylene oxide and traces of other chemicals. The full-time exposed cohort shows a considerable excess mortality deriving mainly from increased mortality from tumours and also from diseases of the circulatory system. The cancer incidence study, including living persons with malignancies, showed a significant excess in the full-time cohort. Of the 16 patients with tumours in the two more exposed cohorts there were three cases of leukaemia, six of tumours in the alimentary tract and four of urogenital malignancy. The excess mortality and cancer incidence cannot be attributed to any particular chemical in the production process, but ethylene oxide and ethylene dichloride are the prime suspects.
PMCID: PMC1008604  PMID: 508639
18.  Arsenic exposure and mortality: a case-referent study from a Swedish copper smelter. 
An increased mortality from lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, haematolymphatic malignancy and cirrhosis of the liver has been reported among smelter workers and others exposed to arsenic. This study uses the case-referent (case-control) technique and is concerned with workers in a copper smelter in a complex work environment, characterised by the presence of trivalent arsenic in combination with sulphur dioxide and copper, and also with other agents. Lung cancer mortality was found to be increased about five-fold and cardiovascular disease about two-fold, showing a dose-response relationship to arsenic exposure. Mortality from malignant blood disease (leukaemia and myeloma) and cirrhosis of the liver was also slightly increased. This mortality pattern among the smelter workers is consistent with earlier reports. An increased mortality from cardiovascular disease in this type of industry is of particular interest as it has been reported only once before.
PMCID: PMC1008317  PMID: 629894

Results 1-18 (18)