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1.  Incidence of cancer among welders of mild steel and other shipyard workers. 
British Journal of Industrial Medicine  1993;50(12):1097-1103.
The incidence of cancer among 4571 shipyard workers with first employment between 1940 and 1979, including 623 welders of mild steel, was investigated in a historical cohort study. The loss to follow up was 1.1%. The total number of deaths was 1078 (974.5 expected) and there were 408 cases of cancer v 361.3 expected. Sixty five cases of lung cancer were found v 46.3 expected based on the national rates for males. Four pleural mesotheliomas had occurred (1.2 expected), none among the welders. An excess of lung cancers was found among the welders (nine cases v 3.6 expected). There were six cases of lung cancer v 1.6 expected in a high exposure group of 255 welders. A survey of the smoking habits as of 1984 indicated 10%-20% more daily smokers among the shipyard production workers than among Norwegian males. Exposure to smoking and asbestos were confounding variables in this study.
PMCID: PMC1061332  PMID: 8280640
2.  Incidence of cancer and mortality among workers exposed to mercury vapour in the Norwegian chloralkali industry. 
Incidence of cancer and mortality were studied among 674 men exposed to mercury vapour for more than one year at two chloralkali plants. Mercury excretion in urine had been monitored among the workers at the two plants since 1948 and 1949. An individual cumulative urinary mercury dose was calculated, based on about 20,000 urinary mercury measurements. The incidence of cancer and the mortality were followed up from 1953 to 1989 and 1953 to 1988 respectively. The general Norwegian male population served as a reference population. There was a lung cancer excess of borderline significance (standardised incidence ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-2.59). The introduction of a 10 year latent period before developing lung cancer did not increase the incidence ratio. The excess may be partly explained by the smoking habits in the cohort or possibly by exposure to asbestos. No excess of cancer was found in the target organs for mercury toxicity--namely, the kidney and the nervous system. No significant excess mortality was found for nephritis and nephrosis or nonmalignant diseases of the nervous system.
PMCID: PMC1035514  PMID: 8217844
3.  Relation between exposure related indices and neurological and neurophysiological effects in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour. 
A cross sectional study of aspects of their neurology was carried out on 77 chloralkali workers previously exposed to mercury (Hg) vapour and compared with 53 age matched referents. The chloralkali workers had been exposed for an average of 7.9 years at a concentration of 59 micrograms Hg/m3 in the working atmosphere. The individual mean urinary concentration of Hg for each year of exposure was 531 nmol Hg/1. On average the exposure had ceased 12.3 years before the examinations. Both the median sensory nerve conduction velocity and the amplitude of the sural nerve were associated with measures of cumulative exposure to Hg. An association was also found between years since first exposure to Hg and aspects of the visual evoked response. Previously exposed subjects with postural tremor or impaired coordination also had alterations in visual evoked response. These results may indicate an effect of previous exposure to mercury vapour on the nervous system, possibly in the visual pathway, cerebellum, and the peripheral sensory nerves.
PMCID: PMC1012178  PMID: 8398861
4.  Incidence of cancer among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser plant. 
The incidence of cancer among 2023 male fertiliser workers has been investigated in a historical cohort study. Workers who had been employed for more than one year in work with possible exposure to dust containing nitrate between 1945 and 1979 were included. An individual cumulated exposure to dust expressed in level-years was calculated for each participant. The cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1988, and the incidence of cancer was compared with the national rates. There were 467 deaths v 504.8 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.93), and 185 cases of cancer v 195.5 expected (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 0.95). Thirty cases of lung cancer were found v 27.5 expected (SIR = 1.09). No overall excess of gastric cancer was found (15 cases v 17.0 expected; SIR = 0.89). No association was found between cumulated exposure to nitrate and gastric cancer, and there was no association between duration of employment or time since first employment and incidence of gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC1035502  PMID: 8393697
5.  A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders. 
A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities.
PMCID: PMC1035340  PMID: 2015204
6.  Incidence of cancer among ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers: an extended observation period. 
Results are presented of a cohort study on the incidence of cancers and crude death rates in ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers. The whole cohort was observed from 1 January 1953 to 31 December 1985. Two sets of results are presented; one restricted to workers first employed before 1960 and one to workers first employed before 1965. The latter cohort consists of 1235 workers. The total mortality in the whole cohort was low (SMR = 81) as was the overall incidence of cancers (SIR = 84). There was an overall deficit of deaths and cases of cancer in the ferrosilicon group. An excess of lung cancer (SIR = 154) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 151) was observed in the ferrochromium workers employed before 1965. Cancer of the kidney was also in excess (SIR = 273) in the ferrochromium group, with a mean "latency time" of 39 years. Two cases of malignant melanomas had occurred versus 0.19 expected in a small subgroup of workers in electrical shops and an electric power station.
PMCID: PMC1035089  PMID: 2310703
7.  Incidence of cancer in a cohort of magnesium production workers. 
The results from a cohort study on the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 2391 male workers producing magnesium metal are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year of work experience in the study plant between 1951 and 1974 and the cohort was observed from 1953 to 1984. Altogether 152 new cases of cancer were observed versus 132.6 expected. Six cases of cancer of the lip were found against 2.3 expected, 21 of stomach cancer against 12.8 expected, and 32 of lung cancer against 18.2 expected. A possible causal relation between exposure to factors in the work environment and the development of cancer is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1009836  PMID: 2789964
8.  Mortality and incidence of cancer among oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Part 2. Mortality and cancer incidence 1953-84. 
Mortality and incidence of cancer 1953-84 was studied in a cohort of 529 men exposed to mineral oils in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Expected numbers of deaths were calculated from national death rates and cases of cancer from regional incidence rates. Among the 195 men who had worked for less than one year, there were statistically significant excesses of deaths from all causes (O/E = 75/39.3) and from malignant neoplasms, ischaemic heart disease, non-malignant respiratory disease, and violence. In a subcohort of all 248 men with known work category and at least one year's employment in oil exposed work statistically significant excesses of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (O/E = 26/16.1) and cases of lung cancer (O/E = 10/3.9) were observed. Nine of the cases of lung cancer had occurred 20 years or more after first employment (2.7 expected; p less than 0.01). In smokers of this subcohort there were 7.06 cases of lung cancer per 1000 person-years compared with 1.30 in smokers of a general population sample. It is concluded that exposure to mineral oils has probably been an important contributing factor in the development of lung cancer among these workers.
PMCID: PMC1009661  PMID: 3179234
9.  Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide. 
The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1007642  PMID: 3964572
10.  Cancer incidence among workers in the Norwegian ferroalloy industry. 
The total mortality and the incidence of cancer was studied among a cohort of employees at the six oldest ferrosilicon and ferromanganese plants in Norway. The cohort consisted of 6494 men employed for more than 18 months before 1970 and has been followed up from 1953 to 1982. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for cancer (all sites) was 0.94. The observed number of cancers was as expected for lung cancer (SIR = 0.99) and for most of the other cancer sites studied. A statistically significant reduction of stomach cancer was found (SIR = 0.72). There was an increased incidence of lung cancer (SIR = 1.75) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 1.56) in the workers at one ferrosilicon plant and of colonic cancer (SIR = 1.90) at another ferrosilicon plant.
PMCID: PMC1007641  PMID: 3964571
11.  Mortality and incidence of cancer of workers in the man made vitreous fibres producing industry: an international investigation at 13 European plants. 
A total of 25 146 workers at 13 plants producing man made mineral fibres (MMMF) in seven European countries (Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and United Kingdom) were studied in a historical cohort investigation. At 12 of the 13 plants an environmental survey was carried out to determine present day concentrations of airborne man made mineral fibres that showed levels of respirable fibres usually below 1 f/ml and most commonly in the range 0.01 to 0.1 f/ml. Workers were entered into the cohort at the moment of their first employment at one of the 13 factories (which started to operate between 1900 and 1955), and were followed up to at least 31 December 1977. Three per cent of the workers were lost to follow up. National death rates and national cancer incidence rates, where applicable, were used for each of the seven countries for comparison with the workers' cohort. A single death from mesothelioma was reported out of a total of 309 353 person-years of observation. No consistent differences (within and between plants) were noted between observed and expected numbers concerning individual causes of death or individual cancer sites, apart from lung cancer. For this cause a tendency was observed for the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) to increase with time from first employment. When the data from all the plants were pooled a statistically significant raised SMR of 192 (17 observed, 8.9 expected; 95% confidence interval 117-307) appeared in the group with 30 years or more since first employment. The relevance of this finding, to which different factors including uncontrolled confounders such as smoking habits may have contributed, cannot be established at present. The result is suggestive, however, of an increased risk associated with the man made mineral fibres working environment of 30 or more years ago.
PMCID: PMC1009365  PMID: 6498106
12.  Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers. 
The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1009231  PMID: 6691932

Results 1-12 (12)