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1.  Detection of the Urban Release of a Bacillus anthracis Simulant by Air Sampling 
In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA) staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to evaluate PFPA's biothreat response protocols. In concert with, but independent of, these releases, the Department of Homeland Security sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques for detection of an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. Environmental surface and personal air samples were collected in the vicinity of the high-volume air samplers hours after the plume had dispersed. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after the release of a biological agent using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques.
In 2005 and 2009, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency staged deliberate releases of a commercially available organic pesticide to evaluate biothreat response protocols. The Department of Homeland Security also sponsored experiments to evaluate the efficacy of commonly employed air and surface sampling techniques to detect an aerosolized biological agent. High-volume air samplers were placed in the expected downwind plume, and samples were collected before, during, and after the releases. The results indicate it is feasible to detect the release of a biological agent in an urban area both during and after its release using high-volume air and environmental sampling techniques.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2013.0086
PMCID: PMC3993016  PMID: 24697146
2.  Reaerosolization of Bacillus spp. in Outdoor Environments: A Review of the Experimental Literature 
Reaerosolization or resuspension—that is, the reintroduction of previously airborne particles into the atmosphere—is a complex phenomenon. Microbial reaerosolization is particularly poorly understood because few studies have been done in this area, and many of the studies that have been performed are not in the peer-reviewed literature. The reaerosolization of Bacillus anthracis in outdoor environments is of particular concern because of its stability and potential for use as a biological weapon. This review pulls together data from more than 30 publications, spanning field and laboratory experiments, to summarize the current state of our understanding of Bacillus spp. reaerosolization in outdoor environments.
Reaerosolization or resuspension—that is, the reintroduction of previously airborne particles into the atmosphere—is poorly understood because few studies have been done in this area, and many of the studies that have been performed are not in the peer-reviewed literature. The reaerosolization of Bacillus anthracis in outdoor environments is of particular concern because of its stability and potential for use as a biological weapon. This review pulls together data from more than 30 publications to summarize the current state of our understanding of Bacillus spp. reaerosolization in outdoor environments.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0026
PMCID: PMC3440029  PMID: 22871211
3.  Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites 
The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2010.0073
PMCID: PMC3166204  PMID: 21882970

Results 1-3 (3)