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1.  Public Response to an Anthrax Attack: A Multiethnic Perspective 
The 2001 anthrax attacks emphasized the need to develop outreach that would more effectively support racial/ethnic minority populations during a bioterrorism incident. Given the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis in a future anthrax attack, it should be a priority to better support racial/ethnic minorities in mass dispensing programs. To examine the needs and perspectives of racial/ethnic minorities, this study used a nationally representative poll of 1,852 adults, including 1,240 whites, 261 African Americans, and 282 Hispanics. The poll examined public reactions to a “worst-case scenario” in which cases of inhalation anthrax are discovered without an identified source and the entire population of a city or town is asked to receive antibiotic prophylaxis within 48 hours. Findings suggest willingness across all racial/ethnic groups to comply with recommendations to seek prophylaxis at dispensing sites. However, findings also indicate possible barriers for racial/ethnic minorities, including greater concern about pill safety and multiple attacks as well as lesser knowledge about inhalation anthrax. Across all racial/ethnic groups, roughly half would prefer to receive antibiotics at mass dispensing sites rather than through the US Postal Service. People in racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to say this preference stems from a desire to speak with staff or to exchange medication formulation or type. Findings suggest the need for tailored outreach to racial/ethnic minorities through, for example, emphasis on key messages and enhanced understandability in communications, increased staff for answering questions in relevant dispensing sites, and long-term trust building with racial/ethnic minority communities.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0041
PMCID: PMC4751406  PMID: 23244501
2.  EMAC Volunteers: Liability and Workers’ Compensation 
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) provides a mechanism for states to assist each other during natural disasters and other emergencies. Congress ratified EMAC in 1996, and all 50 states and 3 territories have adopted it. EMAC allows a state affected by a disaster to request personnel and materiel from another state. For personnel requests, EMAC provides that the requesting state cover the tort liability and the responding state cover the workers’ compensation liability. This article discusses the limitations of EMAC in deploying volunteers and how the Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act and other provisions address those limitations.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2013.0040
PMCID: PMC4667549  PMID: 24041195
3.  Brain Morphometric Correlates of Metabolic Variables in HIV: The CHARTER Study 
Journal of neurovirology  2014;20(6):603-611.
Objectives:
Obesity and other metabolic variables are associated with abnormal brain structural volumes and cognitive dysfunction in HIV-uninfected populations. Since individuals with HIV infection on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) often have systemic metabolic abnormalities and changes in brain morphology and function, we examined associations among brain volumes and metabolic factors in the multi-site CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort.
Design:
Cross-sectional study of 222 HIV-infected individuals.
Methods:
Metabolic variables included body mass index (BMI), total blood cholesterol (C), low- and high-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C and HDL-C), blood pressure, random blood glucose, and diabetes. MRI measured volumes of cerebral white matter, abnormal white matter, cortical and subcortical gray matter, and ventricular and sulcal CSF. Multiple linear regression models allowed us to examine metabolic variables separately and in combination to predict each regional volume.
Results:
Greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with smaller cortical gray and larger white matter volumes. Higher total cholesterol (C) levels were associated with smaller cortex volumes; higher LDL-C was associated with larger cerebral white matter volumes, while higher HDL-C levels were associated with larger sulci. Higher blood glucose levels and diabetes were associated with more abnormal white matter.
Conclusions:
Multiple atherogenic metabolic factors contribute to regional brain volumes in HIV-infected, CART-treated patients, reflecting associations similar to those found in HIV-uninfected individuals. These risk factors may accelerate cerebral atherosclerosis and consequent brain alterations and cognitive dysfunction.
doi:10.1007/s13365-014-0284-0
PMCID: PMC4268263  PMID: 25227933
HIV; metabolic; neuroimaging; obesity; cholesterol
4.  CalDAG-GEFI deficiency protects mice from FcγRIIa-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenia induced by CD40L and β2-GPI immune complexes 
Summary
Introduction
Platelet activation via the Fcγ receptor IIa (FcγRIIa) is implicated in the pathogenesis of immune complex (IC)-mediated thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (ITT). We previously showed that ICs composed of antigen and antibodies targeting CD40 ligand (CD40L) or β2 Glycoprotein I (β2GPI) induce ITT in mice transgenic for human FcγRIIa (hFcR) but not wild-type controls (which lack FcγRIIa). Here we evaluated the contribution of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CalDAG-GEFI, and P2Y12, key regulators of Rap1 signaling in platelets, to ITT induced by these clinically relevant ICs.
Methods
Pre-formed anti-CD40L or anti-β2GPI ICs were injected into hFcR/Caldaggef1+/+ or hFcR/Caldaggef1-/- mice, with or without clopidogrel pre-treatment. Animals were observed for symptoms of shock for 30 minutes, during which time core body temperature was monitored. Platelet counts were obtained before and 30 minutes after IC injection. Lungs were assessed for thrombosis by histology or near-infrared imaging.
Results
Both CD40L and β2GPI ICs rapidly induced severe thrombocytopenia, shock and a reduction in body temperature in hFcR/Caldaggef1+/+ mice. hFcR/Caldaggef1-/- mice were protected from CD40L and β2GPI IC-induced thrombocytopenia and shock, whereas P2Y12 inhibition had only a modest effect on IC-induced ITT. Consistent with these findings, IC-induced integrin activation in vitro and the accumulation of activated platelets in the lungs of IC-challenged mice was strongly dependent on CalDAG-GEFI.
Conclusions
Our studies demonstrate that CalDAG-GEFI plays a critical role in platelet activation, thrombocytopenia and thrombosis induced by clinically relevant ICs in mice. Thus, CalDAG-GEFI may be a promising target for the intervention of IC-associated, FcγRIIa-mediated thrombotic conditions.
doi:10.1111/jth.12748
PMCID: PMC4268353  PMID: 25287077
Platelet activation; Thrombosis; Thrombocytopenia; Antigen-antibody complex; Receptors; IgG
5.  Treatment intensification with maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) leads to declines in CD16-expressing monocytes in cART-suppressed chronic HIV-infected subjects and is associated with improvements in neurocognitive test performance: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) 
Journal of neurovirology  2014;20(6):571-582.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to be prevalent (30–50 %) despite plasma HIVRNA suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is no proven therapy for individuals on suppressive cARTwith HAND. We have shown that the degree of HIV reservoir burden (HIV DNA) in monocytes appear to be linked to cognitive outcomes. HIV infection of monocytes may therefore be critical in the pathogenesis of HAND. A single arm, open-labeled trial was conducted to examine the effect of maraviroc (MVC) intensification on monocyte inflammation and neuropsychological (NP) performance in 15 HIV subjects on stable 6-month cART with undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<48 copies/ml) and detectable monocyte HIV DNA (>10 copies/106 cells). MVC was added to their existing cART regimen for 24 weeks. Post-intensification change in monocytes was assessed using multiparametric flow cytometry, monocyte HIV DNA content by PCR, soluble CD163 (sCD163) by an ELISA, and NP performance over 24 weeks. In 12 evaluable subjects, MVC intensification resulted in a decreased proportion of circulating intermediate (median; 3.06 % (1.93, 6.45) to 1.05 % (0.77, 2.26)) and nonclassical (5.2 % (3.8, 7.9) to 3.2 % (1.8, 4.8)) CD16-expressing monocytes, a reduction in monocyte HIV DNA content to zero log10 copies/106 cells and in levels of sCD163 of 43 % by 24 weeks. This was associated with significant improvement in NP performance among six subjects who entered the study with evidence of mild to moderate cognitive impairment. The results of this study suggest that antiretroviral therapy with potency against monocytes may have efficacy against HAND.
doi:10.1007/s13365-014-0279-x
PMCID: PMC4268390  PMID: 25227930
HIV; DNA; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders; Monocytes; Inflammation; CCR5; CD163
6.  Treatment as Prevention–Where Next? 
Current HIV/AIDS reports  2014;11(4):496-504.
Purpose of Review
Uptake of antiretroviral regimens with durable virologic suppression has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Expanding ART programs at a population-level may serve as a vital strategy in the elimination of the AIDS epidemic.
Recent findings
The global expansion of ART programs has greatly improved access to life-saving therapies, and is likely to achieve the target of 15 million individuals on therapy set by UNAIDS. In addition to the incontrovertible gains in terms of life expectancy, growing evidence demonstrates that durable virologic suppression is associated with significant reductions in HIV transmission amongst heterosexual couples and men who have sex with men. Expansion in successful ART programs, best monitored by a program-level continuum of care cascade to monitor progress in diagnosis, retention in care and virologic suppression, is associated with reductions in HIV incidence at a population level.
Summary
Expanding and sustaining successful ART delivery at a global level is a key component in a comprehensive approach to combating the HIV epidemic over the next two decades.
doi:10.1007/s11904-014-0237-5
PMCID: PMC4268430  PMID: 25384357
Antiretroviral therapy; Treatment as Prevention; Care Cascade; Millennium Development Goals
7.  Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California 
Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation of agencies’ actions and communications.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2011.0100
PMCID: PMC4600346  PMID: 22582813
8.  Fetal Alcohol Programming of Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin System by Epigenetic Mechanisms and Later Life Vulnerability to Stress 
Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, one of the major regulators of the HPA axis, immune functions, and energy homeostasis, are vulnerable to the adverse effects of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). These effects are manifested in POMC neurons by a decrease in Pomc gene expression, a decrement in the levels of its derived peptide β-endorphin (β-EP) and a dysregulation of the stress response in the adult offspring. The HPA axis is a major neuroendocrine system with pivotal physiological functions and mode of regulation. This system has been shown to be perturbed by prenatal alcohol exposure. It has been demonstrated that the perturbation of the HPA axis by FAE is long-lasting and is linked to molecular, neurophysiological and behavioral changes in exposed individuals. Recently, we showed that the dysregulation of the POMC system function by FAE is induced by epigenetic mechanisms such as hypermethylation of POMC gene promoter and an alteration in histone marks in POMC neurons. This developmental programming of the POMC system by FAE altered the transcriptome in POMC neurons and induced a hyperresponse to stress in adulthood. These long-lasting epigenetic changes influenced subsequent generations via the male germline. We also demonstrated that the epigenetic programming of the POMC system by FAE was reversed in adulthood with the application of the inhibitors of DNA methylation or histone modifications. Thus, prenatal environmental influences such as alcohol exposure could epigenetically modulate POMC neuronal circuits and function to shape adult behavioral patterns. Identifying specific epigenetic factors in hypothalamic POMC neurons that are modulated by fetal alcohol and target Pomc gene could be potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat stress-related diseases in patients with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.
doi:10.1111/acer.12497
PMCID: PMC4177357  PMID: 25069392
9.  5-HTTLPR moderates naltrexone and psychosocial treatment responses in heavy drinking men who have sex with men 
Background
A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene has been widely studied as a risk factor and moderator of treatment for a variety of psychopathologic conditions. To evaluate whether 5-HTTLPR moderates the effects of treatment to reduce heavy drinking, we studied 112 high-functioning European-American men who have sex with men (MSM). Subjects participated in a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone (NTX) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem drinking.
Methods
Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral NTX or placebo. All participants received medical management with adjusted Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET) alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-Control Therapy (MBSCT, an amalgam of motivational interviewing and CBT). Participants were genotyped for the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (i.e., low-activity S′ or high-activity L′ alleles).
Results
During treatment, the number of weekly heavy drinking days (HDD, defined as 5 or more standard drinks per day) was significantly lower in subjects with the L′L′ (N=26, p=0.015) or L′S′ (N=52, p=0.016) genotype than those with the S′S′ (N=34) genotype regardless of treatment type. There was a significant interaction of genotype with treatment: For subjects with the S′S′ genotype, the effects of MBSCT or NTX on HDD were significantly greater than the minimal intervention (i.e., BBCET or placebo, p=0.007 and p=0.049, respectively). In contrast, for subjects with one or two L′ alleles, the effects of the more intensive psychosocial treatment (MBSCT) or NTX did not significantly differ from BBCET or placebo.
Conclusions
These preliminary findings support the utility of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for personalizing treatment selection in problem drinkers.
doi:10.1111/acer.12492
PMCID: PMC4177453  PMID: 25070809
pharmacogenetics; stress reactivity; psychotherapy; MSM; plasticity
10.  Bullying of youth with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or typical development: Victim and parent perspectives 
In-depth interviews conducted separately with 13-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), or typical development (TD) and their mothers investigated the experiences of victimization in the form of bullying. Coded constructs from the interviews were utilized to compare groups on the frequency, type, and impact of victimization. Youth with ASD were victimized more frequently than their ID or TD peers, and the groups differed with regard to the type of bullying and the impact it had, with ASD youth faring the worst. Higher internalizing problems and conflict in friendships were found to be significant predictors of victimization, according to both youth- and mother-reports. These predictors were found to be more salient than ASD status alone. Implications for practice are discussed.
doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.001
PMCID: PMC4178308  PMID: 25285154
Autism; Intellectual disability; Bullying; Adolescents; Friendship
11.  Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage 
Background
Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved.
Methods
Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays.
Results
Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases microvascular permeability to plasma proteins. The data also suggest the endothelial-specific mechanism involves the p38 MAP kinase, Rac1, and reorganization of VE-cadherin at junctions. Lastly, activation of Epac can quickly resolve alcohol-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction.
doi:10.1111/acer.12525
PMCID: PMC4179905  PMID: 25257290
Ethanol; Ethanol Intoxication; Binge Drinking; Microvascular Permeability; Endothelium
12.  Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors 
Objective
To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors.
Methods
Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1,235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied.
Results
In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at age 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (p<0.01). Estimates trended in the same direction for males, but were not significant. BMI in 20’s demonstrated a linear relationship with MS (p-trend=9.60 × 10−4), and a twofold risk of MS for females with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was observed (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.18, 3.92). Significant associations between BMI in 20’s and MS in males were not observed. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that significant associations between BMI or body size with MS in females persisted after adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis and genetic risk factors, including HLA-DRB1*15:01 and established non-HLA risk alleles.
Interpretation
Results show that childhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20’s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors.
doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2014.01.002
PMCID: PMC4180039  PMID: 25263833
multiple sclerosis; childhood; adolescence; genetics; risk factors in epidemiology
13.  Reduced Left Executive Network Functional Connectivity Is Associated With Alcohol Use Disorders 
Background
Altered functional connectivity in critical networks has been associated with chronic alcohol abuse. In turn, changes in connectivity in executive control networks may undermine the ability to control alcohol consumption. It was hypothesized that network connectivity would be reduced in individuals with problematic alcohol use (ALC) compared to controls and that diminished network connectivity would be associated with greater failure to control drinking.
Methods
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed to identify fourteen previously identified intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) using a priori regions of interest in cases ranging from binge drinkers to those with severe alcohol use disorder, as well as control subjects. Analyses tested for differences in network connectivity strength between 255 ALC cases and 87 age- and gender-matched controls. Further, structural equation analysis, using 383 ALC cases, tested whether functional connectivity strength mediated the relationship between years of regular drinking and alcohol problems.
Results
The age- and gender-matched analysis showed that ALC had significantly lower network connectivity strength than controls in the left executive control (LECN), basal ganglia (BG) and primary visual (PV) networks. For all ALC, LECN connectivity strength in negatively correlated with failed control and alcohol disorder severity. Edges connecting parietal regions with dorsolateral prefrontal, middle frontal and temporal regions within the LECN drove these relationships. A positive association between years of drinking and severity of alcohol problems was mediated by reduced executive control network connectivity.
Conclusions
This study reports relationships between network strength and problematic alcohol use, suggesting that chronic drinking negatively impacts brain connectivity, specifically in the left executive control network. Altered functional connectivity, related to chronic alcohol abuse, may contribute to the etiology of alcohol dependence and relapse.
doi:10.1111/acer.12505
PMCID: PMC4180110  PMID: 25257293
alcohol dependence; executive control; functional connectivity; functional network; resting state
14.  Willingness of the Local Health Department Workforce to Respond to Infectious Disease Events: Empirical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations 
According to the Institute of Medicine, the local health department workforce is at the hub of the public health emergency preparedness system. A growing body of research has pointed to troubling attitudinal gaps among local health department workers, a vital response cohort, regarding willingness to respond to emergent infectious disease threats, ranging from naturally occurring pandemics to bioterrorism events. A summary of relevant literature on the empirical evidence, ethical norms, and legal standards applicable to the willingness of public health professionals to respond to an infectious disease emergency is presented. Recommendations are proposed for future work to be done to bring the relevant empirical, ethical, and legal considerations together to develop practical guidance for the local response to infectious disease emergencies.
Local health departments are the core of the public health emergency preparedness system. But a growing body of research has pointed to troubling attitudinal gaps among local health department workers regarding willingness to respond to emergent infectious disease threats, ranging from naturally occurring pandemics to bioterrorism events. Here the authors summarize relevant literature on the empirical evidence, ethical norms, and legal standards applicable to the willingness of public health professionals to respond to an infectious disease emergency. Recommendations are proposed for future work to develop practical guidance for the local response to such emergencies.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2014.0009
PMCID: PMC4106374  PMID: 24963648
15.  Federal Funding for Health Security in FY2015 
Previous articles in this series have provided funding information for federal civilian biodefense programs and programs focused on radiological and nuclear preparedness and consequence management. This year the authors have expanded the focus of the analysis to US federal funding for health security. This article provides proposed funding amounts for FY2015, estimated amounts for FY2014, and actual amounts for FY2010 through FY2013 in 5 domains critical to health security: biodefense programs, radiological and nuclear programs, chemical programs, pandemic influenza and emerging infectious disease programs, and multiple-hazard and preparedness programs.
Previous articles in this series have provided funding information for federal civilian biodefense programs and programs focused on radiological and nuclear preparedness and consequence management. This year the authors have expanded the focus of the analysis to US federal funding for health security, providing proposed funding amounts in 5 domains critical to health security: biodefense programs, radiological and nuclear programs, chemical programs, pandemic influenza and emerging infectious disease programs, and multiple-hazard and preparedness programs.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2014.0050
PMCID: PMC4106388  PMID: 24988432
16.  Public Health Emergency Planning for Children in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Disasters 
Children represent nearly a quarter of the US population, but their unique needs in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies may not be well understood by public health and emergency management personnel or even clinicians. Children are different from adults physically, developmentally, and socially. These characteristics have implications for providing care in CBRN disasters, making resulting illness in children challenging to prevent, identify, and treat. This article discusses these distinct physical, developmental, and social traits and characteristics of children in the context of the science behind exposure to, health effects from, and treatment for the threat agents potentially present in CBRN incidents.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2014.0036
PMCID: PMC4455024  PMID: 25014894
17.  A Model of Federal Interagency Cooperation: The National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research 
The terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax mailings a month later prompted a sweeping response by the federal government to improve the preparedness of the US to meet the potential threat posed by a terrorist using a biological agent. This response transcended traditional interagency boundaries, creating new opportunities while producing unique fiscal and leadership challenges. The National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research has made significant progress over the past 12 years because of its ability to adapt to the need for interagency cooperation and overcome many of these challenges. As construction of the National Interagency Biodefense Campus at Fort Detrick nears completion, the US has the capability to pursue a unique whole-of-government approach to the development of medical measures to counter the threat of bioterrorism. In addition to the high-level support of many in the federal government, the key success factors for this effort have been (1) a critical mass of leaders with the right leadership characteristics, (2) development of a compelling vision and accompanying narrative understood and articulated by all partnering organizations, and (3) recognition of the need for a partnership office to do the important communication and collaboration work in the organization to synchronize the information available to all the partners. The major barrier to interagency cooperative efforts of this kind is the inability to comingle funds from different appropriations.
The response to the 2001 attacks transcended traditional interagency boundaries, creating new opportunities while producing unique fiscal and leadership challenges. The National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research has made significant progress over the past 12 years because of its ability to adapt to the need for interagency cooperation and overcome many of these challenges. Key success factors include a critical mass of leaders with the right leadership characteristics, a compelling vision and accompanying narrative understood and articulated by all partners, and a central office to synchronize the information available to all the partners. The major barrier has been the inability to comingle funds from different appropriations.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2013.0084
PMCID: PMC4043433  PMID: 24819736
18.  Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies? 
During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others.
A number of journals have implemented dual-use policies to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. Here the authors analyzed peer-reviewed life sciences journals from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile to see whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area. Results showed that none of the screened publications had dual-use review policies.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2013.0088
PMCID: PMC3993063  PMID: 24693885
19.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3934436  PMID: 24527843
20.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3934438  PMID: 24527874
21.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3934440  PMID: 24552359
22.  [No title available] 
PMCID: PMC3934441  PMID: 24552360
23.  The Changing Face of Crises and Aid in the Asia-Pacific 
Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.
Asia faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. These include poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, high rates of disease morbidity and mortality, new and reemerging diseases, and naturally occurring and man-made disasters. Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. An increased focus is needed on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2014.0025
PMCID: PMC4248250  PMID: 25268048
24.  Separated by a Common Language: Awareness of Term Usage Differences Between Languages and Disciplines in Biopreparedness 
Preparedness for bioterrorism is based on communication between people in organizations who are educated and trained in several disciplines, including law enforcement, health, and science. Various backgrounds, cultures, and vocabularies generate difficulties in understanding and interpretating terms and concepts, which may impair communication. This is especially true in emergency situations, in which the need for clarity and consistency is vital. The EU project AniBioThreat initiated methods and made a rough estimate of the terms and concepts that are crucial for an incident, and a pilot database with key terms and definitions has been constructed. Analysis of collected terms and sources has shown that many of the participating organizations use various international standards in their area of expertise. The same term often represents different concepts in the standards from different sectors, or, alternatively, different terms were used to represent the same or similar concepts. The use of conflicting terminology can be problematic for decision makers and communicators in planning and prevention or when handling an incident. Since the CBRN area has roots in multiple disciplines, each with its own evolving terminology, it may not be realistic to achieve unequivocal communication through a standardized vocabulary and joint definitions for words from common language. We suggest that a communication strategy should include awareness of alternative definitions and ontologies and the ability to talk and write without relying on the implicit knowledge underlying specialized jargon. Consequently, cross-disciplinary communication skills should be part of training of personnel in the CBRN field. In addition, a searchable repository of terms and definitions from relevant organizations and authorities would be a valuable addition to existing glossaries for improving awareness concerning bioterrorism prevention planning.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0083
PMCID: PMC3752503  PMID: 23971818
25.  Decontamination of High-risk Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens 
Preparedness for the decontamination of affected environments, premises, facilities, and products is one prerequisite for an immediate response to an animal disease outbreak. Various information sources provide recommendations on how to proceed in an outbreak situation to eliminate biological contaminants and to stop the spread of the disease. In order to facilitate the identification of the right decontamination strategy, we present an overview of relevant references for a collection of pathogenic agents. The choice of pathogens is based on a survey of lists containing highly pathogenic agents and/or biological agents considered to be potential vehicles for deliberate contamination of food, feed, or farm animals. European legislation and guidelines from national and international institutions were screened to find decontamination protocols for each of the agents. Identified recommendations were evaluated with regard to their area of application, which could be facilities and equipment, wastes, food, and other animal products. The requirements of a disinfectant for large-scale incidents were gathered, and important characteristics (eg, inactivating spectrum, temperature range, toxicity to environment) of the main recommended disinfectants were summarized to assist in the choice of a suitable and efficient approach in a crisis situation induced by a specific high-risk animal or zoonotic pathogen. The literature search revealed numerous relevant recommendations but also legal gaps for certain diseases, such as Q fever or brucellosis, and legal difficulties for the use of recommended disinfectants. A lack of information about effective disinfectants was identified for some agents.
doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0069
PMCID: PMC3752507  PMID: 23971795

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