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1.  A Review of International Biobanks and Networks: Success Factors and Key Benchmarks 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2009;7(3):143-150.
Biobanks and biobanking networks are involved in varying degrees in the collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of biological specimens. This review outlines the approaches that 16 of the largest biobanks and biobanking networks in Europe, North America, Australia, and Asia have taken to collecting and distributing human research specimens and managing scientific initiatives while covering operating costs. Many are small operations that exist as either a single or a few freezers in a research laboratory, hospital clinical laboratory, or pathology suite. Larger academic and commercial biobanks operate to support large clinical and epidemiological studies. Operational and business models depend on the medical and research missions of their institutions and home countries. Some national biobanks operate with a centralized physical biobank that accepts samples from multiple locations. Others operate under a “federated” model where each institution maintains its own collections but agrees to list them on a central shared database. Some collections are “project-driven” meaning that specimens are collected and distributed to answer specific research questions. “General” collections are those that exist to establish a reference collection, that is, not to meet particular research goals but to be available to respond to multiple requests for an assortment of research uses. These individual and networked biobanking systems operate under a variety of business models, usually incorporating some form of partial cost recovery, while requiring at least partial public or government funding. Each has a well-defined biospecimen-access policy in place that specifies requirements that must be met—such as ethical clearance and the expertise to perform the proposed experiments—to obtain samples for research. The success of all of these biobanking models depends on a variety of factors including well-defined goals, a solid business plan, and specimen collections that are developed according to strict quality and operational controls.
PMCID: PMC4046743  PMID: 24835880
2.  Biobank Recruitment: Motivations for Nonparticipation 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2009;7(2):119-121.
Molecular data, essential for genomics research, can be captured more efficiently in large-scale, population-based biobanks of genetic material rather than by individual studies. Biobanks also offer improved quality and reliability of genetic samples and access through automated sample retrieval. However, it is challenging to adequately inform participants of the broad nature of the research and participation risks and benefits. In addition, recent studies suggest concerns about data sharing and return of research results, or future research topics (eg, stereotypical or potentially stigmatizing traits). We evaluated the interest in participating in a biobank and reasons for nonparticipation.
PMCID: PMC3205734  PMID: 22087353
3.  In Vitro Assessment of Apoptosis and Necrosis Following Cold Storage in a Human Airway Cell Model 
As advances in medical technology improve the efficacy of cell and tissue transplantation, a void remains in our knowledge base as to the specific molecular responses of cells to low-temperature storage. While much focus has been given to solution formulation for tissue perfusion during storage, investigations into cold exposure-induced complex molecular changes remain limited. The intent of this study was to quantify the levels of cell death following hypothermic storage in a lung cell model, establishing a foundation for future in-depth molecular analysis. Normal human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) were stored for 1 day or 2 days and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were stored for 5 days or 7 days at 4°C in complete media, ViaSpan, or ViaSpan + pan-caspase (VI) inhibitor. (Poststorage viability was assessed for 3 days using alamarBlue™.) Sample analysis revealed that IMR-90 cells stored in ViaSpan remained 80% (±9) viable after 1 day of storage and 21% (±7) viable after 2 days of storage. SAEC cells stored in ViaSpan remained 81% (±5) viable after 5 days and 28% (±7) after 7 days. Microfluidic flow cytometry analysis of the apoptotic and necrotic populations in the ViaSpan-stored samples revealed that in the IMR-90 cells stored for 2 days, 7% of the population was apoptotic at 4-h poststorage, while ∼70% was identified as necrotic. Analysis of the SAEC cell system following 7 days of ViaSpan storage revealed an apoptotic peak of 19% at 4-h poststorage and a corresponding necrotic peak of 19%. Caspase inhibition during hypothermic storage increased viability 33% for IMR-90 and 25% for SAEC. Data revealed a similar pattern of cell death, through both apoptosis and necrosis, once the onset of cold storage failure began, implying a potential conserved mechanism of cold-induced cell death. These data highlight the critical need for a more in-depth understanding of the molecular changes that occur as a result of cold exposure in cells and tissues.
PMCID: PMC3205736  PMID: 22087352
4.  Zeolite catalyzed solvent-free one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones – A practical synthesis of monastrol 
A zeolite-catalyzed, simple, one-pot, solvent-free, cost effective, and environmentally benign process for the synthesis of dihydropyrimidones is described. This reaction is scaleable to multigram scale and the catalyst is recyclable. This methodology has resulted in an efficient synthesis of monastrol, a potent inhibitor of kinesin Eg5.
PMCID: PMC2649439  PMID: 19259340
Biginelli reaction; DHPMs; neat; MCR; zeolite
5.  Catalytic synthesis of (E)-α,β-unsaturated esters from aldehydes and 1,1-diethoxyethylene 
A practical and high yielding synthesis of α,β-unsaturated esters from aldehydes and 1,1-diethoxyethylene was developed.
PMCID: PMC2649438  PMID: 19259339
1,1-diethoxyethylene; α,β-unsaturated esters

Results 1-5 (5)