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1.  Principles of Research Tissue Banking and Specimen Evaluation from the Pathologist's Perspective 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2010;8(4):197-201.
Human tissue biorepositories have an increasingly visible and important role within industrial enterprises in supporting biomedical research, including the rapidly advancing fields of proteomics, pharmacogenomics, and molecular epidemiology. Pathologists play a vital but often underrecognized role in the operation of these tissue banks. Besides interpreting studies that arise from banked samples, pathologists are needed to characterize tissues for research, to conduct quality assurance programs, to assist with resource allocation decisions, and to serve an educational role for investigators using the tissues. This article describes these key principles and illustrates examples where pathologist involvement is crucial to biorepository management. Of overarching importance, pathologists play a critical role in helping biorepository users understand the principles of specimen evaluation (histologic and structural composition of tissues, and their limitations) so as to optimize the scientific benefit of the tissues. In conclusion, greater involvement of pathologists in research tissue banking will enhance the scientific utility of biorepositories.
doi:10.1089/bio.2010.0018
PMCID: PMC3562469  PMID: 23386923
2.  Business Process Flow Diagrams in Tissue Bank Informatics System Design, and Identification and Communication of Best Practices: The Pharmaceutical Industry Experience 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2010;8(4):203-209.
Pfizer, Inc.'s Tissue Bank, in conjunction with Pfizer's BioBank (biofluid repository), endeavored to create an overarching internal software package to cover all general functions of both research facilities, including sample receipt, reconciliation, processing, storage, and ordering. Business process flow diagrams were developed by the Tissue Bank and Informatics teams as a way of characterizing best practices both within the Bank and in its interactions with key internal and external stakeholders. Besides serving as a first step for the software development, such formalized process maps greatly assisted the identification and communication of best practices and the optimization of current procedures. The diagrams shared here could assist other biospecimen research repositories (both pharmaceutical and other settings) for comparative purposes or as a guide to successful informatics design. Therefore, it is recommended that biorepositories consider establishing formalized business process flow diagrams for their laboratories, to address these objectives of communication and strategy.
doi:10.1089/bio.2010.0020
PMCID: PMC3562473  PMID: 23386924
3.  Gene Expression Profiles from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Sensitive to Short Processing Delays 
Biopreservation and biobanking  2010;8(3):153-162.
In the analysis of peripheral blood gene expression, timely processing of samples is essential to ensure that measurements reflect in vivo biology, rather than ex vivo sample processing variables. The effect of processing delays on global gene expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed by isolating and stabilizing PBMC-derived RNA from 3 individuals either immediately after phlebotomy or after a 4 h delay. RNA was labeled using NuGEN Ovation labeling and probed using the Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip®. Comparison of gene expression levels (≥2-fold expression change and P < 0.05) identified 307 probe sets representing genes with increased expression and 46 indicating decreased expression after 4 h. These differentially expressed genes include many that are important to inflammatory, immunologic, and cancer pathways. Among others, CCR2, CCR5, TLR10, CD180, and IL-16 have decreased expression, whereas VEGF, IL8, SOCS2, SOCS3, CD69, and CD83 have increased expression after a 4 h processing delay. The trends in expression patterns associated with delayed processing were also apparent in an independent set of 276 arrays of RNA from human PBMC samples with varying processing times. These data indicate that the time between sample acquisition, initiation of processing, and when the RNA is stabilized should be a prime consideration when designing protocols for translational studies involving PBMC gene expression analysis.
doi:10.1089/bio.2010.0009
PMCID: PMC3129811  PMID: 21743826
4.  Gene Expression Profiles from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Sensitive to Short Processing Delays 
Biopreservation and Biobanking  2010;8(3):153-162.
In the analysis of peripheral blood gene expression, timely processing of samples is essential to ensure that measurements reflect in vivo biology, rather than ex vivo sample processing variables. The effect of processing delays on global gene expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was assessed by isolating and stabilizing PBMC-derived RNA from 3 individuals either immediately after phlebotomy or after a 4 h delay. RNA was labeled using NuGEN Ovation labeling and probed using the Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip®. Comparison of gene expression levels (≥2-fold expression change and P < 0.05) identified 307 probe sets representing genes with increased expression and 46 indicating decreased expression after 4 h. These differentially expressed genes include many that are important to inflammatory, immunologic, and cancer pathways. Among others, CCR2, CCR5, TLR10, CD180, and IL-16 have decreased expression, whereas VEGF, IL8, SOCS2, SOCS3, CD69, and CD83 have increased expression after a 4 h processing delay. The trends in expression patterns associated with delayed processing were also apparent in an independent set of 276 arrays of RNA from human PBMC samples with varying processing times. These data indicate that the time between sample acquisition, initiation of processing, and when the RNA is stabilized should be a prime consideration when designing protocols for translational studies involving PBMC gene expression analysis.
doi:10.1089/bio.2010.0009
PMCID: PMC3129811  PMID: 21743826

Results 1-4 (4)