Due to the involvement of calcium as a main second messenger in the plant signaling pathway, increasing interest has been focused on the calcium signatures supposed to be involved in the patterning of the specific response associated to a given stimulus. In order to follow these signatures we described here the practical approach to use the non-invasive method based on the aequorin technology. Besides reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of this method we report on results showing the usefulness of aequorin to study the calcium response to biotic (elicitors) and abiotic stimuli (osmotic shocks) in various compartments of plant cells such as cytosol and nucleus.
Cell culture; Calcium; Cytosol
There is accumulating evidence that membrane-bound receptors interact with many intracellular proteins. Multiprotein complexes associated with ionotropic receptors have been extensively characterized, but the identification of proteins interacting with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has so far only been achieved in a piecemeal fashion, focusing on one or two protein species. We describe a method based on peptide affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting to identify the components of multiprotein complexes interacting directly or indirectly with intracellular domains of GPCRs or, more generally, any other membrane-bound receptor. Using this global approach, we have characterized multiprotein complexes that bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2C receptor and are important for its subcellular localization in CNS cells (Bécamel et al., EMBO J., 21(10): 2332, 2002).
proteomics; spectrum analysis, mass
Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6B is a pathogen causing latent infection in virtually all humans. Nevertheless, the interaction of HHV-6B with its host cells is poorly understood. Although HHV-6B is approximately 90% homologous to HHV-6A, it expresses certain B-specific genes. In order to quantify the amount of expressed viral mRNA we have developed a method using real-time PCR on a LightCycler instrument. Here we describe an assay for the detection of the HHV-6B B6 mRNA, but our approach can easily be extended to involve other mRNAs. This method is useful during the study of HHV-6B biology and offers reliable and reproducible, quantitative detection of viral mRNA below the attomol range.
HHV-6B; PCR; mRNA
Cell attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) engages integrin signaling into the cell, but part of the signaling response also stem from cell spreading (3). To analyze specific integrin signaling-mediated responses independent of cell spreading, we developed a method engaging integrin signaling by use of an immobilized anti-integrin monoclonal antibody (mab) directed against the fibronectin (FN) receptor integrin α5β1. ECV 304 cells were plated onto FN or immobilized mab JBS5 (anti-integrin α5β1) or onto poly-L-lysin (P-L-L), which mediates integrin-independent attachment. Cells attached and spread on FN, while cells on JBS5 or P-L-L attached but did not spread. Importantly, plating onto FN or mab JBS5 gave rise to identical integrin-induced responses, including a down-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk2) inhibitors p21CIP1 and p27KIP1, while attachment to P-L-L did not. We conclude that engagement of the FN-receptor integrin α5β1 induces integrin signaling regulating the Cdk2-inhibitors independent of cell spreading and present a method for how integrin signaling can be analyzed separate from the effects of cell spreading.
cell adhesion; integrins; antibodies, monoclonal; fibronectins; protein kinases
The described method allows for detection of rare linear DNA fragments generated during genomic deletions. The predicted limit of the detection is one DNA molecule per 107 or more cells. The method is based on anchor PCR and involves gel separation of the linear DNA fragment and chromosomal DNA before amplification. The detailed chemical structure of the ends of the linear DNA can be defined with the use of additional PCR-based protocols. The method was applied to study the short-lived linear DNA generated during programmed genomic deletions in a ciliate. It can be useful in studies of spontaneous DNA deletions in cell culture or for tracking intracellular modifications at the ends of transfected DNA during gene therapy trials.
Polymerase Chain Reaction; DNA; cell culture
The cell cycle machinery consists of regulatory proteins that control the progression through the cell cycle ensuring that DNA replication alternates with DNA segregation in mitosis to maintain cell integrity. Some of these key regulators have to be degraded at each cell cycle to prevent cellular dysfunction. Mitotic exit requires the inactivation of cyclin dependent kinase1 (cdk1) and it is the degradation of the cyclin subunit that inactivates the kinase. Cyclin degradation has been well characterized and it was shown that it is ubiquitin proteasome pathway that leads to the elimination of cyclins. By now, many other regulatory proteins were shown to be degraded by the same pathway, among them members of the aurora kinase family, degraded many other regulatory proteins. Aurora kinases are involved in mitotic spindle formation as well as in cytokinesis. The abundance and activity of the kinase is precisely regulated during the cell cycle. To understand how proteolysis regulates transitions through the cell cycle we describe two assays for ubiquitination and degradation of xenopus aurora kinase A using extracts from xenopus eggs or somatic cell lines.
Established cell lines are invaluable for studying cell and molecular biological questions. A variety of human ovarian cancer (OC) cell lines exist, however, most have acquired significant genetic alterations from their cells of origin, including deletion of important cell cycle regulatory genes. In order to analyze signaling events related to cell cycle control in human OC, we have modified existing protocols for isolating and culturing OC cells from patient ascites fluid and normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells from benign ovarian tissue sections. These cells maintain an epithelial phenotype and can be manipulated experimentally for several passages before cellular senescence. An example using TGFb1 treatment of OC cells to examine signaling and target gene activation is presented.
ovarian neoplasms; blotting, northern; ovary
The “in vitro virus” is a molecular construct to perform evolutionary protein engineering. The “virion (=viral particle)” (mRNA-peptide fusion), is made by bonding a nascent protein with its coding mRNA via puromycin in a test tube for in vitro translation. In this work, the puromycin-linker was attached to mRNA using the Y-ligation, which was a method of two single-strands ligation at the end of a double-stranded stem to make a stem-loop structure. This reaction gave a yield of about 95%. We compared the Y-ligation with two other ligation reactions and showed that the Y-ligation gave the best productivity. An efficient amplification of the in vitro virus with this “viral genome” was demonstrated.
methods; protein engineering
Recent evidence indicates novel role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2), in the regulation of vascular biology that are unrelated to their well-known proteolytic breakdown of matrix proteins. We have previously reported that MMP-2 can modulate vascular reactivity by cleavage of the Gly32-Leu33 bound in big endothelin-1 (ET-1) yielding a novel vasoactive peptide ET-1[1-32]. These studies were conducted to investigate whether gelatinolytic MMPs could affect neutrophil-endothelial cell attachment. ET-1[1-32] produced by MMP-2 up-regulated CD11b/CD18 expression on human neutrophils, thereby promoted their adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. ET-1[1-32] evoked release of gelatinase B (MMP-9), which in turn cleaved big ET-1 to yield ET-1[1-32], thus revealing a self-amplifying loop for ET-1[1-32] generation. ET-1[1-32] was rather resistant to cleavage by neutrophil proteases and further metabolism of ET-1[1-32] was not a prerequisite for its biological actions on neutrophils. The neutrophil responses to ET-1[1-32] were mediated via activation of ETAreceptors through activation of the Ras/Raf-1/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest a novel role for gelatinase A and B in the regulation of neutrophil functions and their interactions with endothelial cells. Here we describe the methods in detail as they relate to our previously published work.
matrix metalloproteinases; endothelin-1
We describe here a method for isolating endothelial cells from rat heart blood vessels by means of coronary microperfusion with collagenase. This methods makes it possible to obtain high amounts of endothelial cells in culture which retain the functional properties of their in vivo counterparts, including the ability to uptake fluorescently-labeled acetylated low-density lipoproteins and to respond to vasoactive agents by modulating intracellular calcium and by upregulating intrinsic nitric oxide generation. The main advantages of our technique are: (i) good reproducibility, (ii) accurate sterility that can be maintained throughout the isolation procedure and (iii) high yield of pure endothelial cells, mainly due to microperfusion and temperature-controlled incubation with collagenase which allow an optimal distribution of this enzyme within the coronary vascular bed.
nitric oxide; Fura-2
Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix metalloproteases in angiogenesis, we have adapted to the mouse, the aortic ring assay initially developed in the rat. The use of deficient mice allowed us to demonstrate that PAI-1 is essential for angiogenesis while the absence of an MMP, MMP-11, did not affect vessel sprouting. We report here that this model is attractive to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, to identify, characterise or screen "pro- or anti-angiogenic agents that could be used for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Approaches include using recombinant proteins, synthetic molecules and adenovirus-mediated gene transfer.
Angiogenesis factor; endothelium; mouse
The study of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the process by which they differentiate into committed progenitors has been hampered by the lack of in vitro clonal assays that can support erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid differentiation. We describe a method for the isolation from human fetal liver of highly purified candidate HSCs and progenitors based on the phenotypes CD38-CD34++ and CD38+CD34++, respectively. We also describe a method for the growth of colony-forming cells (CFCs) from these cell populations, under defined culture conditions, that supports the differentiation of erythroid, CD14/CD15+ myeloid, CD1a+ dendritic cell and CD56+ NK cell lineages. Flow cytometric analyses of individual colonies demonstrate that CFCs with erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid potential are distributed among both the CD38- and CD38+ populations of CD34++ progenitors.
fetal tissue; hematopoietic stem cells; cell differentiation; natural killer cells; dendritic cells
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) have a catalytic cysteine residue whose reduced state is integral to the reaction mechanism. Since exposure to air can artifactually oxidize this highly reactive thiol, PTPase assays have typically used potent reducing agents to reactivate the enzymes present; however, this approach does not allow for the measurement of the endogenous PTPase activity directly isolated from the in vivo cellular environment. Here we provide a method for using an anaerobic chamber to preserve the activity of the total PTPase complement in a tissue lysate or of an immunoprecipitated PTPase homolog to characterize their endogenous activation state. Comparison with a sample treated with biochemical reducing agents allows the determination of the activatable (reducible) fraction of the endogenous PTPase pool.
Signal Transduction; Cysteine; protein-tyrosine-phosphatase; oxidation-reduction
A number of factors influence the development of tolerance, including the nature, concentration and mode of antigen presentation to the immune system, as well as the age of the host. The studies were conducted to determine whether immunizing pregnant mice with liposome-encapsulated DNA vaccines had an effect on the immune status of their offspring. Two different plasmids (encoding antigens from HIV-1 and influenza virus) were administered intravenously to pregnant mice. At 9.5 days post conception with cationic liposomes, injected plasmid was present in the tissues of the fetus, consistent with trans-placental transfer. When the offspring of vaccinated dams were immunized with DNA vaccine, they mounted stronger antigen-specific immune responses than controls and were protected against challenge by homologous influenza virus after vaccination. Moreover, such immune responses were strong in the offspring of mothers injected with DNA plasmid 9.5 days after coitus. These results suggest that DNA vaccinated mothers confer the antigen-specific immunity to their progeny. Here we describe the methods in detail as they relate to our previously published work.
HIV-1; methods; progeny
The promoter activity of the rat Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gene was analyzed using the luciferase reporter gene in neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. Neuronal cell type-specific promoter activity was found in the 5'-flanking region of α and β
isoform genes of the kinase. Silencer elements were also found further upstream of promoter regions. A brain-specific protein bound to the DNA sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the gene was found by gel mobility shift analysis in the nuclear extract of the rat brain, including the cerebellum, forebrain, and brainstem, but not in that of non-neuronal tissues, including liver, kidney and spleen. The luciferase expression system and gel shift analysis can be used as an additional and better index by which to monitor gene expression in most cell types.
calmodulin; protein Kinase II; gene expression; promoter
Isolated epithelial cells from intestinal mucosae are a suitable object for the study of the regulation of ion transport in the gut. This regulation possesses a great importance for human and veterinary medicine, as diarrheal diseases, which often are caused by an inadequate activation of intestinal anion secretion, are one of the major lethal diseases of children or young animals. The aim of this paper is to describe a method for the isolation of intact colonic crypts, e.g. for the subsequent investigation of the regulation of anion secretion by the intracellular second messenger, Ca2+ using electrophysiological and imaging techniques.
Electrophysiology; Epithelial Cells; Ion channels