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1.  Change in Hemoglobin Levels due to Anesthesia in Mice: An Important Confounder in Studies on Hematopoietic Drugs 
Biological Procedures Online  2009;11:325-330.
Analgesic and anesthetic drugs may have an impact on the results achieved from animal experiments. In the study presented here, we try to enlighten whether anesthesia with fentanyl/fluniasone and midazolam (Hypnorm and Dormicum) has an influence on measurements of hemoglobin in mice. In a cross-over study, we have compared hemoglobin levels in two groups of mice: anesthetized versus non-anesthetized and found significant decrease in hemoglobin levels in the anesthetized group (p < 0.05) unrelated to which group received the anesthesia. The mean hemoglobin levels after intraperitoneal administration of Hypnorm and Dormicum was 8.7 mmol/L compared to mean hemoglobin 9.9 mmol/L before anesthesia (p < 0.001), and the decrease lasted for more than 30 min. These results show that anesthesia can be an important confounder in studies involving measurements of hemoglobin, and this should be taken into account when planning studies and analyzing data.
PMCID: PMC3056022  PMID: 19957064
anesthesia; hemoglobin; in vivo; fentanyl; midazolam
2.  In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue 
Biological Procedures Online  2009;11:253-262.
DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8 weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability.
PMCID: PMC3055792  PMID: 19495913
Electroporation; Gene delivery; Whole-body imaging; Katushka; Skeletal muscle

Results 1-2 (2)