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1.  Trematode parasites infect or die in snail hosts 
Biology Letters  2010;7(2):265-268.
The Red Queen hypothesis is based on the assumption that parasites must genetically match their hosts to infect them successfully. If the parasites fail, they are assumed to be killed by the host's immune system. Here, we tested this using sympatric (mostly susceptible) and allopatric (mostly resistant) populations of a freshwater snail and its trematode parasite. We determined whether parasites which do not infect are either killed or passed through the host's digestive tract and remain infectious. Our results show that parasites do not get a second chance: they either infect or are killed by the host. The results suggest strong selection against parasites that are not adapted to local host genotypes.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0857
PMCID: PMC3061183  PMID: 20961880
host–parasite coevolution; Red Queen hypothesis; invertebrate immunity
2.  Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature 
Biology Letters  2010;7(1):119-122.
Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0459
PMCID: PMC3030870  PMID: 20610417
immune function; immunocompetence; pathogen resistance; Lymnaea stagnalis
3.  Host manipulation as a parasite transmission strategy when manipulation is exploited by non-host predators 
Biology Letters  2008;4(6):663-666.
Trophically transmitted parasites often alter their intermediate host's phenotype, thereby predisposing hosts to increased predation. This is generally considered to be a parasite strategy evolved to enhance transmission to the next host. However, the adaptive value of host manipulation is not clear, as it may be associated with costs, such as increased susceptibility to predator species that are unsuitable next hosts for the parasites. Thus, it has been proposed that, to be adaptive, manipulation should be specific by predisposing hosts more strongly to predation by target hosts (next host in the life cycle) than to non-hosts. Here we formally evaluate this prediction, and show that manipulation does not have to be specific to be adaptive. However, when manipulation is nonspecific, it needs to effectively increase the overall predation risk of infected hosts if it is to increase the parasite transmission probability. Thus, when initial predation risk is low, even highly nonspecific manipulation strategies can be adaptive. However, when initial predation risk is high, manipulation needs to be more specific to increase parasite transmission success. Therefore, nonspecific host manipulation may evolve in nature, but the adaptive value of a certain manipulation strategy can vary among different parasite populations depending on the variation in initial predation risk.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0335
PMCID: PMC2614144  PMID: 18700200
parasite–host interactions; host phenotype; host behaviour; non-host predation
4.  Temperature-related birth sex ratio bias in historical Sami: warm years bring more sons 
Biology Letters  2007;4(1):60-62.
The birth sex ratio of vertebrates with chromosomal sex determination has been shown to respond to environmental variability, such as temperature. However, in humans the few previous studies on environmental temperature and birth sex ratios have produced mixed results. We examined whether reconstructed annual mean temperatures were associated with annual offspring sex ratio at birth in the eighteenth to nineteenth century Sami from northern Finland. We found that warm years correlated with a male-biased sex ratio, whereas a warm previous year skewed sex ratio towards females. The net effect of one degree Celsius increase in mean temperature during these 2 years corresponded to approximately 1% more sons born annually. Although the physiological and ecological mechanisms mediating these effects and their evolutionary consequences on parental fitness remain unknown, our results show that environmental temperature may affect human birth sex ratio.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0482
PMCID: PMC2412929  PMID: 18042510
climatic reconstruction; parental age; time-series analysis
5.  Marrying women 15 years younger maximized men's evolutionary fitness in historical Sami 
Biology Letters  2007;4(1):75-78.
Most men marry younger women. This has been attributed to men selecting young women due to their high reproductive value and women preferring older men due to their wealth and high social status. Such mate preferences have been suggested to be adaptive, but despite a flourishing number of studies on the mate selection patterns themselves, little is still known of their actual fitness consequences. We examined how the age difference between spouses who married only once affected their lifetime reproductive success in historical monogamous Sami populations. We found that men maximized their fitness by marrying women approximately 15 years younger and vice versa. However, most couples failed to marry optimally. Only 10% of marriages fell within the optimal parental age difference, suggesting that cultural and ecological constraints for maximizing fitness were considerable. Those who succeeded in marrying optimally were the most preferred partners: young women and old men. Our findings indicate that, in Sami, parental age difference was under natural and sexual selection, as suggested by evolutionary theory.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0538
PMCID: PMC2412947  PMID: 18055408
human; fecundity; lifetime reproductive success; mate choice; sexual selection

Results 1-5 (5)