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1.  When cormorants go fishing: the differing costs of hunting for sedentary and motile prey 
Biology Letters  2007;3(5):574-576.
Cormorants hunt both benthic (sedentary) and pelagic (motile) prey but it is not known if the energy costs of foraging on these prey differ. We used respirometry to measure the costs of diving in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) foraging either for sedentary (fish pieces) or motile (juvenile salmon) prey in a deep dive tank. Short dives for sedentary prey were more expensive than dives of similar duration for motile prey (e.g. 20% higher for a 10 s dive) whereas the reverse was true for long dives (i.e. long dives for motile prey were more expensive than for sedentary prey). Across dives of all durations, the foraging phase of the dive was more expensive when the birds hunted motile prey, presumably due to pursuit costs. The period of descent in all the dives undertaken appears to have been more expensive when the birds foraged on sedentary prey, probably due to a higher swimming speed during this period.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0121
PMCID: PMC2391174  PMID: 17623631
cormorant; diving; energetics; foraging; prey; respirometry
2.  It is time to move: linking flight and foraging behaviour in a diving bird 
Biology Letters  2007;3(4):357-359.
Although the adaptive value of flight may seem obvious, it is the most difficult behaviour of birds to monitor. Here, we describe a technique to quantify the frequency and the duration of flights over several months by implanting a data logger that records heart rate (fH), hydrostatic pressure (diving depth) and the body angle of a large sea duck species, the common eider (Somateria mollissima). According to the mean fH recorded during flight and the parameters recorded to identify the fH flight signature, we were able to identify all flights performed by 13 individuals during eight months. We cumulated local flight time (outside migrations) and found that activity occurs primarily during dawn and morning and that flying activities are strongly related to diving activities (Pearson's r=0.88, permutation test p<0.001). This relationship was interpreted as a consequence of living in a dynamic environment where sea currents move the ducks away from the food patches. We believe that the technique described here will open new avenues of investigation in the adaptive value of flight.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0088
PMCID: PMC2111053  PMID: 17504730
common eider; data logger; diving behaviour; flying behaviour; free-living birds; heart rate
3.  Cormorants dive through the Polar night 
Biology Letters  2005;1(4):469-471.
Most seabirds are visual hunters and are thus strongly affected by light levels. Dependence on vision should be problematic for species wintering at high latitudes, as they face very low light levels for extended periods during the Polar night. We examined the foraging rhythms of male great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) wintering north of the Polar circle in West Greenland, conducting the first year-round recordings of the diving activity in a seabird wintering at high latitudes. Dive depth data revealed that birds dived every day during the Arctic winter and did not adjust their foraging rhythms to varying day length. Therefore, a significant proportion of the dive bouts were conducted in the dark (less than 1 lux) during the Polar night. Our study underlines the stunning adaptability of great cormorants and raises questions about the capacity of diving birds to use non-visual cues to target fish.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0356
PMCID: PMC1626366  PMID: 17148235
vision; foraging; year-round recording; data loggers; arctic; seabird

Results 1-3 (3)