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1.  Biosorption of Uranium and Rare Earth Elements Using Biomass of Algae 
In order to investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) and uranium (U) in marine organism, the concentrations of REEs and U in some brown algae samples taken on the coast of Niigata Prefecture were determined. In addition, laboratory model experiment to uptake these elements using living and dried algae (Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum hemiphyllum) was also carried out to survey the uptake and bioaccumulation mechanism of REEs and U in algae. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The order of the concentration of REEs for each organ in Sargassum hemiphyllum is “main branch” > “leaf” > “vesicle,” however for U, the order is “leaf” > “vesicle” > “main branch.” (2) The concentration of REEs in Sargassum hemiphyllum may be strongly affected by suspended solid in seawater. (3) The uptake and/or accumulate mechanism of REEs in brown algae may be different from that of U.
doi:10.1155/2008/706240
PMCID: PMC2593843  PMID: 19081786
2.  Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Citrate Complexes 
Formation of silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions was investigated. Although, silver citrate is minimally soluble in water, it can successfully be dissolved in citric acid solutions. The maximum concentration of Ag(I) in solution is estimated at 23 to 25 g/L if the concentration of citric acid is at least 4 mol/L or higher. The dissolution of silver citrate in citric acid solutions was attributed to the formation of silver citrate complexes of a general formula [Ag3(C6H5O7)n+1]3n−. The silver citrate/citric acid solutions, containing more than about 13 g/L Ag+ ion, have exhibited a decrease in Ag(I) concentration in solution over time, due to crystallization. The crystallization product was attributed to the formation of [Ag3C6H5O7]x·nH2O. Importantly, the diluted silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions have exhibited very strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities.
doi:10.1155/2008/436458
PMCID: PMC2590638  PMID: 19079586
3.  Cationic Porphyrin Induced a Telomeric DNA to G-Quadruplex Form in Water 
The formation of the DNA G-quadruplex is induced by the addition of a novel porphyrin carrying four cationic tethers. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the porphyrin binds to Tetrahymena telomeric repeat to form G-quadruplex under stabilizing-cation-deficient and no buffer conditions.
doi:10.1155/2008/294756
PMCID: PMC2266808  PMID: 18350116
4.  Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of N1-Methyl-2-(1H-1,2,3-Benzotriazol-1-y1)-3-Oxobutan- ethioamide Complexes with Some Divalent Metal (II) Ions 
A new series of Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Co2+ complexes of N1-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)-3-oxobutanethioamide (MBOBT), HL, has been synthesized and characterized by different spectral and magnetic measurements and elemental analysis. IR spectral data indicates that (MBOBT) exists only in the thione form in the solid state while 13C NMR spectrum indicates its existence in thione and thiole tautomeric forms. The IR spectra of all complexes indicate that (MBOBT) acts as a monobasic bidentate ligand coordinating to the metal(II) ions via the keto-oxygen and thiolato-sulphur atoms. The electronic spectral studies showed that (MBOBT) bonded to all metal ions through sulphur and nitrogen atoms based on the positions and intensity of their charge transfer bands. Furthermore, the spectra reflect four coordinate tetrahedral zinc(II), tetragonally distorted copper(II), square planar nickel(II), and cobalt(II) complexes. Thermal decomposition study of the complexes was monitored by TG and DTG analyses under N2 atmosphere. The decomposition course and steps were analyzed and the activation parameters of the nonisothermal decomposition are determined. The isolated metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities and the findings have been reported and discussed in relation to their structures.
doi:10.1155/2008/479897
PMCID: PMC2268950  PMID: 18364993
5.  Biomimetic Modeling of Copper Complexes: A Study of Enantioselective Catalytic Oxidation on D-(+)-Catechin and L-( − )-Epicatechin with Copper Complexes 
The biomimetic catalytic oxidations of the dinuclear and trinuclear copper(II) complexes versus two catechols, namely, D-(+)-catechin and L-( − )-epicatechin to give the corresponding quinones are reported. The unstable quinones were trapped by the nucleophilic reagent, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH), and have been calculated the molar absorptivities of the different quinones. The catalytic efficiency is moderate, as inferred by kinetic constants, but the complexes exhibit significant enantio-differentiating ability towards the catechols, albeit for the dinuclear complexes, this enantio-differentiating ability is lower. In all cases, the preferred enantiomeric substrate is D-(+)-catechin to respect the other catechol, because of the spatial disposition of this substrate.
doi:10.1155/2008/762029
PMCID: PMC2553160  PMID: 18825268
6.  Complexes of Cu(II) Ions and Noncovalent Interactions in Systems with L-Aspartic Acid and Cytidine-5'-Monophosphate 
Interactions between aspartic acid (Asp) and cytidine-5-monophosphate (CMP) in metal-free systems as well as the coordination of Cu(II) ions with the above ligands were studied. The composition and overall stability constants of the species formed in those systems were determined by the potentiometric method, and the interaction centres in the ligands were identified by the spectral methods UV-Vis, EPR, NMR, and IR. In metal-free systems, the formation of adducts, in which each ligand has both positive and negative reaction centres, was established. The main reaction centres in Asp are the oxygen atoms of carboxyl groups and the nitrogen atom of the amine group, while the main reaction centre in CMP at low pH is the N(3) atom. With increasing pH, the efficiency of the phosphate group of the nucleotide in the interactions significantly increases, and the efficiency of carboxyl groups in Asp decreases. The noncovalent reaction centres in the ligands are simultaneously the potential sites of metal-ion coordination. The mode of coordination in the complexes formed in the ternary systems was established. The sites of coordination depend clearly on the solution pH. In the molecular complexes ML⋯L, metallation involves the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl groups of the amino acid, while the protonated nucleotide is in the outer coordination sphere and interacts noncovalently with the anchoring CuHx(Asp) species. The influence of the metal ions on the weak interactions between the biomolecules was established.
doi:10.1155/2008/253971
PMCID: PMC2494589  PMID: 18682818
7.  Kinetics and Mechanism of the Reaction between Chromium(III) and 3,4-Dihydroxy-Phenyl-Propenoic Acid (Caffeic Acid) in Weak Acidic Aqueous Solutions 
Our study of the complexation of 3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-propenoic acid by chromium(III) could give information on the way that this metal ion is available to plants. The reaction between chromium(III) and 3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-propenoic acid in weak acidic aqueous solutions has been shown to take place by at least three stages. The first stage corresponds to substitution (Id mechanism) of water molecule from the Cr(H2O)5OH2+ coordination sphere by a ligand molecule. A very rapid protonation equilibrium, which follows, favors the aqua species. The second and the third stages are chromium(III) and ligand concentration independent and are attributed to isomerisation and chelation processes. The corresponding activation parameters are ΔH2(obs)≠ = 28.6 ± 2.9 kJ mol−1, ΔS2(obs)≠ = −220 ± 10 J K−1mol−1, ΔH3(obs)≠ = 62.9 ± 6.7 kJ mol−1 and ΔS3(obs)≠ = −121 ± 22 J K−1mol−1. The kinetic results suggest associative mechanisms for the two steps. The associatively activated substitution processes are accompanied by proton release causing pH decrease.
doi:10.1155/2008/624583
PMCID: PMC2490814  PMID: 18695733
8.  The Mechanisms of Catalysis by Metallo β-Lactamases 
Class B β-lactamases or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) require zinc ions to catalyse the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and cephamycins. There are no clinically useful inhibitors against MBLs which are responsible for the resistance of some bacteria to antibiotics. There are two metal-ion binding sites that have different zinc ligands but the exact roles of the metal-ion remain controversial, and distinguishing between their relative importance is complex. The metal-ion can act as a Lewis acid by co-ordination to the β-lactam carbonyl oxygen to facilitate nucleophilic attack and stabilise the negative charge developed on this oxygen in the tetrahedral intermediate anion. The metal-ion also lowers the pKa of the directly co-ordinated water molecule so that the metal-bound hydroxide ion is a better nucleophile than water and is used to attack the β-lactam carbonyl carbon. An intrinsic property of binuclear metallo hydrolytic enzymes that depend on a metal-bound water both as the attacking nucleophile and as a ligand for the second metal-ion is that this water molecule, which is consumed during hydrolysis of the substrate, has to be replaced to maintain the catalytic cycle. With MBL this is reflected in some unusual kinetic profiles.
doi:10.1155/2008/576297
PMCID: PMC2422870  PMID: 18551183
9.  Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes with β-Alanine 
A sequence of stages in the syntheses of isomeric bisamino acid complexes of Pt(II) with β-aminopropionic acid (β-alanine = β-AlaH) has been studied by the 195Pt NMR spectroscopy. The techniques have been developed of the synthesis of the cis- and trans-bischelates of Pt(II) and Pd(II) with β-alanine as well as of the halide complexes of trans-[M(β-AlaH)2Cl2] (M = Pt, Pd) and trans-K2[Pt(β-Ala)2I2] types. The NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy (in the nuclei of 195Pt,13C,1H) and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to examine the structures of the synthesized compounds.
doi:10.1155/2008/983725
PMCID: PMC2408677  PMID: 18528519
10.  Methylated Trivalent Arsenic-Glutathione Complexes are More Stable than their Arsenite Analog 
The trivalent arsenic glutathione complexes arsenic triglutathione, methylarsonous diglutathione, and dimethylarsinous glutathione are key intermediates in the mammalian metabolism of arsenite and possibly represent the arsenic species that are transported from the liver to the kidney for urinary excretion. Despite this, the comparative stability of the arsenic-sulfur bonds in these complexes has not been investigated under physiological conditions resembling hepatocyte cytosol. Using size-exclusion chromatography and a glutathione-containing phosphate buffered saline mobile phase (5 or 10 mM glutathione, pH 7.4) in conjunction with an arsenic-specific detector, we chromatographed arsenite, monomethylarsonous acid, and dimethylarsinous acid. The on-column formation of the corresponding arsenic-glutathione complexes between 4 and 37°C revealed that methylated arsenic-glutathione complexes are more stable than arsenic triglutathione. The relevance of these results with regard to the metabolic fate of arsenite in mammals is discussed.
doi:10.1155/2008/539082
PMCID: PMC2396221  PMID: 18509491
11.  The Crystal Water Affect in the Interaction between the Tenebrio Molitor Alpha-Amylase and Its Inhibitor 
Molecular dynamics simulation of the interaction between the Tenebrio molitor alpha-amylase and its inhibitor at different proportion of crystal water was carried out with OPLS force field by hyperchem 7.5 software. In the correlative study, the optimal temperature of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors was from 273 K to 318 K. The the average temperature of experimentation is 289 K. (1) The optimal temperature of interaction between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors was 280 K without crystal water that was close to the results of experimentation. The forming of enzyme-water and inhibitor-water was easy, but incorporating third monomer was impossible. (2) Having analyzed the potential energy data, the optimal temperature of interaction energy between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors covering 9 : 1, 5 : 5, 4 : 6, and 1 : 9 proportion crystal water was 290 K. (3) We compared the correlative QSAR properties. The proportion of crystal water was close to the data of polarizability (12.4%) in the QSAR properties. The optimal temperature was 280 K. This result was close to 289 K. These findings have theoretical and practical implications.
doi:10.1155/2008/469062
PMCID: PMC2391257  PMID: 18497884
12.  In Vitro Evaluation of a Stable Monomeric Gold(II) Complex with Hematoporphyrin IX: Cytotoxicity against Tumor and Kidney Cells, Cellular Accumulation, and Induction of Apoptosis 
The antineoplastic potential of a stable monomeric Au(II) complex with hematoporphyrin IX (Hp), namely [Au(II)Hp−2H.(H2O)2], was investigated in a panel of tumor cell lines. The complex exhibits strong cytotoxicity, whereby the leukaemia- and lymphoma-derived cell lines are more sensitive, with IC50 values comparable to those of the reference anticancer drug cisplatin. In contrast, the solid tumor models are more sensitive to the platinum drug. A comparative assessment of both agents against the human kidney cell line 293T has shown that [Au(II)Hp−2H.(H2O)2] is less cytotoxic. The gold complex induces oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in tumour cells following 24-hour treatment and hence its cytotoxic effect is at least partly mediated by induction of apoptotic cell death. A prominent intracellular gold accumulation was detected after treating tumor cells with [Au(II)Hp−2H.(H2O)2] which shows that its putative pharmacological targets are readily accessible after a short incubation period.
doi:10.1155/2008/367471
PMCID: PMC2386889  PMID: 18497870
13.  Biological Monitoring of Hexavalent Chromium and Serum Levels of the Senescence Biomarker Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin in Welders 
Welding fumes contain metals and other toxic substances known or strongly suspected to be related with oxidative stress and premature cellular senescence. Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin (ApoJ/CLU) is a glycoprotein that is differentially regulated in various physiological and disease states including ageing and age-related diseases. In vitro data showed that exposure of human diploid fibroblasts to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) resulted in premature senescence and significant upregulation of the ApoJ/CLU protein. In this study we analyzed blood and urine samples from shipyard industry welders being exposed to different levels of Cr(VI) over a period of five months in order to assay in vivo the relation of ApoJ/CLU serum levels with Cr(VI). Our findings confirmed the previously reported in vitro data since reduction of Cr levels, after a worksite intervention, associated with lower levels of ApoJ/CLU serum levels. We concluded that the human ApoJ/CLU gene is responsive to the acute in vivo oxidative stress induced by heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium.
doi:10.1155/2008/420578
PMCID: PMC2366075  PMID: 18464919
14.  Cu(II) and Ni(II) Interactions with the Terminally Blocked Hexapeptide Ac-Leu-Ala-His-Tyr-Asn-Lys-amide Model of Histone H2B (80–85) 
The N- and C-terminal blocked hexapeptide Ac-Leu-Ala-His-Tyr-Asn-Lys-amide (LAHYNK) representing the 80–85 fragment of histone H2B was synthesized and its interactions with Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions were studied by potentiometric, UV-Vis, CD, EPR, and NMR spectroscopic techniques in solution. Our data reveal that the imidazole N(3) nitrogen atom is the primary ligating group for both metal ions. Sequential amide groups deprotonation and subsequent coordination to metal ions indicated an {Nimidazole, 3Namide} coordination mode above pH∼9, in all cases. In the case of Cu(II)-peptide system, the almost exclusive formation of the predominant species CuL in neutral media accounting for almost 98% of the total metal ion concentration at pH 7.3 strongly indicates that at physiological pH values the sequence -LAHYNK- of histone H2B provides very efficient binding sites for metal ions. The imidazole pyrrole N(1) ionization (but not coordination) was also detected in species CuH−4L present in solution above pH ∼ 11.
doi:10.1155/2008/257038
PMCID: PMC2292837  PMID: 18431450
15.  Crystal Structure and Antitumor Activity of the Novel Zwitterionic Complex of tri-n-Butyltin(IV) with 2-Thiobarbituric Acid 
A novel tri-n-butyl(IV) derivative of 2-thiobarbituric acid (HTBA) of formula [(n-Bu)3Sn(TBA) H2O] (1) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and 119Sn-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at 120(2) K. The geometry around Sn(IV) is trigonal bipyramidal. Three n-butyl groups and one oxygen atom from a deprotonated 2-thiobarbituric ligand are bonded to the metal center. The geometry is completed with one oxygen from a water molecule. Compound 1 exhibits potent, in vitro, cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, benzo[a]pyrene) carcinogenesis. In addition, the inhibition caused by 1, in the rate of lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyzed oxidation reaction of linoleic acid to hyperoxolinoleic acid, has been also kinetically and theoretically studied. The results are compared to that of cisplatin.
doi:10.1155/2008/654137
PMCID: PMC2288696  PMID: 18401456
16.  Synthesis, X-Ray Structure, and Characterization of a Complex Containing the Hexakis(urea)cobalt(II) Cation and Lattice Urea Molecules 
The 12: 1 reaction of urea (U) with CoI2 in EtOH yielded the “clathrate-coordination” compound [CoU6]I2·4U (1). The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The lattice constants are a = 9.844(4), b = 7.268(3), c = 24.12(1) Å, and β=98.12(1)∘. The crystal structure determination demonstrates the existence of octahedral [CoU6]2+ cations, I- counterions, and two different types (two U1 and two U2) of hydrogen-bonded, lattice urea molecules. The [CoU6]2+ cations and the U1 lattice molecules form two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded layers which are parallel to the ab plane. The I- anions are placed above and below each layer, and are hydrogen bonded both to U1 molecules and [CoU6]2+ cations. Each U2 molecule is connected to a [CoU6]2+ cation through an N–H⋯O hydrogen bond resulting in a three-dimensional network. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility and spectroscopic (solid-state UV/Vis, IR, Raman) data of 1 are discussed in terms of the nature of bonding and the known structure.
doi:10.1155/2007/51567
PMCID: PMC2235932  PMID: 18288263

Results 1-16 (16)