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1.  Composition and Morphology of Nanocrystals in Urines of Lithogenic Patients and Healthy Persons 
The composition and morphology of nanocrystals in urines of healthy persons and lithogenic patients were comparatively investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that the main composition of urinary nanocrystals in healthy persons were calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid, and ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite). However, the main compositions of urinary nanocrystals in lithogenic patients were struvite, β-tricalcium phosphate, uric acid, COD, and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). According to the XRD data, the size of nanocrystals was calculated to be 23∼72 nm in healthy urine and 12∼118 nm in lithogenic urine by Scherer formula. TEM results showed that the nanocrystals in healthy urine were dispersive and uniform with a mean size of about 38 nm. In contrast, the nanocrystals in lithogenic urine were much aggregated with a mean size of about 55 nm. The results in this work indicated that the urinary stone formation may be prevented by diminishing the aggregation and the size differentiation of urinary nanocrystals by physical or chemical methods.
PMCID: PMC2801016  PMID: 20052395
2.  Synthesis, Novel Crystal Structure, and β-Amyloid Binding Property of Re(I) (tricarbonyl)+ EHIDA Analogue 
A neutral compound Re(CO)3(L) (L: 2-((2-(2,6-diethylphenylamino)-2-oxoethyl)(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)amino)acetic acid, an IDA analogue) has been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro imaging probes of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates. Results of X-ray measurement of Re(CO)3(L) demonstrated that the coordination mode of Re(CO)3(L) was different from that of classical Re/Tc(I) (tricarbonyl)-IDA analogues; the structure of Re(CO)3(L) was confirmed by means of infrared spectrum, HPLC-UV, TOF MS, and X-ray measurements (Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre number is 732731): monoclinic P21/c, a = 15.6636 (12) Å, b = 10.9360 (8) Å, c = 27.756 (2) Å, α = 90.000 (0)°, β = 90.783 (5)°, γ = 90.000 (0)°, and Z = 8. The binding affinity for β-amyloid plaques was assessed by in vitro binding assay using preformed synthetic Aβ(1–40) aggregates. The neutral compound Re(CO)3(L) showed binding affinity to Aβ aggregates at micromolar level by fluorescence spectroscopy, and this work will encourage for further exploration of imaging agents labeled by 99mTc(CO)3+ center as probes for β-amyloid plaques in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2774486  PMID: 19911063
3.  Synthesis and Characterization of New Schiff Bases Derived from N (1)-Substituted Isatin with Dithiooxamide and Their Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) Complexes 
Three new Schiff bases of N-substituted isatin LI, LII, and LIII = Schiff base of N-acetylisatin, N-benzylisatin, and N-benzoylisatin, respectively, and their metal complexes C1a,b = [Co2(LI)2Cl3]Cl, C2 = [Ni(LI)2Cl2]0.4BuOH, C3 = [CuLICl(H2O)]Cl ⋅ 0.5BuOH, C4 = [Pd(LI)2Cl]Cl, C5 = [Pt(L1)2Cl2]Cl2 ⋅ 1.8EtOH.H2O, C6a = [CoLIICl]Cl ⋅ 0.4H2O ⋅ 0.3DMSO, C6b = [CoLIICl]Cl ⋅ 0.3H2O ⋅ 0.1BuOH, C7 = [NiLIICl2], C8 = [CuLII]Cl2 ⋅ H2O , C9 = [Pd(LII)2]Cl2, C10 = [Pt(LII)2.5Cl]Cl3, C11a = [Co(LIII)]C12 ⋅ H2O, C11b = [Co(LIII)]Cl2 ⋅ 0.2H2O, and C12 = [Ni(LIII)2]Cl2, C13 = [Ni(LIII)2]Cl2 were reported. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, metal and chloride content, spectroscopic methods, magnetic moments, conductivity measurements, and thermal studies. Some of these compounds were tested as antibacterial and antifungal agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger.
PMCID: PMC2766752  PMID: 19865487
4.  Synthesis, Cytotoxic Activity, and DNA Binding Properties of Copper (II) Complexes with Hesperetin, Naringenin, and Apigenin 
Complexes of copper (II) with hesperetin, naringenin, and apigenin of general composition [CuL2(H2O)2] ⋅ nH2O (1–3) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis, FT-IR, ESI-MS, and TG-DTG thermal analysis. The free ligands and the metal complexes have been tested in vitro against human cancer cell lines hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2), gastric carcinomas (SGC-7901), and cervical carcinoma (HeLa). Complexes 1 and 3 were found to exhibit growth inhibition of SGC-7901 and HepG2 cell lines with respect to the free ligands; the inhibitory rate of complex 1 is 43.2% and 43.8%, while complex 3 is 46% and 36%, respectively. The interactions of complex 1 and its ligand Hsp with calf thymus DNA were investigated by UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD spectra. Both complex 1 and Hsp were found to bind DNA in intercalation modes, and the binding affinity of complex 1 was stronger than that of free ligand.
PMCID: PMC2760321  PMID: 19830248
5.  Fine Structures of 8-G-1-(p-YC6H4C ≡ CSe)C10H6 (G = H, Cl, and Br) in Crystals and Solutions: Ethynyl Influence and Y- and G-Dependences 
Fine structures of 8-G-1-(p-YC6H4C ≡ CSe)C10H6 [1 (G = H) and 2 (G = Cl): Y = H (a), OMe (b), Me (c), F (d), Cl (e), CN (f), and NO2 (g)] are determined by the X-ray analysis. Structures of 1, 2, and 3 (G = Br) are called A if each Se–Csp bond is perpendicular to the naphthyl plane, whereas they are B when the bond is placed on the plane. Structures are observed as A for 1a–c bearing Y of nonacceptors, whereas they are B for 1e–g with Y of strong acceptors. The change in the structures of 1e–g versus those of 1a–c is called Y-dependence in 1. The Y-dependence is very specific in 1 relative to 1-(p-YC6H4Se)C10H7 (4) due to the ethynyl group: the Y-dependence in 1 is almost inverse to the case of 4 due to the ethynyl group. We call the specific effect “Ethynyl Influence.” Structures of 2 are observed as B: the A-type structure of 1b changes dramatically to B of 2b by G = Cl at the 8-position, which is called G-dependence. The structures of 2 and 3 are examined in solutions based on the NMR parameters.
PMCID: PMC2753799  PMID: 19809512
6.  Effect of Poly (Sodium 4-Styrene Sulfonate) on the Morphology of Hydroxyapatite Particles 
Nanorods hydroxyapatite, (HAP) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 is successfully prepared by water in oil microemulsion using, CaCL2 and H3PO4 (water phase), poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSSS) as template and cyclohexane as oil phase. The nano-structure of the product was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). With this system, we could synthesize nano-particles of hydroxyapatite with high crystallinity and least agglomeration.
PMCID: PMC2745000  PMID: 19763237
7.  Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Copper(II) and Iron(III) Complexes of Folic Acid and Their Absorption Efficiency in the Blood 
The absorption efficiency of any drug in blood is of prime importance. Compounds having the general formula: Kn[M(FO)2(H2O)2] · xH2O, where (M = Cu(II) or Fe(III), n = 2 or 1, FO = folate anion, x = 2 or 3 with respect), were prepared, and their absorption efficiency in rodent's blood was determined. The obtained compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared as well as thermogravimetric analysis and polarization of light. The results suggest that the two folate complexes were formed in 1 : 2 molar ratio (metal : folic acid) which acted as a bidentate ligand through both carboxylic groups. Polarization of light proved that the folate complexes have symmetric geometry. Biological application proved that Cu(II) and Fe(III) complexes were absorbed more efficiently in rodent blood than folic acid itself.
PMCID: PMC2738859  PMID: 19746175
8.  Equilibrium and Kinetic Investigations of the Interaction of Model Platinum(II) Complex with DNA Constituents in Reference to the Antitumour Activity: Complex-Formation Reactions of [Pd(N,N-diethylethylenediamine)(H2O)2]2+ with Ligands of Biological Significance and Displacement Reactions of DNA Constituents 
The [Pd(DEEN)Cl2] and [Pt(DEEN)Cl2] complexes were synthesized and characterized where DEEN = N,N-diethylethylenediamine. The stoichiometry and stability of the complexes formed between various biologically relevant ligands (amino acids, peptides, DNA constituents and dicarboxylic acids) and [Pd(DEEN)(H2O)2]2+ were investigated at 37°C and 0.16 M ionic strength. The stability constant of the complexes formed in solution were determined and the binding centres of the ligands were assigned. The concentration distribution diagrams of the complexes were evaluated The equilibrium constants for the displacement of representative coordinated ligands such as inosine, glycine or methionine by cysteine were calculated and the concentration distribution diagrams of the various species were evaluated. The kinetics of base hydrolysis of free and coordinated S-methylcysteine methyl ester was investigated. The mechanism of hydrolysis was discussed.
PMCID: PMC2727661  PMID: 19696935
9.  Divalent Cu, Cd, and Pb Biosorption in Mixed Solvents 
Dead dried Chlorella vulgaris was studied in terms of its performance in binding divalent copper, cadmium, and lead ions from their aqueous or 50% v/v methanol, ethanol, and acetone solutions. The percentage uptake of cadmium ions exhibited a general decrease with decrease in dielectric constant values, while that of copper and lead ions showed a general decrease with increase in donor numbers. Uptake percentage becomes less sensitive to solvent properties the larger the atomic radius of the biosorbed ion, and uptake of copper was the most affected. FT-IR analyses revealed stability of the biomass in mixed solvents and a shift in vibrations of amide(I) and (II), carboxylate, glucose ring, and metal oxygen upon metal binding in all media. ΔνCOO values (59–69 cm−1) confirmed bidentate metal coordination to carboxylate ligands. The value of νasCOO increased slightly upon Cu, Cd, and Pb biosorption from aqueous solutions indicating lowering of symmetry, while a general decrease was noticed in mixed solvents pointing to the opposite. M–O stretching frequencies increased unexpectedly with increase in atomic mass as a result of solvent effect on the nature of binding sites. Lowering polarity of the solvent permits variations in metal-alga bonds strengths; the smaller the metal ion, the more affected.
PMCID: PMC2726428  PMID: 19688108
10.  Analysis of One-Bond Se-Se Nuclear Couplings in Diselenides and 1,2-Diselenoles on the Basis of Molecular Orbital Theory: Torsional Angular Dependence, Electron Density Influence, and Origin in 1J(Se, Se) 
Nuclear couplings for the Se-Se bonds, 1J(Se, Se), are analyzed on the basis of the molecular orbital (MO) theory. The values are calculated by employing the triple ζ basis sets of the Slater type at the DFT level. 1J(Se, Se) are calculated modeled by MeSeSeMe (1a), which shows the typical torsional angular dependence on ϕ(CMeSeSeCMe). The dependence explains well the observed 1Jobsd (Se, Se) of small values (≤ 64 Hz) for RSeSeR′ (1) (simple derivatives of 1a) and large values (330–380 Hz) observed for 4-substituted naphto[1,8-c, d]-1,2-diselenoles (2) which correspond to symperiplanar diselenides. 1J (Se, Se: 2) becomes larger as the electron density on Se increases. The paramagnetic spin-orbit terms contribute predominantly. The contributions are evaluated separately from each MO (ψi) and each ψi → ψa transition, where ψi and ψa are occupied and unoccupied MO's, respectively. The separate evaluation enables us to recognize and visualize the origin and the mechanism of the couplings.
PMCID: PMC2723728  PMID: 19680451
11.  Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Enoxacin Metal Complexes 
The present work comprises the synthesis of enoxacin (Heno) complexes with various transition metals. Two types of complexes [M(eno)2(H2O)2]3H2O(M = CuII, NiII or MnII) and [M(eno)(H2O)2]Cl · 4H2O (M = FeIII) were obtained. The complexes were characterized by different physicochemical, spectroscopic, and elemental analysis. Results suggest that enoxacin interacts with the metals as a monoanionic bidentate ligand. These complexes were also tested for their antibacterial activity against eleven (11) different microorganisms, and the results were compared with the parent drug. Moreover all the metal complexes were also tested for their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species where by MnII and CuII complexes exhibited potential to mediate anti-inflammatory response.
PMCID: PMC2719789  PMID: 19657456
12.  Sequestration of Alkyltin(IV) Compounds in Aqueous Solution: Formation, Stability, and Empirical Relationships for the Binding of Dimethyltin(IV) Cation by N- and O-Donor Ligands 
The sequestering ability of polyamines and aminoacids of biological and environmental relevance (namely, ethylenediamine, putrescine, spermine, a polyallylamine, a branched polyethyleneimine, aspartate, glycinate, lysinate) toward dimethyltin(IV) cation was evaluated. The stability of various dimethyltin(IV) / ligand species was determined in NaClaq at t = 25°C and at different ionic strengths (0.1 ≤ I/mol L−1 ≤ 1.0), and the dependence of stability constants on this parameter was modeled by an Extended Debye-Hückel equation and by Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT) approach. At I = 0.1 mol L−1, for the ML species we have log K = 10.8, 14.2, 12.0, 14.7, 11.9, 7.7, 13.7, and 8.0 for ethylenediamine, putrescine, polyallylamine, spermine, polyethyleneimine, glycinate, lysinate, and aspartate, respectively. The sequestering ability toward dimethyltin(IV) cation was defined by calculating the parameter pL50 (the total ligand concentration, as −log CL, able to bind 50% of metal cation), able to give an objective representation of this ability. Equations were formulated to model the dependence of pL50 on different variables, such as ionic strength and pH, and other empirical predictive relationships were also found.
PMCID: PMC2706388  PMID: 19590597
13.  Synthesis and Characterization of bis[(2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazo-4-yl)methyl]Sulfide and Its Coordination Behavior toward Cu(II) as a Possible Approach of a Copper Site Type I 
The synthesis and characterization of a novel ligand, bis[(2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazo-4-yl)methyl]sulfide (bemims), as well as a bemims-containing copper(II) coordination complex are described. In this complex, [Cu(bemims)X2] with X = NO3−, bemims acts as a tridentate ligand and two monodentate nitrate ions complete the coordination sphere. Both imidazole N atoms and the thioether S atom of bemims participate in coordination. The Cu(II) ion is five-coordinated with a slightly distorted square-pyramidal geometry (τ = .09). Electrochemical studies and spectroscopic data for this complex are compared with some blue copper proteins in order to assess its ability to mimic the copper center of type I copper proteins.
PMCID: PMC2705856  PMID: 19587830
14.  Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity Studies of Copper(II) Mixed Compound with Histamine and Nalidixic Acid 
A mixed copper complex with deprotonated nalidixic acid (nal) and histamine (hsm) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and conductivity. The crystal structure of [Cu(hsm)(nal)H2O]Cl·3H2O (chn) showed a pentacoordinated cooper(II) in a square pyramidal geometry surrounded by two N atoms from hsm, two O atoms from the quinolone, and one apical water oxygen. Alteration of bacterial DNA structure and/or associated functions in vivo by [Cu(hsm)(nal)H2O]Cl·3H2O was demonstrated by the induction of a recA-lacZ fusion integrated at the amyE locus of a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain. Results from circular dichroism and denaturation of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) suggested that increased amounts of copper complex were able to stabilize the double helix of DNA in vitro mainly by formation of hydrogen bonds between chn and the sugars of DNA minor groove. In vivo and in vitro biological activities of the chn complex were compared with the chemical nuclease [Cu(phen)(nal)H2O]NO3 · 3H2O (cpn) where phen is phenanthroline.
PMCID: PMC2699492  PMID: 19557138
15.  Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Organogermanium Sesquioxides As Antitumor Agents 
Five new organogermanium sesquioxides have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. All the compounds were tested for antitumor activities against KB, HCT, and Bel cells in vitro. Compound 5 (γ-thiocarbamido propyl germanium sesquioxide) showed excellent antitumor activity, and its inhibition yield to KB, HCT, and Bel cells was 92.9%, 84.9%, and 70.9%, respectively. A rapid method was described for the labeling compound 5 with 99mTc, and the optimum labeling conditions were investigated. The labeling yield is above 90% in pH 7.0, 20°C, reaction time greater than 10 minutes, 1 mg of compound 5, and 0.075∼0.1 mg of SnCl2. The biodistribution of 99mTc labeled compound 5 in nude mice bearing human colonic xenografts was studied. The result showed that the tumor uptakes were 0.73, 0.97, 0.87, and 0.62 ID%/g at 1-hour, 3-hour, 6-hour, and 20-hour postinjection, respectively. T/NT (the uptake ratio for per gram of tumor over normal tissues) was 18.3 for tumor versus brain and 5.81 for tumor versus muscle at 20-hour postinjection. The tumor clearance was slow. The results showed that compound 5 may be developed to be a suitable cancer therapeutic agent.
PMCID: PMC2695949  PMID: 19753138
16.  Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Antimicrobial Studies on Bivalent Zinc and Mercury Complexes of 2-Formylpyridine Thiosemicarbazone 
A series of metal complexes of Zn(II) and Hg(II) having the general composition [M(L)2]X2 [where L = 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazone; M = Zn(II) and Hg(II); X = Cl−, NO3− and 1/2SO42−] have been prepared and characterized by elemental chemical analysis, molar conductance, and spectral (IR and mass) studies. The IR spectral data suggests the involvement of sulphur and azomethane nitrogen in coordination to the central metal ion. On the basis of spectral studies, a tetrahedral geometry has been assigned for Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes. The free ligand and its metal complexes have been tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms in order to assess their antimicrobial properties.
PMCID: PMC2676323  PMID: 19421419
17.  Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of Organotin(IV) Derivatives with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic Acids 
Organotin(IV) complexes with o- or p-hydroxybenzoic acids (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) of formulae [R2Sn(HL)2] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = Me- (1), n-Bu- (2)); [R3Sn(HL)] (where H2L = o-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (3), Ph- (4) or H2L = p-H2BZA and R = n-Bu- (5), Ph- (6)) were synthesized by reacting a methanolic solution of di- and triorganotin(IV) compounds with an aqueous solution of the ligand (o-H2BZA or p-H2BZA) containing equimolar amounts of potassium hydroxide. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, Far-IR, TGA-DTA, FT-Raman, Mössbauer spectroscopy, 1H, 119Sn-NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1 and 2 have also been determined. Finally, the influence of these complexes 1–6 upon the catalytic peroxidation of linoleic acid to hydroperoxylinoleic acid by the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) was kinetically studied and the results showed that triorganotin(IV) complex 6 has the lowest IC50 value. Also complexes 1–6 were studied for their in vitro cytotoxicity against sarcoma cancer cells (mesenchymal tissue) from the Wistar rat, and the results showed that the complexes have high activity against these cell lines with triphenyltin((IV) complex 4 to be the most active one.
PMCID: PMC2669538  PMID: 19390627
18.  The First Metal Complexes of 4,6-diamino-1-hydro-5-hydroxy-pyrimidine-2-thione: Preparation, Physical and Spectroscopic Studies, and Preliminary Antimicrobial Properties 
The new complexes [M2O5L2(H2O)2] · H2O (M = Mo, 1; M = W, 2), [RuL2(H2O)2] · H2O (3), [ML3] · xH2O (M = Rh, x = 2, 4; M = Ir, x = 1, 5), [RhL2(PPh3)2](ClO4) · 2H2O (6), [PdL2] · 2H2O (7), [PdL(phen)]Cl · H2O (8), [Re OL2(PPh3)]Cl (9) and [UO2L2] (10) are reported, where LH is 4,6-diamino-1-hydro-5-hydroxy-pyrimidine-2-thione. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, physical techniques (molar conductivity, room-temperature magnetic susceptibility), and spectroscopic (IR, Raman, UV/VIS/ligand field, NMR, mass) methods. The ligand L− is in its thione form and behaves as a bidentate chelate with the deprotonated (hydroxyl) oxygen and the nitrogen of one amino group as donor atoms. Oxobridged dinuclear (1, 2) and various mononuclear (3–10) structures are assigned for the complexes in the solid state. The metal ion coordination geometries are octahedral (1–6, 9, 10) or square planar (7, 8). The free ligand LH and complexes 1, 4, 7, and 8 were assayed in vitro for antimicrobial activity against two bacterial and two fungal cultures.
PMCID: PMC2659754  PMID: 19325921
19.  Reaction of Chromium(III) with 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid: Kinetics and Mechanism in Weak Acidic Aqueous Solutions 
The interactions between chromium(III) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) were studied resulting in the formation of oxygen-bonded complexes upon substitution of water molecules in the chromium(III) coordination sphere. The experimental results show that the reaction takes place in at least three stages, involving various intermediates. The first stage was found to be linearly dependent on ligand concentration k1(obs)′ = k0 + k1(obs)[3, 4-DHBA], and the corresponding activation parameters were calculated as follows: ΔH1(obs)≠ = 51.2 ± 11.5 kJ mol−1, ΔS1(obs)≠ = −97.3 ± 28.9 J mol−1 K−1 (composite activation parameters) . The second and third stages, which are kinetically indistinguishable, do not depend on the concentrations of ligand and chromium(III), accounting for isomerization and chelation processes, respectively. The corresponding activation parameters are ΔH2(obs)≠ = 44.5 ± 5.0 kJ mol−1, ΔS2(obs)≠ = −175.8 ± 70.3 J mol−1 K−1. The observed stages are proposed to proceed via interchange dissociative (Id, first stage) and associative (second and third stages) mechanisms. The reactions are accompanied by proton release, as is shown by the pH decrease.
PMCID: PMC2635946  PMID: 19223961
20.  Coordination Behavior of 3-Ethoxycarbonyltetronic Acid towards Cu(II) and Co(II) Metal Ions 
Tetronic acids, 4-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-ones, constitute a class of heterocyclic compounds with potent biological and pharmacological activity. The β, β′-tricarbonyl moiety plays an integral role in biological systems and forms a variety of metal complexes. In this report, we present the complexation reactions of 3-ethoxycarbonyl tetronic acids with acetates and chlorides of Cu(II) and Co(II). These complexes have been studied by means of EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. From the obtained results, a preliminary complexation mode of the ligand is proposed.
PMCID: PMC2635475  PMID: 19197392
21.  Antitumor Activity of 6-(cyclohexylamino)-1, 3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and Its Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) Complexes on K562 and Jurkat Cell Lines 
(6-(cyclohexylamino)-1,3-dimethyl-5(2-pyridyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) abbreviated as CDP was synthesized and characterized. Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) metal complexes of this ligand are prepared by the reaction of salts of Ti(IV), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Pd(II) with CDP in acetonitrile. Characterization of the ligand and its complexes was made by microanalyses, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. All complexes were characterized by several techniques using elemental analysis (C, H, N), FT-IR, electronic spectra, and molar conductance measurements. The elemental analysis data suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:1 [M:L] ratio formation. The molar conductance measurements reveal the presence of 1:1 electrolytic nature complexes. These new complexes showed excellent antitumor activity against two kinds of cancer cells that are K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cells and Jurkat (human T lymphocyte carcinoma) cells.
PMCID: PMC2630454  PMID: 19190768
22.  Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities of Benzaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives and Their Palladium (II) and Platinum (II) Complexes against Various Human Tumor Cell Lines 
The palladium (II) bis-chelate Pd (L1−3)2 and platinum (II) tetranuclear Pt4(L4)4 complexes of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized, and characterized by elemental analysis and IR, FAB(+)-mass and NMR (1H, 13C) spectroscopy. The complex Pd(L2)2 [HL2 = m-CN-benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone] shows a square-planar geometry with two deprotonated ligands (L) coordinated to PdII through the nitrogen and sulphur atoms in a transarrangement, while the complex Pt4(L4)4 [HL4 = 4-phenyl-1-benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone] has a tetranuclear geometry with four tridentate ligands coordinated to four PtII ions through the carbon (aromatic ring), nitrogen, and sulphur atoms where the ligands are deprotonated at the NH group. The in vitro antitumor activity of the ligands and their complexes was determined against different human tumor cell lines, which revealed that the palladium (II) and platinum (II) complexes are more cytotoxic than their ligands with IC50 values at the range of 0.07–3.67 μM. The tetranuclear complex Pt4(L4)4, with the phenyl group in the terminal amine of the ligand, showed higher antiproliferative activity (CI50 = 0.07–0.12 μM) than the other tested palladium (II) complexes.
PMCID: PMC2615113  PMID: 19148285

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