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1.  DNA Interaction and DNA Cleavage Studies of a New Platinum(II) Complex Containing Aliphatic and Aromatic Dinitrogen Ligands 
A new Pt(II) complex, [Pt(DIP)(LL)](NO3)2 (in which DIP is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and LL is the aliphatic dinitrogen ligand, N,N-dimethyl-trimethylenediamine), was synthesized and characterized using different physico-chemical methods. The interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by absorption, emission, circular dichroism (CD), and viscosity measurements. The complex binds to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode. The calculated binding constant, Kb, was 6.6 × 104 M−1. The enthalpy and entropy changes of the reaction between the complex and CT-DNA showed that the van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are the main forces in the interaction with CT-DNA. In addition, CD study showed that phenanthroline ligand insert between the base pair stack of double helical structure of DNA. It is remarkable that this complex has the ability to cleave the supercoiled plasmid.
PMCID: PMC3253441  PMID: 22235195
2.  Dynamic Mechanical Response of Biomedical 316L Stainless Steel as Function of Strain Rate and Temperature 
A split Hopkinson pressure bar is used to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of biomedical 316L stainless steel under strain rates ranging from 1 × 103 s−1 to 5 × 103 s−1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The results indicate that the flow stress, work-hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal activation energy are all significantly dependent on the strain, strain rate, and temperature. For a constant temperature, the flow stress, work-hardening rate, and strain rate sensitivity increase with increasing strain rate, while the thermal activation energy decreases. Catastrophic failure occurs only for the specimens deformed at a strain rate of 5 × 103 s−1 and temperatures of 25°C or 200°C. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the specimens fracture in a ductile shear mode. Optical microscopy analyses reveal that the number of slip bands within the grains increases with an increasing strain rate. Moreover, a dynamic recrystallisation of the deformed microstructure is observed in the specimens tested at the highest temperature of 800°C.
PMCID: PMC3246303  PMID: 22216015
3.  Metal-Based Biologically Active Compounds: Synthesis, Spectral, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes of Triazole-Derived Schiff Bases 
A series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was supported by infrared and thermal gravimetric studies. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus). The metal complexes exhibited significantly enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to their simple Schiff bases.
PMCID: PMC3246298  PMID: 22216017
4.  DNA Interaction Studies of a New Platinum(II) Complex Containing Different Aromatic Dinitrogen Ligands 
A new mononuclear Pt(II) complex, [Pt(DMP)(DIP)]Cl2.H2O, in which DMP is 4,4-dimethyl-2,2-bipyridine and DIP is 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline, has been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism, viscosimetry and cyclic voltametry (CV). UV-VIS spectrum showed 4 nm bathochromic shift of the absorption band at 280 nm along with significant hypochromicity for the absorption band of the complex. The intrnisic binding constant (Kb = 2 × 104 M−1) is more in keeping with intercalators and suggests this binding mode. The viscosity measurements showed that the complex-DNA interaction can be hydrophobic and confirm intercalation. Moreover, the complex induced detectable changes in the CD spectrum of CT-DNA. The fluorescence studies revealed that the probable quenching mechanism of fluorescence of the complex by CT-DNA is static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH > 0 and ΔS > 0) showed that main interaction with hydrogenic forces occurred that is intercalation mode. Also, CV results confirm this mode because, with increasing the CT-DNA concentration, shift to higher potential was observed.
PMCID: PMC3246310  PMID: 22216016
5.  Photo-Irradiated Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Edible Mushroom Pleurotus florida and Their Antibacterial Activity Studies 
This is a report on photo-irradiated extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as a reducing agent. The appearance, size, and shape of the silver nanoparticles are understood by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicate that particles are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the nanoparticles are covered with biomoieties on their surface. As can be seen from our studies, the biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles thus produced have shown admirable antimicrobial effects, and the synthetic procedure involved is eco-friendly and simple, and hence high range production of the same can be considered for using them in many pharmaceutical applications.
PMCID: PMC3235432  PMID: 22190895
6.  Analysis of the Release Characteristics of Cu-Treated Antimicrobial Implant Surfaces Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 
New developments of antimicrobial implant surfaces doped with copper (Cu) ions may minimize the risk of implant-associated infections. However, experimental evaluation of the Cu release is influenced by various test parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Cu release characteristics in vitro according to the storage fluid and surface roughness. Plasma immersion ion implantation of Cu (Cu-PIII) and pulsed magnetron sputtering process of a titanium copper film (Ti-Cu) were applied to titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) samples with different surface finishing of the implant material (polished, hydroxyapatite and corundum blasted). The samples were submersed into either double-distilled water, human serum, or cell culture medium. Subsequently, the Cu concentration in the supernatant was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. The test fluid as well as the surface roughness can alter the Cu release significantly, whereby the highest Cu release was determined for samples with corundum-blasted surfaces stored in cell medium.
PMCID: PMC3228349  PMID: 22162672
7.  Structure and Properties of La2O3-TiO2 Nanocomposite Films for Biomedical Applications 
The hemocompatibility of La2O3-doped TiO2 films with different concentration prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering was studied. The microstructures and blood compatibility of TiO2 films were investigated by scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, respectively. With the increasing of the La2O3 concentrations, the TiO2 films become smooth, and the grain size becomes smaller. Meanwhile, the band gap of the samples increases from 2.85 to 3.3 eV with increasing of the La2O3 content in TiO2 films from 0 to 3.64%. La2O3-doped TiO2 films exhibit n-type semiconductor properties due to the existence of Ti2+ and Ti3+. The mechanism of hemocompatibility of TiO2 film doped with La2O3 was analyzed and discussed.
PMCID: PMC3227374  PMID: 22162671
8.  Synthesis and Characterization of the Ligand Based on Benzimidazole and Its Copper Complex: DNA Binding and Antioxidant Activity 
A new copper(II) complex with formulae of [Cu(buobb)2](pic)2, where buobb stands for the ligand of 1,3-bis(1- butylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxopropane and pic represents 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, IR, UV-Vis spectra measurements, and cyclic voltammetry. The crystal structure of the copper(II) complex has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The coordination environment around each copper(II) atom can be described as a distorted octahedral geometry. The π-π stacking interactions link the copper(II) complex into a 1D infinite network. The interactions of the ligand and the copper(II) complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) are investigated by using electronic absorption titration, ethidium bromide-DNA displacement experiments, and viscosity measurements. Additionally, the copper(II) complex's antioxidant properties have been investigated in vitro.
PMCID: PMC3226424  PMID: 22162669
9.  Coal Depolymerising Activity and Haloperoxidase Activity of Mn Peroxidase from Fomes durissimus MTCC-1173 
Mn peroxidase has been purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of a new fungal strain Fomes durissimus MTCC-1173 using concentration by ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme has been found to be 42.0 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. The Km values using MnSO4 and H2O2 as the variable substrates in 50 mM lactic acid-sodium lactate buffer pH 4.5 at 30°C were 59 μM and 32 μM, respectively. The catalytic rate constants using MnSO4 and H2O2 were 22.4 s−1 and 14.0 s−1, respectively, giving the values of kcat/Km 0.38 μM−1s−1 and 0.44 μM−1s−1, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of the Mn peroxidase were 4 and 26°C, respectively. The purified MnP depolymerises humic acid in presence of H2O2. The purified Mn peroxidase exhibits haloperoxidase activity at low pH.
PMCID: PMC3227415  PMID: 22162670
10.  The Bioactivated Interfacial Behavior of the Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite-Coated Mg-Zn Alloy in Cell Culture Environments 
A partially fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite- (FHA-) coated Mg-Zn alloy was prepared to investigate the interfacial behavior of degradable Mg-based biomaterials with degradable bioactive coatings in a cell culture environment. Peaks from the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) were characterized and compared before and after cell culture. It was found that Ca-P, including poorly crystalline ion-substituted Ca-deficient HA (CDHA), was formed in greater amounts on the interface of coated samples compared with the uncoated ones. A thermodynamic mechanism for Ca-P formation on biodegradable Mg alloys in a cell culture environment is proposed. Combined with improved cell calcification, the-FHA coated Mg alloys have the ability to promote CDHA formation, as expected thermodynamically. It is suggested that the specific cell culture environment and the bone-like FHA coatings together facilitate the observed behavior. Moreover, cell culture environment probably increased the biomineralization to a detectable level by affecting the kinetics of apatite formation.
PMCID: PMC3226327  PMID: 22174700
11.  DNA Binding and Antitumor Activity of α-Diimineplatinum(II) and Palladium(II) Dithiocarbamate Complexes 
The two water-soluble designed platinum(II) complex, [Pt(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3 (Oct-dtc = Octyldithiocarbamate and bpy = 2,2′ -bipyridine) and palladium(II) complex, [Pd(Oct-dtc)(bpy)]NO3, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements, IR, 1H NMR, and electronic spectra studies. Studies of antitumor activity of these complexes against human cell tumor lines (K562) have been carried out. They show Ic50 values lower than that of cisplatin. The complexes have been investigated for their interaction with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by utilizing the electronic absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, and ethidium bromide displacement and gel filtration techniques. Both of these water-soluble complexes bound cooperatively and intercalatively to the CT-DNA at very low concentrations. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described.
PMCID: PMC3205611  PMID: 22110410
12.  Identification of Binding Mode of a Platinum (II) Complex, PtCl2(DIP), and Calf Thymus DNA 
The Pt(II) complex, PtCl2(DIP) (DIP = chelating dinitrogen ligand: 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN) and 1H NMR and UV-vis techniques. The binding of this complex to calf thymus DNA was investigated using various physicochemical methods such as spectrophotometric, circular dichroism, spectrofluorometric, melting temperature, and viscosimetric techniques. Upon addition of the complex, important changes were observed in the characteristic UV-Vis bands (hyperchromism) of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA): increase in melting temperature, sharp increase in specific viscosity of DNA, and induced CD spectral changes. Also the fluorescence spectral characteristics and interaction of Pt complex with DNA have been studied. Pt bound to DNA showed a marked decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The results show that both the complex and the NR molecules can intercalate competitively into the DNA double-helix structure. The experimental results show that the mode of binding of the this complex to DNA is classical intercalation.
PMCID: PMC3202101  PMID: 22110411
13.  Antioxidant Activities of Plumbagin and Its Cu (II) Complex 
Plumbagin and its Cu (II) complex [Cu (plumbagin)2]·H2O have been synthesized, and their antioxidant activities towards the inhibitory effect on DPPH free radical, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, and inhibition on lipid peroxidation were investigated. Plumbagin and its Cu (II) complex were found to exhibit scavenging activities on DPPH radical with the inhibitory rate of 41% and 24%, respectively. The reducing power of plumbagin was outstanding at the concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL, compared to Cu (II) complex and synthetic antioxidant 2,6-di-ter-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT); the highest level reached 1.333 for plumbagin and 0.581 for Cu (II) complex. Also, the inhibition on lipid peroxidation of plumbagin was higher than that of Cu (II) complex and BHT, 46.4% for plumbagin and 24.5% for Cu (II) complex. The results give a strong impact for designing anticancer drugs, combined with their potential cytotoxic and antioxidant activities, which can be targeted selectively against cancer cells and increase their therapeutic index and additional advantages over other anticancer drugs.
PMCID: PMC3199187  PMID: 22046145
14.  Impact of Vanadium Complexes Treatment on the Oxidative Stress Factors in Wistar Rats Plasma 
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of vanadium complexes on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (Chol), uric acid (UA), urea (U), and antioxidant parameters: nonenzymatic (FRAP—ferric reducing ability of plasma, and reduced glutathione—GSH) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase—GPx, catalase—CAT, and GPx/CAT ratio) activity in the plasma of healthy male Wistar rats. Three vanadium complexes: [VO(bpy)2]SO4·2H2O, [VO(4,4′Me2bpy)2]SO4·2H2O, and Na[VO(O2)2(bpy)]·8H2O are administered by gavage during 5 weeks in two different diets such as control (C) and high fatty (F) diets. Changes of biochemical and antioxidants parameters are measured in plasma. All three vanadium complexes statistically decrease the body mass growth in comparison to the control and fatty diet. In plasma GSH was statistically increased in all vanadium complexes-treated rats from control and fatty group in comparison to only control group. Calculated GPX/CAT ratio was the highest in the control group in comparison to others.
PMCID: PMC3191738  PMID: 22007153
15.  Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Spectra Properties of the Cadmium (II) Complex with Bis(N-allylbenzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)benzylamine 
A novel complex of cadmium (II) picrate (pic) with V-shaped ligand bis(N-allylbenzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)benzylamine (babb), with composition [Cd(babb)2](pic)2, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses and electrical conductivity, IR, and UV/visible spectra. The crystal structure of the complex has been determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the complex, the coordination sphere around Cd (II) is distorted octahedral, six nitrogen atoms involved in coordination afforded by two tridentate ligand babb. Moreover, The DNA-binding properties of the ligand babb and Cd (II) complex were investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements, and the results suggest that they bind to DNA via an intercalation binding mode, and the Cd (II) complex shows higher affinity than the ligand.
PMCID: PMC3189465  PMID: 22007154
16.  DNA-Platinum Thin Films for Use in Chemoradiation Therapy Studies 
Dry films of platinum chemotherapeutic drugs covalently bound to plasmid DNA (Pt-DNA) represent a useful experimental model to investigate direct effects of radiation on DNA in close proximity to platinum chemotherapeutic agents, a situation of considerable relevance to understand the mechanisms underlying concomitant chemoradiation therapy. In the present paper we determine the optimum conditions for preparation of Pt-DNA films for use in irradiation experiments. Incubation conditions for DNA platination reactions have a substantial effect on the structure of Pt-DNA in the films. The quantity of Pt bound to DNA as a function of incubation time and temperature is measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Our experiments indicate that chemical instability and damage to DNA in Pt-DNA samples increase when DNA platination occurs at 37°C for 24 hours, the condition which has been extensively used for in vitro studies. Platination of DNA for the formation of Pt-DNA films is optimal at room temperature for reaction times less than 2 hours. By increasing the concentration of Pt compounds relative to DNA and thus accelerating the rate of their mutual binding, it is possible to prepare Pt-DNA samples containing known concentrations of Pt while reducing DNA degradation caused by more lengthy procedures.
PMCID: PMC3184495  PMID: 21977010
17.  Role of Superoxide Anions in the Redox Changes Affecting the Physiologically Occurring Cu(I)-Glutathione Complex 
The physiologically occurring copper-glutathione complex, [Cu(I)-[GSH]2], has the ability to react continually with oxygen, generating superoxide anions (O2∙−). We addressed here the effects that superoxide removal has on the redox state of Cu(I) and GSH present in such complex and assessed the formation of Cu(II)-GSSG as a final oxidation product. In addition, we investigated the potential of a source of O2∙− external to the Cu(I)-[GSH]2 complex to prevent its oxidation. Removal of O2∙− from a Cu(I)-[GSH]2-containing solution, whether spontaneous or Tempol-induced, led to time-dependent losses in GSH that were greater than those affecting the metal. The losses in GSH were not accompanied by increments in GSSG but were largely accounted for by the cumulative formation of Cu(II)-GSSG molecules. Notably, the redox changes in Cu(I) and GSH were totally prevented when Cu(I)-[GSH]2 was coincubated with hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase. Data suggest that the generation of O2∙− by Cu(I)-[GSH]2 implies the obliged formation of an intermediate whose subsequent oxidation into Cu(II)-GSSG or back reduction into Cu(I)-[GSH]2 is favoured by either the removal or the addition of O2∙−, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3176429  PMID: 21941464
18.  Biosynthesis of Crystalline Silver and Gold Nanoparticles by Extremophilic Yeasts 
The biosynthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using an extremophilic yeast strain isolated from acid mine drainage in Portugal. Three distinct studies were performed, namely, the growth of yeast strain in presence of metal ions, the use of yeast biomass for the metal nanoparticles synthesis, and of the supernatant obtained after 24-hour incubation of yeast biomass in water. The extremophilic strain under study was able to grow up to an Ag ion concentration of 1.5 mM whereas an increase of Au ion concentration over 0.09 mM caused a strong inhibitory effect. A successful route for the metal NPs synthesis was obtained using the yeast biomass. When the washed yeast cells were in contact with Ag or Au solutions, AgNPs smaller than 20 nm were produced, as for the AuNPs diameter ranged from 30 to 100 nm, as determined through transmission electron microscopy and confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. The supernatant-based strategy provided evidence that proteins were released to the medium by the yeasts, which could be responsible for the formation and stabilisation of the Ag NPs, although the involvement of the cell wall seems fundamental for AuNPs synthesis.
PMCID: PMC3170698  PMID: 21912532
19.  Biological and Spectral Studies of Newly Synthesized Triazole Schiff Bases and Their Si(IV), Sn(IV) Complexes 
The Schiff bases HL1-3 have been prepared by the reaction of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/propyl/isopropyl-s-triazole, respectively. Organosilicon(IV) and organotin(IV) complexes of formulae (CH3)2MCl(L1-3), (CH3)2M(L1-3)2 were synthesized from the reaction of (CH3)2MCl2 and the Schiff bases in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 molar ratio, where M = Si and Sn. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been characterized with the aid of various physicochemical techniques like elemental analyses, molar conductance, UV, IR, 1H, 13C, 29Si, and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy. Based on these studies, the trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral geometries have been proposed for these complexes. The ligands and their metal complexes have been screened in vitro against some bacteria and fungi.
PMCID: PMC3150780  PMID: 21826133
20.  Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Crystal Structure, and Antibacterial Activities of Some Transition Metal Complexes of the Thiosemicarbazone (Z)-2-(pyrrolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide 
Problem Statement. In Iraq like most third world countries, attempts discovered new antibiotic drugs derived from thiosemicarbazide and its metal complexes and developed the branch of applied in organic chemistry. Approach. New (Z)-2-(pyrrolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (L) was synthesized in a good yield by the reaction of pyrrolidone with thiosemicarbazide. Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes of (L) were prepared and characterized by FT-IR, UV/visible spectra, 1HNMR, and CHN analyses. Moreover, charge, bond length, bond angle, twist angle, heat of formation, and steric energy were calculated by using of the ChemOffice program, and the DFT calculations for the complexes were done. The free ligand and its metal complexes were tested in vitro against several microorganisms (Staphylococcus aurous, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) to assess their antimicrobial properties. Results. The study shows that these complexes have octahedral geometry; in addition, it has high activity against tested bacteria. Conclusion/Recommendations. Based on the reported results, it may be concluded that ligand acts as bidentate, neutral ligand, coordinating through one of the nitrogen and sulfur atoms.
PMCID: PMC3143429  PMID: 21804771
21.  Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and DNA-Binding Studies of a Nickel(II) Complex with the Bis(2-benzimidazolymethyl)amine Ligand 
A V-shaped ligand Bis(2-benzimidazolymethyl)amine (bba) and its nickel(II) picrate (pic) complex, with composition [Ni(bba)2](pic)2·3MeOH, have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductivities, IR spectra, and UV/vis measurements. In the complex, the Ni(II) ion is six-coordinated with a N2O4 ligand set, resulting in a distorted octahedron coordination geometry. In addition, the DNA-binding properties of the Ni(II) complex have been investigated by electronic absorption, fluorescence, and viscosity measurements. The experimental results suggest that the nickel(II) complex binds to DNA by partial intercalation binding mode.
PMCID: PMC3159005  PMID: 21876684
22.  Lanthanide Complexes of Substituted β-Diketone Hydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities 
A series of β-diketone hydrazone derivatives have been synthesized through condensation of β-diketone with aromatic aldehydes followed by reaction with phenylhydrazine. The structure of the ligands and intermediates are well defined through elemental and spectroscopic analyses. These hydrazones are potential ligands toward lanthanide metal ions. New complexes of trivalent Scandium, Yttrium, Lanthanum, and Cerium have been synthesized. The composition of these complexes is discussed on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, magnetic moments, and thermal analyses. The prepared complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal properties and have exhibited potential activity.
PMCID: PMC3135049  PMID: 21799665
23.  Synthesis, Characterization, Crystal Structure, and Biological Studies of a Cadmium(II) Complex with a Tridentate Ligand 4′-Chloro-2,2′:6′,2′′-Terpyridine 
A new Cd(II) complex with the ligand 4′-chloro-2,2′6′,2′′-terpyridine (Cltpy), [Cd(Cltpy)(I)2], has been synthesized and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and IR spectroscopy and structurally analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The single-crystal X-ray analyses show that the coordination number in complex is five with three terpyridine (Cltpy) N-donor atoms and two iodine atoms. The antibacterial activities of Cltpy and its Cd(II) complex are tested against different bacteria.
PMCID: PMC3119424  PMID: 21738495
24.  The Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein: Import and Assembly into the Cytochrome bc1 Complex of Yeast Mitochondria 
The Rieske iron-sulfur protein, one of the catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex, is involved in electron transfer at the level of the inner membrane of yeast mitochondria. The Rieske iron-sulfur protein is encoded by nuclear DNA and, after being synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into mitochondria with the help of a cleavable N-terminal presequence. The imported protein, besides incorporating the 2Fe-2S cluster, also interacts with other catalytic and non-catalytic subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex, thereby assembling into the mature and functional respiratory complex. In this paper, we summarize the most recent findings on the import and assembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, also discussing a possible role of this protein both in the dimerization of the cytochrome bc1 complex and in the interaction of this homodimer with other complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
PMCID: PMC3119413  PMID: 21716720
25.  Synthesis Characterization and Biological Activity Study of New Schiff and Mannich Bases and Some Metal Complexes Derived from Isatin and Dithiooxamide 
Two new Schiff and Mannich bases, namely, 1-Morpholinomethyl-3(1′ -N-dithiooxamide)iminoisatin (LIH) and 1-diphenylaminomethyl-3-1′-N-dithiooxamide)iminoisatin (LIIH), were prepared from condensation reaction of new Schiff base 3-(1′-N-dithiooxamide)iminoisatin (SBH) with morpholine or diphenylamine respectively in presence of formaldehyde . The structures were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, mass spectrometry, and CHN analyses. Metal complexes of the two ligands were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by elemental analyses, atomic absorption, IR and UV-visible spectra, molar conductivity, and magnetic moment determination. All complexes showed octahedral geometries except palladium complexes which were square planar. The biological activity of the prepared compounds and some selected metal complexes was tested against three types of bacteria and against cell line of human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (Hep-2).
PMCID: PMC3150202  PMID: 21949661

Results 1-25 (29)