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1.  Mining experimental evidence of molecular function claims from the literature 
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)  2007;23(23):3232-3240.
The rate at which gene-related findings appear in the scientific literature makes it difficult if not impossible for biomedical scientists to keep fully informed and up to date. The importance of these findings argues for the development of automated methods that can find, extract and summarize this information. This article reports on methods for determining the molecular function claims that are being made in a scientific article, specifically those that are backed by experimental evidence.
The most significant result is that for molecular function claims based on direct assays, our methods achieved recall of 70.7% and precision of 65.7%. Furthermore, our methods correctly identified in the text 44.6% of the specific molecular function claims backed up by direct assays, but with a precision of only 0.92%, a disappointing outcome that led to an examination of the different kinds of errors. These results were based on an analysis of 1823 articles from the literature of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast).
The annotation files for S.cerevisiae are available from The draft protocol vocabulary is available by request from the first author.
PMCID: PMC3041023  PMID: 17942445
2.  GO::TermFinder—open source software for accessing Gene Ontology information and finding significantly enriched Gene Ontology terms associated with a list of genes 
Bioinformatics (Oxford, England)  2004;20(18):3710-3715.
GO::TermFinder comprises a set of object-oriented Perl modules for accessing Gene Ontology (GO) information and evaluating and visualizing the collective annotation of a list of genes to GO terms. It can be used to draw conclusions from microarray and other biological data, calculating the statistical significance of each annotation. GO::TermFinder can be used on any system on which Perl can be run, either as a command line application, in single or batch mode, or as a web-based CGI script.
The full source code and documentation for GO::TermFinder are freely available from
PMCID: PMC3037731  PMID: 15297299

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