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1.  Nanostructures for sensors, electronics, energy and environment 
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.40
PMCID: PMC3388358  PMID: 23016138
2.  Radiation-induced nanostructures: Formation processes and applications 
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.61
PMCID: PMC3458598  PMID: 23019548
radiation-induced nanostructures
3.  Physics, chemistry and biology of functional nanostructures 
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.94
PMCID: PMC3557603  PMID: 23365797
4.  Structural and electronic properties of oligo- and polythiophenes modified by substituents 
Summary
The electronic and structural properties of oligo- and polythiophenes that can be used as building blocks for molecular electronic devices have been studied by using periodic density functional theory calculations. We have in particular focused on the effect of substituents on the electronic structure of thiophenes. Whereas singly bonded substituents, such as methyl, amino or nitro groups, change the electronic properties of thiophene monomers and dimers, they hardly influence the band gap of polythiophene. In contrast, phenyl-substituted polythiophenes as well as vinyl-bridged polythiophene derivatives exhibit drastically modified band gaps. These effects cannot be explained by simple electron removal or addition, as calculations for charged polythiophenes demonstrate.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.101
PMCID: PMC3555564  PMID: 23365804
band gaps; conducting polymers; density functional theory calculations; molecular electronics; oligothiophenes
5.  Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques 
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.99
PMCID: PMC3554267  PMID: 23365802
atomic force microscopy
6.  Diamond nanophotonics 
Summary
We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.100
PMCID: PMC3554578  PMID: 23365803
CVD diamond doping; diamond; nanophotonics; NV center; plasmonic resonator; solid immersion lens
7.  Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices 
Summary
Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.98
PMCID: PMC3554416  PMID: 23365801
magnetic point contact arrays; spin laser; sub-10 nm colloidal lithography
8.  Characterization and properties of micro- and nanowires of controlled size, composition, and geometry fabricated by electrodeposition and ion-track technology 
Summary
The combination of electrodeposition and polymeric templates created by heavy-ion irradiation followed by chemical track etching provides a large variety of poly- and single-crystalline nanowires of controlled size, geometry, composition, and surface morphology. Recent results obtained by our group on the fabrication, characterization and size-dependent properties of nanowires synthesized by this technique are reviewed, including investigations on electrical resistivity, surface plasmon resonances, and thermal instability.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.97
PMCID: PMC3556775  PMID: 23365800
electrodeposition; etched ion-track membrane; finite-size effects; heavy ion irradiation; nanowire; radiation-induced nanostructures
9.  Pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma exposure of HOPG and graphene: Graphane formation? 
Summary
Single- and multilayer graphene and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were exposed to a pure hydrogen low-temperature plasma (LTP). Characterizations include various experimental techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. Our photoemission measurement shows that hydrogen LTP exposed HOPG has a diamond-like valence-band structure, which suggests double-sided hydrogenation. With the scanning tunneling microscopy technique, various atomic-scale charge-density patterns were observed, which may be associated with different C–H conformers. Hydrogen-LTP-exposed graphene on SiO2 has a Raman spectrum in which the D peak to G peak ratio is over 4, associated with hydrogenation on both sides. A very low defect density was observed in the scanning probe microscopy measurements, which enables a reverse transformation to graphene. Hydrogen-LTP-exposed HOPG possesses a high thermal stability, and therefore, this transformation requires annealing at over 1000 °C.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.96
PMCID: PMC3556725  PMID: 23365799
graphane; HOPG; hydrogenation; plasma
10.  Highly ordered ultralong magnetic nanowires wrapped in stacked graphene layers 
Summary
We report on the synthesis and magnetic characterization of ultralong (1 cm) arrays of highly ordered coaxial nanowires with nickel cores and graphene stacking shells (also known as metal-filled carbon nanotubes). Carbon-containing nickel nanowires are first grown on a nanograted surface by magnetron sputtering. Then, a post-annealing treatment favors the metal-catalyzed crystallization of carbon into stacked graphene layers rolled around the nickel cores. The observed uniaxial magnetic anisotropy field oriented along the nanowire axis is an indication that the shape anisotropy dominates the dipolar coupling between the wires. We further show that the thermal treatment induces a decrease in the coercivity of the nanowire arrays. This reflects an enhancement of the quality of the nickel nanowires after annealing attributed to a decrease of the roughness of the nickel surface and to a reduction of the defect density. This new type of graphene–ferromagnetic-metal nanowire appears to be an interesting building block for spintronic applications.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.95
PMCID: PMC3556984  PMID: 23365798
carbon; ferromagnetic; graphene; nanofabrication; nanowires; nickel; phase separation
11.  Tuning the properties of magnetic thin films by interaction with periodic nanostructures 
Summary
The most important limitation for a significant increase of the areal storage density in magnetic recording is the superparamagnetic effect. Below a critical grain size of the used CoCrPt exchange-decoupled granular films the information cannot be stored for a reasonable time (typically ten years) due to thermal fluctuations arbitrary flipping of the magnetization direction. An alternative approach that may provide higher storage densities is the use of so-called percolated media, in which defect structures are imprinted in an exchange-coupled magnetic film. Such percolated magnetic films are investigated in the present work. We employ preparation routes that are based on (i) self-assembly of Au nanoparticles and (ii) homogeneous size-reduction of self-assembled polystyrene particles. On such non-close-packed nanostructures thin Fe films or Co/Pt multilayers are grown with in-plane and out-of-plane easy axis of magnetization. The impact of the particles on the magnetic switching behavior is measured by both integral magnetometry and magnetic microscopy techniques. We observe enhanced coercive fields while the switching field distribution is broadened compared to thin-film reference samples. It appears possible to tailor the magnetic domain sizes down to the width of an unperturbed domain wall in a continuous film, and moreover, we observe pinning and nucleation at or close to the imprinted defect structures.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.93
PMCID: PMC3557708  PMID: 23365796
colloidal lithography; magnetic data storage; magnetic nanostructures; percolated films
12.  Reversible mechano-electrochemical writing of metallic nanostructures with the tip of an atomic force microscope 
Summary
We recently introduced a method that allows the controlled deposition of nanoscale metallic patterns at defined locations using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a “mechano-electrochemical pen”, locally activating a passivated substrate surface for site-selective electrochemical deposition. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility of this process and study the long-term stability of the resulting metallic structures. The remarkable stability for more than 1.5 years under ambient air without any observable changes can be attributed to self-passivation. After AFM-activated electrochemical deposition of copper nanostructures on a polycrystalline gold film and subsequent AFM imaging, the copper nanostructures could be dissolved by reversing the electrochemical potential. Subsequent AFM-tip-activated deposition of different copper nanostructures at the same location where the previous structures were deleted, shows that there is no observable memory effect, i.e., no effect of the previous writing process on the subsequent writing process. Thus, the four processes required for reversible information storage, “write”, “read”, “delete” and “re-write”, were successfully demonstrated on the nanometer scale.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.92
PMCID: PMC3557521  PMID: 23365795
atomic force microscopy; electrochemical deposition; electrochemistry; nanoelectronics; nanofabrication; nanolithography; nanotechnology; MEMS and NEMS; reversible processes; scanning probe microscopy and lithography
13.  Pinch-off mechanism in double-lateral-gate junctionless transistors fabricated by scanning probe microscope based lithography 
Summary
A double-lateral-gate p-type junctionless transistor is fabricated on a low-doped (1015) silicon-on-insulator wafer by a lithography technique based on scanning probe microscopy and two steps of wet chemical etching. The experimental transfer characteristics are obtained and compared with the numerical characteristics of the device. The simulation results are used to investigate the pinch-off mechanism, from the flat band to the off state. The study is based on the variation of the carrier density and the electric-field components. The device is a pinch-off transistor, which is normally in the on state and is driven into the off state by the application of a positive gate voltage. We demonstrate that the depletion starts from the bottom corner of the channel facing the gates and expands toward the center and top of the channel. Redistribution of the carriers due to the electric field emanating from the gates creates an electric field perpendicular to the current, toward the bottom of the channel, which provides the electrostatic squeezing of the current.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.91
PMCID: PMC3554704  PMID: 23365794
AFM nanolithography; junctionless transistors; pinch-off; scanning probe microscope; simulation
14.  Spring constant of a tuning-fork sensor for dynamic force microscopy 
Summary
We present an overview of experimental and numerical methods to determine the spring constant of a quartz tuning fork in qPlus configuration. The simple calculation for a rectangular cantilever is compared to the values obtained by the analysis of the thermal excitation and by the direct mechanical measurement of the force versus displacement. To elucidate the difference, numerical simulations were performed taking account of the real geometry including the glue that is used to mount the tuning fork.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.90
PMCID: PMC3555690  PMID: 23365793
atomic force microscopy; finite element method; spring constant; thermal fluctuation; tuning fork
15.  Current–voltage characteristics of single-molecule diarylethene junctions measured with adjustable gold electrodes in solution 
Summary
We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current–voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.89
PMCID: PMC3554105  PMID: 23365792
diarylethene; mechanically controllable break-junction; molecular electronics; photoswitching; single-molecule junctions
16.  Towards atomic resolution in sodium titanate nanotubes using near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectromicroscopy combined with multichannel multiple-scattering calculations 
Summary
Recent advances in near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy coupled with transmission X-ray microscopy (NEXAFS–TXM) allow large-area mapping investigations of individual nano-objects with spectral resolution up to E/ΔE = 104 and spatial resolution approaching 10 nm. While the state-of-the-art spatial resolution of X-ray microscopy is limited by nanostructuring process constrains of the objective zone plate, we show here that it is possible to overcome this through close coupling with high-level theoretical modelling. Taking the example of isolated bundles of hydrothermally prepared sodium titanate nanotubes ((Na,H)TiNTs) we are able to unravel the complex nanoscale structure from the NEXAFS–TXM data using multichannel multiple-scattering calculations, to the extent of being able to associate specific spectral features in the O K-edge and Ti L-edge with oxygen atoms in distinct sites within the lattice. These can even be distinguished from the contribution of different hydroxyl groups to the electronic structure of the (Na,H)TiNTs.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.88
PMCID: PMC3512128  PMID: 23213642
multichannel multiple scattering; nanotubes; NEXAFS; sodium titanates
17.  Growth behaviour and mechanical properties of PLL/HA multilayer films studied by AFM 
Summary
Scanning- and colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy were used to study the mechanical properties of poly(L-lysine)/hyaluronan (PLL/HA)n films as a function of indentation velocity and the number of polymer deposition steps n. The film thickness was determined by two independent AFM-based methods: scratch-and-scan and newly developed full-indentation. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are highlighted, and error minimization techniques in elasticity measurements are addressed. It was found that the film thickness increases linearly with the bilayer number n, ranging between 400 and 7500 nm for n = 12 and 96, respectively. The apparent Young’s modulus E ranges between 15 and 40 kPa and does not depend on the indenter size or the film bilayer number n. Stress relaxation measurements show that PLL/HA films have a viscoelastic behaviour, regardless of their thickness. If indentation is performed several times at the same lateral position on the film, a viscous/plastic deformation takes place.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.87
PMCID: PMC3512127  PMID: 23213641
atomic force microscopy; polyelectrolyte multilayers; stress relaxation; viscoelasticity; Young’s modulus
18.  Controlled positioning of nanoparticles on a micrometer scale 
Summary
For many applications it is desirable to have nanoparticles positioned on top of a given substrate well separated from each other and arranged in arrays of a certain geometry. For this purpose, a method is introduced combining the bottom-up self-organization of precursor-loaded micelles providing Au nanoparticles (NPs), with top-down electron-beam lithography. As an example, 13 nm Au NPs are arranged in a square array with interparticle distances >1 µm on top of Si substrates. By using these NPs as masks for a subsequent reactive ion etching, the square pattern is transferred into Si as a corresponding array of nanopillars.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.86
PMCID: PMC3512126  PMID: 23213640
electron beam lithography; nanoparticles; positioning; self-assembling; unconventional lithography
19.  Effect of spherical Au nanoparticles on nanofriction and wear reduction in dry and liquid environments 
Summary
Nano-object additives are used in tribological applications as well as in various applications in liquids requiring controlled manipulation and targeting. On the macroscale, nanoparticles in solids and liquids have been shown to reduce friction and wear. On the nanoscale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been performed in single- and multiple-nanoparticle contact, in dry environments, to characterize friction forces and wear. However, limited studies in submerged liquid environments have been performed and further studies are needed. In this paper, spherical Au nanoparticles were studied for their effect on friction and wear under dry conditions and submerged in water. In single-nanoparticle contact, individual nanoparticles, deposited on silicon, were manipulated with a sharp tip and the friction force was determined. Multiple-nanoparticle contact sliding experiments were performed on nanoparticle-coated silicon with a glass sphere. Wear tests were performed on the nanoscale with AFM as well as on the macroscale by using a ball-on-flat tribometer to relate friction and wear reduction on the nanoscale and macroscale. Results indicate that the addition of Au nanoparticles reduces friction and wear.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.85
PMCID: PMC3512125  PMID: 23213639
AFM; drug delivery; friction; gold nanoparticles; MEMS/NEMS; nanomanipulation
20.  Large-scale analysis of high-speed atomic force microscopy data sets using adaptive image processing 
Summary
Modern high-speed atomic force microscopes generate significant quantities of data in a short amount of time. Each image in the sequence has to be processed quickly and accurately in order to obtain a true representation of the sample and its changes over time. This paper presents an automated, adaptive algorithm for the required processing of AFM images. The algorithm adaptively corrects for both common one-dimensional distortions as well as the most common two-dimensional distortions. This method uses an iterative thresholded processing algorithm for rapid and accurate separation of background and surface topography. This separation prevents artificial bias from topographic features and ensures the best possible coherence between the different images in a sequence. This method is equally applicable to all channels of AFM data, and can process images in seconds.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.84
PMCID: PMC3512124  PMID: 23213638
adaptive algorithm; artifact correction; atomic force microscopy; high-speed atomic force microscope; image processing
21.  Friction and durability of virgin and damaged skin with and without skin cream treatment using atomic force microscopy 
Summary
Skin can be damaged by the environment easily. Skin cream is an effective and rapid way to moisten the skin by changing the skin surface properties. Rat skin and pig skin are common animal models for studies and were used as skin samples in this study. The nano- and macroscale friction and durability of damaged skin were measured and compared with those of virgin (intact/undamaged) skin. The effect of skin cream on friction and durability of damaged and virgin skin samples is discussed. The effects of velocity, normal load, relative humidity and number of cycles were studied. The nanoscale studies were performed by using atomic force microscope (AFM), and macroscale studies were performed by using a pin-on-disk (POD) reciprocating tribometer. It was found that damaged skin has different mechanical properties, surface roughness, contact angle, friction and durability compared to that of virgin skin. But similar changes occur after skin cream treatment. Rat and pig skin show similar trends in friction and durability.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.83
PMCID: PMC3512123  PMID: 23213637
atomic force microscopy; damaged skin; pig skin; rat skin; skin cream
22.  The memory effect of nanoscale memristors investigated by conducting scanning probe microscopy methods 
Summary
We report on the use of scanning force microscopy as a versatile tool for the electrical characterization of nanoscale memristors fabricated on ultrathin La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) films. Combining conventional conductive imaging and nanoscale lithography, reversible switching between low-resistive (ON) and high-resistive (OFF) states was locally achieved by applying voltages within the range of a few volts. Retention times of several months were tested for both ON and OFF states. Spectroscopy modes were used to investigate the I–V characteristics of the different resistive states. This permitted the correlation of device rectification (reset) with the voltage employed to induce each particular state. Analytical simulations by using a nonlinear dopant drift within a memristor device explain the experimental I–V bipolar cycles.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.82
PMCID: PMC3512122  PMID: 23213636
conductive scanning probe micoscopy; memristor; 3-D modes; resistive switching; scanning probe microscopy
23.  Plasmonics-based detection of H2 and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control 
Summary
Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO2 and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H2 and CO gases by employing a metal–metal oxide nanocomposite (gold–yttria stabilized zirconia (Au–YSZ)) film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD). The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H2, as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H2-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO2. Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H2. The distinction between H2 and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA). Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.81
PMCID: PMC3512121  PMID: 23213635
hydrogen detection; nanocomposites gold nanoparticles; optical sensor; plasmonics; physical vapor deposition; surface plasmon resonance
24.  Revealing thermal effects in the electronic transport through irradiated atomic metal point contacts 
Summary
We report on the electronic transport through nanoscopic metallic contacts under the influence of external light fields. Various processes can be of relevance here, whose underlying mechanisms can be studied by comparing different kinds of atomic contacts. For this purpose two kinds of contacts, which were established by electrochemical deposition, forming a gate-controlled quantum switch (GCQS), have been studied. We demonstrate that in these kinds of contacts thermal effects resulting from local heating due to the incident light, namely thermovoltage and the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity and the electrochemical (Helmholtz) double layer are the most prominent effects.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.80
PMCID: PMC3512120  PMID: 23213634
atom transistor; atomic contacts; cyclic voltammogram; electrochemically closed break junction; electronic transport; (Helmholtz) double layer; light-induced signals; temperature-induced changes; thermovoltage
25.  Influence of the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the optoelectronic performance of dry-deposited thin films 
Summary
The optoelectronic performance of thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was studied with respect to the properties of both individual nanotubes and their bundles. The SWCNTs were synthesized in a hot wire generator aerosol reactor, collected by gas filtration and dry-transferred onto various substrates. By thus completely avoiding liquid dispersion steps, we were able to avoid any artifacts from residual surfactants or sonication. We found that bundle lengths determined the thin-film performance, as would be expected for highly resistive bundle–bundle junctions. However, we found no evidence that contact resistances were affected by the bundle diameters, although they did play a secondary role by simply affecting the absorption. The individual SWCNT diameters and their graphitization level as gauged by the Raman D band intensity did not show any clear correlation with the overall performance.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.79
PMCID: PMC3512119  PMID: 23213633
bundle diameter; sheet resistance; SWCNT; thin film; transmittance

Results 1-25 (101)