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1.  An ultrasonic technology for production of antibacterial nanomaterials and their coating on textiles 
Summary
A method for the production of antibacterial ZnO nanoparticles has been developed. The technique combines passing an electric current with simultaneous application of ultrasonic waves. By using high-power ultrasound a cavitation zone is created between two zinc electrodes. This leads to the possibility to create a spatial electrical discharge in water. Creation of such discharge leads to the depletion of the electrodes and the formation of ZnO nanoparticles, which demonstrate antibacterial properties. At the end of this reaction the suspension of ZnO nanoparticles is transported to a specially developed ultrasonic reactor, in which the nanoparticles are deposited on the textile. The nanoparticles are embedded into the fibres by the cavitation jets, which are formed by asymmetrically collapsing bubbles in the presence of a solid surface and are directed towards the surface of textile at very high velocities. Fabrics coated with ZnO nanoparticles by using the developed method showed good antibacterial activity against E. coli.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.5.62
PMCID: PMC4077302  PMID: 24991488
antibacterial textile; cavitation; electrical discharge in liquid; nanoparticle; ultrasound
2.  Forming nanoparticles of water-soluble ionic molecules and embedding them into polymer and glass substrates 
Summary
This work describes a general method for the preparation of salt nanoparticles (NPs) made from an aqueous solution of ionic compounds (NaCl, CuSO4 and KI). These nanoparticles were created by the application of ultrasonic waves to the aqueous solutions of these salts. When the sonication was carried out in the presence of a glass microscope slide, a parylene-coated glass slide, or a silicon wafer the ionic NPs were embedded in these substrates by a one-step, ultrasound-assisted procedure. Optimization of the coating process resulted in homogeneous distributions of nanocrystals, 30 nm in size, on the surfaces of the substrates. The morphology and structure of each of the coatings were characterized by physical and chemical methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After 24 h of leaching into water the nanoparticles of the inorganic salts were still present on the slides, and complete leaching of nanoparticles occurred only after 96 h. A mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted coating is proposed.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.3.30
PMCID: PMC3323916  PMID: 22497000
deposition; ionic salt nanoparticles; parylene; sonochemistry
3.  Zirconium nanoparticles prepared by the reduction of zirconium oxide using the RAPET method 
Summary
The aim of the current work is the synthesis and characterization of metallic Zr nanoparticles. The preparation is carried out by using the RAPET method (Reaction under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperatures) developed in our lab. The RAPET reaction of commercial ZrO2 with Mg powder was carried out in a closed stainless steel cell, at 750 °C. On completion of the reaction, the additionally formed MgO is removed by treatment with acid. The characterization of the product was performed by XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and elemental analysis. The XRD pattern reveals that the product is composed of pure metallic zirconium, without any traces of the MgO by-product.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.2.23
PMCID: PMC3148038  PMID: 21977431
Let-Lok®; nanoparticles; RAPET; reduction; zirconium

Results 1-3 (3)