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1.  Anna S. Tikhonenko 
Bacteriophage  2013;3(1):e23646.
Anna Sergeyevna Tikhonenko (1925–2010) is to be remembered for the excellency of her electron microscopical work, particularly with bacteriophages. She published 113 articles and one book, Ultrastructure of Bacterial Viruses (Izdadelstvo Nauka, Moscow 1968; Plenum Press, New York, 1972). It included 134 micrographs and a complete overview of the 316 phages then examined by electron microscopy. Most micrographs were of exceptional quality. This book, a rarity in those days of strict separation of Soviet and Western research, was the first bacteriophage atlas in the literature and presented a morphological classification of phages into five categories of family level, similar to a scheme presented in 1965 by D.E. Bradley (J Royal Microsc Soc 84:257–316). Her book remains one of the fundamentals of phage research.
doi:10.4161/bact.23646
PMCID: PMC3694054  PMID: 23819103
TEM; biography; classification; history; immuno-EM
2.  Life in science 
Bacteriophage  2012;2(4):207.
doi:10.4161/bact.23159
PMCID: PMC3594207  PMID: 23533969
3.  Murphy's law—if anything can go wrong, it will 
Bacteriophage  2012;2(2):122-129.
The quality of bacteriophage electron microscopy appears to be on a downward course since the 1980s. This coincides with the introduction of digital electron microscopes and a general lowering of standards, possibly due to the disappearance of several world-class electron microscopists The most important problem seems to be poor contrast. Positive staining is frequently not recognized as an undesirable artifact. Phage parts, bacterial debris, and aberrant or damaged phage particles may be misdiagnosed as bacterial viruses. Digital electron microscopes often seem to be operated without magnification control because this is difficult and inconvenient. In summary, most phage electron microscopy problems may be attributed to human failure. Journals are a last-ditch defense and have a heavy responsibility in selecting competent reviewers and rejecting, or not, unsatisfactory articles.
doi:10.4161/bact.20693
PMCID: PMC3442825  PMID: 23050222
artifacts; contrast; crystals; digital electron microscopy; dimensions; fake viruses focus; misdiagnosis; monsters; positive staining; purification
4.  Who went into phage research? 
Bacteriophage  2012;2(1):55-59.
A total of 30,000 phage papers, books, or book chapters, published between 1965 and 2010, were analyzed for the ethnic origins of 14,429 first authors. Their names represent 40 linguistic domains or geographic areas and at least 70 languages. British and German names predominate. Results broadly concur with statistics on the frequency of publications by country and show the growing role of Third-World countries in phage research. Irish and Jewish scientists are prominent. Historical and societal factors appear to be very important elements in the advancement of science.
doi:10.4161/bact.18680
PMCID: PMC3357386  PMID: 22666657
bibliography; cultural theory; ethnic origin; family names; linguistics
5.  The first phage electron micrographs 
Bacteriophage  2011;1(4):225-227.
The first phage electron micrographs were published in 1940 in Germany and proved the particulate nature of bacteriophages. Phages and infected bacteria were first examined raw and unstained. US American scientists introduced shadowing and freeze-drying. Phages appeared to be tailed and morphologically heterogeneous. Phage types identified by early electron microscopy include enterobacteriophages T4, T1, T7, T5, 7–11, ViI and Pseudomonas phage PB1. This paper retraces the development of early virus electron microscopy till the introduction of negative staining.
doi:10.4161/bact.1.4.17280
PMCID: PMC3448108  PMID: 23050215
bacteriophage; electron microscopy; history

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