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1.  Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) trial: acute kidney injury substudy protocol of an international randomised controlled trial 
BMJ Open  2014;4(3):e004842.
Introduction
Steroids In caRdiac Surgery trial (SIRS) is a large international randomised controlled trial of methylprednisolone or placebo in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass pump. At the time of surgery, compared with placebo, methylprednisolone divided into two intravenous doses of 250 mg each may reduce the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods and analysis
With respect to the study schedule, over 7000 substudy eligible patients from 81 centres in 18 countries were randomised in December 2013. The authors will use a logistic regression to estimate the adjusted OR of methylprednisolone versus placebo on the primary outcome of AKI in the 14 days following surgery (a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ≥50%, or ≥26.5 μmol/L, from the preoperative value). The stage of AKI will also be considered, as will the outcome of AKI in those with and without preoperative chronic kidney disease. After receipt of grant funding, the authors began to record additional perioperative serum creatinine measurements in consecutive patients enrolled at substudy participating centres, and patients were invited to enroll in a 6-month serum creatinine collection. In these trial subpopulations, the authors will consider the outcome of AKI defined in alternate ways, and the outcome of a 6-month change in kidney function from the preoperative value.
Ethics and dissemination
The authors were competitively awarded a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for this SIRS AKI substudy. Ethics approval was obtained for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at participating centres. The additional kidney data collection first began for patients enrolled after 1 March 2012. In patients who provided consent, the last 6-month kidney outcome data will be collected in 2014. The results will be reported no later than 2015.
Clinical Trial Registration
Number NCT00427388.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004842
PMCID: PMC3948633  PMID: 24598306
2.  Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery: acute kidney injury substudy protocol of the Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation (POISE) 2 randomised controlled trial 
BMJ Open  2014;4(2):e004886.
Introduction
Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduce the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI).
Methods and analysis
After receipt of grant funding, serial postoperative serum creatinine measurements began to be recorded in consecutive patients enrolled at substudy participating centres. With respect to the study schedule, the last of over 6500 substudy patients from 82 centres in 21 countries were randomised in December 2013. The authors will use logistic regression to estimate the adjusted OR of AKI following surgery (compared with the preoperative serum creatinine value, a postoperative increase ≥26.5 μmol/L in the 2 days following surgery or an increase of ≥50% in the 7 days following surgery) comparing each intervention to placebo, and will report the adjusted relative risk reduction. Alternate definitions of AKI will also be considered, as will the outcome of AKI in subgroups defined by the presence of preoperative chronic kidney disease and preoperative chronic aspirin use. At the time of randomisation, a subpopulation agreed to a single measurement of serum creatinine between 3 and 12 months after surgery, and the authors will examine intervention effects on this outcome.
Ethics and dissemination
The authors were competitively awarded a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for this POISE-2 AKI substudy. Ethics approval was obtained for additional kidney data collection in consecutive patients enrolled at participating centres, which first began for patients enrolled after January 2011. In patients who provided consent, the remaining longer term serum creatinine data will be collected throughout 2014. The results of this study will be reported no later than 2015.
Clinical Trial Registration Number
NCT01082874.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004886
PMCID: PMC3939660  PMID: 24568963
Surgery; Epidemiology
3.  The coronary CT angiography vision protocol: a prospective observational imaging cohort study in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e001474.
Introduction
At present, physicians have a limited ability to predict major cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery and little is known about the anatomy of coronary arteries associated with perioperative myocardial infarction. We have initiated the Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) VISION Study to (1) establish the predictive value of coronary CTA for perioperative myocardial infarction and death and (2) describe the coronary anatomy of patients that have a perioperative myocardial infarction.
Methods and analysis
The Coronary CTA VISION Study is prospective observational study. Preoperative coronary CTA will be performed in 1000–1500 patients with a history of vascular disease or at least three cardiovascular risk factors who are undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Serial troponin will be measured 6–12 h after surgery and daily for the first 3 days after surgery. Major vascular outcomes at 30 days and 1 year after surgery will be independently adjudicated.
Ethics and dissemination
Coronary CTA results in a measurable radiation exposure that is similar to a nuclear perfusion scan (10–12 mSV). Treating physicians will be blinded to the CTA results until 30 days after surgery in order to provide the most unbiased assessment of its prognostic capabilities. The only exception will be the presence of a left main stenosis >50%. This approach is supported by best available current evidence that, excluding left main disease, prophylatic revascularisation prior to non-cardiac surgery does not improve outcomes. An external safety and monitoring committee is overseeing the study and will review outcome data at regular intervals. Publications describing the results of the study will be submitted to major peer-reviewed journals and presented at international medical conferences.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001474
PMCID: PMC3449273  PMID: 22855630
Cardiology; Coronary heart disease; Radiology & Imaging; Computed tomography; Radiology & Imaging; Cardiovascular imaging
4.  Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery Off- or On-pump Revascularisation Study (CORONARY): kidney substudy analytic protocol of an international randomised controlled trial 
BMJ Open  2012;2(2):e001080.
Introduction
CORONARY is a large international randomised controlled trial comparing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery done with and without a bypass pump. Compared with on-pump, off-pump surgery may prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in the short term and may better preserve kidney function 1 year following surgery. Secondary analyses may also clarify whether effects are similar in patients with and without pre-operative chronic kidney disease and whether AKI avoidance mediates preserved 1-year kidney function.
Methods and analysis
With respect to the study schedule, the last of 4752 patients from 79 sites in 19 countries were randomised in November 2011 to cardiac surgery performed with an on-pump or off-pump procedure. The authors will use regression models to compare the groups in the outcome of peri-operative AKI (per cent change in serum creatinine, ≥50% increase in serum creatinine) and 1-year kidney function (per cent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ≥20% eGFR loss 1 year after surgery). The authors will use interaction terms in regression models to determine if there is a differential impact of the intervention in those with and without pre-existing chronic kidney disease. The authors will use regression-based tests to determine the proportion of the total effect of surgery type (off-pump vs on-pump CABG) on 1-year eGFR that is mediated by peri-operative AKI.
Ethics and dissemination
In the year 2009, the authors were competitively awarded a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to answer these kidney questions in CORONARY. Ethics approval was obtained for additional renal data collection in centres that agreed to study participation (>90% of participating centres). This collection began for patients enrolled after 1 January 2010. Remaining 1-year renal outcome data will be collected throughout 2012. Results will be reported in 2013.
Clinical trial registration number
NCT 00463294.
Article summary
Article focus
CORONARY is a large international randomised controlled trial comparing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery done with and without a bypass pump.
Compared with on-pump, off-pump surgery may prevent AKI in the short term and may better preserve kidney function 1 year after surgery.
Secondary analyses may also clarify whether effects are similar in patients with and without pre-operative chronic kidney disease and whether AKI avoidance mediates preserved 1-year kidney function.
Key messages
Presented is this pre-specified CORONARY kidney substudy analytic protocol.
Data collection and analysis will be completed in 2013.
Understanding the degree to which avoiding AKI preserves longer term kidney function has broader implications for the acceptability of side effects and costs of interventions which prevent AKI.
Strengths and limitations of this study
This will be largest AKI prevention trial conducted to date.
It will be one of the first trials to consider the impact of a peri-operative intervention on longer term kidney function.
International recruitment across 19 countries will provide generalisable estimates of the treatment effect.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001080
PMCID: PMC3332245  PMID: 22514244

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