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Year of Publication
1.  Comment not needed 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1748.
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PMCID: PMC2542702
3.  Chocolate bars in eye. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1748.
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PMCID: PMC2542699  PMID: 7820015
4.  Evidence of birth deformities in 16th century Kent. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1748.
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PMCID: PMC2542698  PMID: 7820016
5.  The patient's view. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1747.
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PMCID: PMC2542697  PMID: 7820013
6.  It's not cricket. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1747.
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PMCID: PMC2542696  PMID: 7820012
7.  The Christmas "clacker". 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1747.
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PMCID: PMC2542695  PMID: 7820014
8.  Another kind of flying doctor. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1745-1746.
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PMCID: PMC2542694  PMID: 7820011
9.  De inertia urbanorum. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1741-1745.
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PMCID: PMC2542693  PMID: 7820010
10.  An audit of excuses. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1739-1740.
PMCID: PMC2542692  PMID: 7820009
11.  Christmas wishes. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1738-1739.
PMCID: PMC2542691  PMID: 7820008
12.  Cross words. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1737-1738.
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PMCID: PMC2542690  PMID: 7820007
13.  Whatalotwegot--the messages in drug advertisements. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1734-1736.
Advertisers are increasingly using symbols to circumvent logical argument when trying to persuade people (the "targets" of the advertisement) to make choices that are not strictly rational. Symbols can convey covert meanings and awaken or exploit subconscious feelings, such as a desire for power or a fear of doing harm. Some of the ways in which pharmaceutical advertisements use these techniques are examined: advertising by contagion; adding to our worries; polarity of choices; teasers; idealisation. Rational prescribing should be based on logic, but advertisements do not depend on logical arguments for their most powerful effects: the advertisers may subvert us by appealing to our unconscious desires.
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PMCID: PMC2542689  PMID: 7820006
14.  Medicine at the centre of the nation's affairs. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1730-1733.
The medical profession was shaped a century or so ago by the interaction of three forces. These were a class structure in which doctors were largely held to be gentlemen to whom deference was due, a society dominated by the activity of production (hence the label of the working class for the majority), and the doctrines of liberalism as the guiding star in politics. Prime Minister Gladstone defined his task as "opening doors and windows." The outcome was a minimum of government interference and control with the belief that professional self regulation was the way to ensure that practice matched principle. The state (the word was hardly ever used) was self effacing almost to the point of non-existence. These are ghosts of the past, but it is a comparatively recent past. Within memory, the major domestic preoccupation of politicians of all parties was how, and to what ends, the working class could be absorbed into the political system. Health had a crucial part to play in this task, as Lloyd George and others saw early on. The "panel" was very much a forerunner of the NHS. Indeed, Bevan based part of his case in 1946 on the claim that 21 million people were already on the "panel," clear evidence of the degree to which society was still dominated by production. While speaking of Nye Bevan, we might examine his claim that the NHS was "pure socialism." In fact, it was rather closer to being "impure liberalism" in the consideration with which general practitioners and consultants were treated, the considerable freedom enjoyed by local administrations, and the low profile of government itself. That is why many remember the period as something of a golden age. It suited almost everyone very well.
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PMCID: PMC2542688  PMID: 7820005
15.  Medicine and the Gulag. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1726-1730.
The nature of the medical treatment of prisoners in the Gulag has emerged from accounts published by survivors. Over a period of 70 years some doctors entrusted with the medical care of prisoners failed to discharge their ethical duties, contributing to the prisoners' neglect and suffering. The medical profession must carefully examine what occurred and properly assign responsibility for ethical as well as unethical medical acts. Understanding the history of these ominous events will alert doctors worldwide to the importance of medical autonomy in the support of imprisoned patients.
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PMCID: PMC2542687  PMID: 7820004
16.  Thank you, Mr Shaw. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1724-1726.
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PMCID: PMC2542686  PMID: 7820003
18.  Adelaide Bartlett and the Pimlico mystery. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1720-1723.
In 1886 Adelaide Bartlett stood trial at the Old Bailey for the murder of her husband, Thomas Edwin Bartlett. The court witnessed sensational evidence and the case left questions which remain unanswered.
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PMCID: PMC2542684  PMID: 7820001
19.  The earliest days of first aid. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1718-1720.
First aid, as a profession in its own right, has a history of only 120 years. It evolved from the teachings of the Royal Humane Society and military surgeons, who saw the wisdom of training in splinting and bandaging for battlefield wounds. In 1878 two Aberdeenshire military officers, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd of the Royal Herbert Military Hospital, Woolwich, London, and Colonel Francis Duncan established the concept of teaching first aid skills to civilians. This radical new enterprise, conducted under the auspices of the newly formed St John Ambulance Association, was a natural evolution from the body's philanthropic and ambulance transport work. Shepherd conducted the first class in the hall of the Presbyterian school in Woolwich using a comprehensive first aid curriculum that he had developed. Within months of that first class, local Woolwich civilians used their skills when the pleasure boat Princess Alice sank in the Thames at Woolwich, killing 600 people. Within a decade, the new discipline of first aid spread rapidly throughout the world, and by the end of the 19th century, hundreds of thousands of St John first aid certificates had been awarded in four continents. Shepherd's pioneering classes changed the world's concept of the need for the provision of skilled prehospital care.
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PMCID: PMC2542683  PMID: 7820000
20.  Dr Doubledose: a taste of one's own medicine. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1714-1718.
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PMCID: PMC2542682  PMID: 7819999
21.  John Marshall: the making of true spectacles. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1713-1714.
In 1693 John Marshall of London devised a novel method of grinding batches of identical, good quality, lenses of a specified focal length. Its commendation by the Royal Society led to a trade war between Marshall and rivals in the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers. Despite initial opposition the method was rapidly adopted by London opticians and, though much modified, it forms the unrecognised basis of present day practice.
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PMCID: PMC2542681  PMID: 7819998
22.  Sartorial eloquence: does it exist in the paediatrician-patient relationship? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1710-1712.
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate children's and parents' perceptions of hospital doctors' attire. DESIGN--Questionnaire study asking children and parents to assign positive and negative attributes to five photographs of a male or female doctor dressed formally and informally. SETTING--Outpatient department, Children's Hospital, Birmingham. SUBJECTS--203 consecutive child-parent pairs attending outpatient clinics over three months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Children's and parents' preferences, assessed by comparing proportions. RESULTS--70% (286/406) of children and parents rated doctors' dress as important; more children rated it "very important" (27% (54/203) v 14% (29/203), P < 0.01, 95% confidence interval for difference 5% to 21%). Of the 99 children responding, 44 regarded the man in white coat as most competent (44% v 20% expected by chance, P < 0.01, 34% to 54%) and most concerned (32% v 20%, P < 0.01, 23% to 41%). Children also regarded the woman in white coat as most competent; however, male and female doctors in white coats rated lower for friendliness. Asians and regular surgical attenders preferred doctors in white coats. The man in polo shirt and trousers was rated as most friendly (40% v 20% expected by chance, P < 0.01, 30% to 50%) and most gentle (37% v 20%, P < 0.01, 27% to 46%). The woman in tee shirt and slacks also rated most friendly and gentle; however, both casually dressed doctors rated lower for competence. Parents preferred more casual dress but expressed preferences less strongly, and they poorly predicted which outfits their children preferred. CONCLUSIONS--Children regard formally dressed doctors as competent but not friendly; they regard casual dress as friendly but not competent.
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PMCID: PMC2542680  PMID: 7819997
23.  The lean and slippered pantaloon. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1709-1710.
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PMCID: PMC2542679  PMID: 7819996
25.  The price of truth. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6970):1700-1705.
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PMCID: PMC2542677  PMID: 7819994

Results 1-25 (3074)