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2.  Reliability of distance estimation by doctors and patients: cross sectional study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1652-1654.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and accuracy of distance estimated by doctors and patients. DESIGN: Comparison between estimated and measured distances of six familiar sites around Guy's Hospital, London. SUBJECTS: 100 hospital consultants and 100 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Median (range) of estimated distances, and mean (SD) of the difference between estimated and measured distances. RESULTS: Both doctors and patients gave a wide range of estimates of distance. The estimates differed by up to 14.6-fold from the measured distances, and the difference between minimum and maximum estimates was up to 62.5-fold. CONCLUSION: Doctors and patients were inaccurate at estimating distances, which implies that estimates of distances walked are not reliable indicators of a person's health.
PMCID: PMC2128034  PMID: 9448528
3.  Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly Cohort Study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1641-1644.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between frequency of orgasm and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study with a 10 year follow up. SETTING: The town of Caerphilly, South Wales, and five adjacent villages. SUBJECTS: 918 men aged 45-59 at time of recruitment between 1979 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All deaths and deaths from coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Mortality risk was 50% lower in the group with high orgasmic frequency than in the group with low orgasmic frequency, with evidence of a dose-response relation across the groups. Age adjusted odds ratio for all cause mortality was 2.0 for the group with low frequency of orgasm (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.5, test for trend P = 0.02). With adjustment for risk factors this became 1.9 (1.0 to 3.4, test for trend P = 0.04). Death from coronary heart disease and from other causes showed similar associations with frequency of orgasm, although the gradient was most marked for deaths from coronary heart disease. Analysed in terms of actual frequency of orgasm, the odds ratio for total mortality associated with an increase in 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95). CONCLUSION: Sexual activity seems to have a protective effect on men's health.
PMCID: PMC2128033  PMID: 9448525
8.  The hidden delight of psoriasis. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1709-1711.
PMCID: PMC2128028  PMID: 9448549
9.  Two hundred years since Malthus. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1686-1689.
PMCID: PMC2128027  PMID: 9448542
11.  Professionalism must be taught. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1674-1677.
PMCID: PMC2128025  PMID: 9448538
12.  New labour, new NHS? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1639-1640.
PMCID: PMC2128024  PMID: 9448524
13.  Death rates of characters in soap operas on British television: is a government health warning required? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1649-1652.
OBJECTIVE: To measure mortality among characters in British soap operas on television. DESIGN: Cohort analysis of deaths in EastEnders and Coronation Street, supplemented by an analysis of deaths in Brookside and Emmerdale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios and the proportional mortality ratio for deaths attributable to external causes (E code of ICD-9 (international classification of diseases, ninth revision). RESULTS: Staying alive in a television soap opera is not easy. Standardised mortality ratios for characters were among the highest for any occupation yet described (771 (95% confidence interval 415 to 1127) for characters in EastEnders), and this was not just because all causes of death were overrepresented. Deaths in soap operas were almost three times more likely to be from violent causes than would be expected from a character's age and sex. A character in EastEnders was twice as likely as a similar character in Coronation Street to die during an episode. CONCLUSIONS: The most dangerous job in the United Kingdom is not, as expected, bomb disposal expert, steeplejack, or Formula One racing driver but having a role in one of the United Kingdom's most well known soap operas. This is the first quantitative estimate of the size of the pinch of salt which should be taken when watching soap operas.
PMCID: PMC2128023  PMID: 9448527
15.  Medicine needs its MI5. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1677-1680.
PMCID: PMC2128021  PMID: 9448539
17.  Risk factors for winter outbreak of acute diarrhoea in France: case-control study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1645-1649.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential role of consumption of shellfish (particularly raw oysters) and tap water in the winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study during the 1995-6 winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France. SETTING: A national network comprising 1% of general practitioners in France. SUBJECTS: 568 pairs of cases and controls consulting in general practice and interviewed by 209 doctors from 26 December 1995 to 31 January 1996. Cases and controls were matched for age, doctor, and time of consultation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted relative risk of diarrhoea estimated from conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of acute diarrhoea was not increased in people who had recently eaten raw oysters (odds ratio 1.1; 95% confidence interval 0.9% to 1.4%) or other shellfish such as clams, cockles, and mussels, or in those people who usually consumed tap water rather than bottled water (0.8; 0.6% to 1.1%). The risk was, however, increased in people who had had recent contact wit ha person with diarrhoea either within the household (adjusted odds ratio 5.0) or in the workplace (3.1), and in people who lived with a child < or = 2 years of age (1.6). Recent treatment with either oral penicillin or cephalosporin was also independently associated with acute diarrhoea in winter. CONCLUSIONS: The winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France is probably not caused by consumption of either shellfish or tap water. A viral aetiology, however, is suggested by the speed with which the acute diarrhoea is transmitted.
PMCID: PMC2128019  PMID: 9448526
19.  How to acquire a coat of arms. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1682-1684.
PMCID: PMC2128017  PMID: 9448540
20.  Social suffering: relevance for doctors. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1634-1635.
PMCID: PMC2128016  PMID: 9448520
22.  One for the heart. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1664-1668.
PMCID: PMC2128014  PMID: 9448535
23.  An ethical code for everybody in health care. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1633-1634.
PMCID: PMC2128013  PMID: 9448519
25.  Festive cheer for all? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7123):1638-1639.
PMCID: PMC2128011  PMID: 9448523

Results 1-25 (2219)