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3.  Retraction of correction 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2005;330(7483):137.
PMCID: PMC544461
4.  Retraction 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2003;327(7420):905.
PMCID: PMC218843  PMID: 14596229
6.  Retraction 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1998;316(7146):1700.
PMCID: PMC56353  PMID: 9652920
8.  First myocardial infarction in patients of Indian subcontinent and European origin: comparison of risk factors, management, and long term outcome. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;314(7081):639-642.
OBJECTIVE: To compare long term outcome after first myocardial infarction among British patients originating from the Indian subcontinent and from Europe. DESIGN: Matched pairs study. SETTING: Coronary care unit in central Leicester. SUBJECTS: 238 pairs of patients admitted during 1987-93 matched for age (within 2 years), sex, date of admission (within 3 months), type of infarction (Q/non-Q), and site of infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of angina, reinfarction, or death during follow up of 1-7 years. RESULTS: Patients of Indian subcontinent origin had a higher prevalence of diabetes (35% v 9% in patients of European origin, P < 0.001), lower prevalence of smoking (39% v 63%, P < 0.001), longer median delay from symptom onset to admission (5 hours v 3 hours, P < 0.01), and lower use of thrombolysis (50% v 66%, P < 0.001). During long term follow up (median 39 months), mortality was higher in patients of Indian subcontinent origin (unadjusted hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.4, P = 0.002). After adjustment for smoking, history of diabetes, and thrombolysis the estimated hazard ratio fell slightly to 2.0 (1.1 to 3.6, P = 0.02). Patients of Indian subcontinent origin had almost twice the incidence of angina (54% v 29%; P < 0.001) and almost three times the risk of reinfarction during follow up (34% v 12.5% at 3 years, P < 0.001). The unadjusted hazard ratio for reinfarction in patients of Indian subcontinent origin was 2.8 (1.8 to 4.4, P < 0.001). Adjustment for smoking, history of diabetes, and thrombolysis made little difference to the hazard ratio. Coronary angiography was performed with similar frequency in the two groups; triple vessel disease was the commonest finding in patients of Indian subcontinent origin and single vessel disease the commonest in Europeans (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients of Indian subcontinent origin are at substantially higher risk of mortality and of further coronary events than Europeans after first myocardial infarction. This is probably due to their higher prevalence of diffuse coronary atheroma. Their need for investigation with a view to coronary revascularisation is therefore greater. History of diabetes is an inadequate surrogate for ethnic origin as a prognostic indicator.
PMCID: PMC2126087  PMID: 9066475
9.  Academic integrity. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1995;311(7004):573.
PMCID: PMC2550648  PMID: 7663236
11.  Screening for carcinoma of the prostate by digital rectal examination in a randomly selected population. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6731):1041-1044.
OBJECTIVE--To study the acceptability, costs, psychosocial consequences, and organisation of screening for carcinoma of the prostate. DESIGN--A randomly selected population was personally invited for digital rectal examination by a urologist and a general practitioner. Further examinations were performed if induration was felt. Each man completed a questionnaire on his response to the examination. SETTING--General practices in the area of Norrköping. PATIENTS--1494 Men aged 50-69 randomly selected from a population of 9026. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prostates having a firm nodular consistency. RESULTS--Carcinoma of the prostate was suspected in 45 of 1163 patients examined; in 10 by the general practitioners, in 10 by the urologists, and in 25 by both. Forty four men had a fine needle aspiration biopsy, and carcinomas were found in 13 cases. Of these, one had been suspected by the general practitioner, four by urologists, and eight by both. The cost for each man was 11.60 pounds, and the cost for each case of carcinoma detected and treated by potentially curative methods was 2477 pounds. Of the 13 men with carcinoma, 10 underwent radical prostatectomy and one radiotherapy. One man had advanced disease and was given endocrine treatment, another was not treated. Only 193 men felt distress during the initial examination. Of the 44 men who had an aspiration biopsy, 25 experienced anxiety. CONCLUSIONS--Screening for carcinoma of the prostate by a urologist or a general practitioner using digital rectal examination is a cost effective method of early diagnosis. Whether such screening leads to prolonged survival, however, remains doubtful.
PMCID: PMC1662742  PMID: 2344514
12.  Recurrent spontaneous abortion and polycystic ovarian disease: comparison of two regimens to induce ovulation. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6718):154-156.
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether pituitary suppression before induction of ovulation reduces the rate of spontaneous abortion in women with polycystic ovarian disease and primary recurrent spontaneous abortions. DESIGN--Closed, randomised, sequential trial. Pairs of women were allocated to each treatment by the toss of a coin. SETTING--Supraregional clinic for women who had had recurrent spontaneous abortions. SUBJECTS--Forty two women with polycystic ovarian disease and primary recurrent spontaneous abortions. INTERVENTIONS--Ovulation was induced by clomiphene or pituitary suppression with buserelin followed by pure follicle stimulating hormone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Preference for a particular treatment was noted. A preference occurred when one woman in a pair had a successful pregnancy (defined as one of over 12 weeks' gestation) and one had a spontaneous abortion; the preference was for the treatment resulting in the successful pregnancy. RESULTS--Spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 of 20 women given clomiphene compared with two of 20 who had pituitary suppression. Eleven preferences were found for buserelin and two for clomiphene. In seven pairs both women had successful pregnancies. One pair was discarded because one of the women did not become pregnant. The ratio of luteinising hormone concentration to follicular diameter was found to be a possible diagnostic indicator of spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSION--Pituitary suppression before induction of ovulation significantly reduces the risk of spontaneous abortion in women with polycystic ovarian disease and primary recurrent spontaneous abortions.
PMCID: PMC1662188  PMID: 2105793
14.  Retraction in the light of new data. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;299(6693):235.
PMCID: PMC1836947  PMID: 2504378

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